Charles G. Patten

Charles G. Patten, born November 4, 1832, died at his home in Charles City, Iowa, November 10, 1921. While he had retired from active work and while physically infirm, his mind was keen and alert to the end. Among the memories of the writer, one that he will retain always is a pleasant day spent with him scarcely two weeks before his death. C. G. Patten was a remarkable man; there are not many of his kind. He labored unselfishly for over half a century in improving fruits, in producing varieties that would withstand the rigorous climate of the prairie states without expectation of financial returns or hope of other reward. His life was a life of service to his fellow men. While not lacking in business ability he set for himself the task of producing hardier apples and blight resistant pears and spent so freely on this work the profits derived from a modest nursery that at times he was in doubt about being able to continue his experimental work through lack of funds. Finally the city grew out of his farm, enveloped it except the experimental grounds. These were later taken over by the state of Iowa, enabling him to spend his declining years in comfort and yet close by were his beloved seedlings. There was none richer than C. G. Patten. While over half of his life was spent in Iowa, he yet belonged to all of us.

The following excellent account of Mr. Patten's work was written by Prof. H. L. Lantz of the Iowa State College at Ames, at the request of the writer and published in the Bulletin of the American Pomological Society June, 1920:

Charles G. Patten has long been widely recognized as a pioneer and leading plant breeder. For fifty years he has labored with fine public spirit in an untiring effort to develop new fruits for the Upper Mississippi Valley which would be hardy enough tc withstand the rigors of the exacting climatic conditions of that region. Mr. Patten’s pioneer effort in fruit breeding has given to the people of the Upper Mississippi Valley region a number of new hardy apples, pears and plums. More than that, he has developed

a unique collection of foundation plant material which should be used for further advancement in the development of hardy fruits of good quality.

Mr. Patten was born in northern New York in 1832. He was a farm boy and was brought up amidst the general farm husbandry of northern New York, receiving what advantages the common schools of New York gave up until the time he was about 14 years of age. Following this he had one winter in a poor school in northern New York, and three winters in Wisconsin, only one of which he considered a good “common” school. “Nevertheless,” said Mr. Patten, “at the close of the winter following my nineteenth birthday I could have obtained a certificate to teach.”

He then spent about two years in the construction of railroads, being a contractor part of the time. His “school” education was completed by studying two terms at the Delton Academy, Sauk County, Wisconsin.

He followed general farming in Wisconsin from 1856 to 1864, and then moved to Charles City, Iowa, engaging for two years in mixed farming and lumbering.

Mr. Patten is by nature a lover of plants. He saw at once the great need of fruits and ornamentals for northern Iowa, so he immediately set himself to the task of supplying that need. In 1866, without ever having seen a graft made he began in the nursery business.

“In 1866,” said Mr. Patten, “I made quite a large planting of apple seeds with a view of improving the well known varieties. I had made some effort in this work in Wisconsin.” From that time on his fruit breeding work was studiously carried on, twentyacres being entirely given over to the work. This was done in the midst of a business carried on for a livelihood and in spite of a constant struggle for health.

Mr. Patten’s methods were not haphazard, but born of foresight well planned and always looking toward hardiness and fruitfulness of tree as well as to quality of fruit. He had no training in plant breeding, but nevertheless began contributing articles for the papers in the early seventies, and from 1875 contributed many of the leading papers on fruit breeding to be found in the reports of the Iowa Horticultural Society. These articles show the vision and prophetic eye of the true plant breeder.

None of the standard eastern varieties such as Baldwin, Northern Spy and Rhode Island Greening were hardy enough for this region. Even many of the Wisconsin varieties failed in northern Iowa. In the early days winter killing repeatedly eliminated nearly every variety tried except Briar Sweet Crab. Consequently most of the farmers relied mainly upon this variety to supply their needs for fruit. Even Oldenburg, Wealthy, Fameuse, which are classed among the more hardy sorts, were sometimes severely injured or killed outright by the fierce winters. Clearly it was necessary to breed a new race of fruits. In looking over the standard varieties grown in the United States, Mr. Patten observed that nearly all were of American origin. He did not believe that the hardy Russian sorts were adapted to northern Iowa. Neither did he I believe advancement would be made by hybridizing with native crab, the Soulard or the Siberian crabs. These were too small in size. Indiscriminate planting of seeds, trusting that something of value might come out of it did not appeal, although Peter Gideon did produce the Wealthy in this way. This method he considered too unscientific.

He began then, after considering all these theories, to plant seeds only of the best and most hardy varieties of apples. These were his foundation. Seedlings of superior merit were preserved and these crossed with other varieties of merit. The results were concrete almost from the start.

In 1869 Mr. Patten planted a number of seeds of Oldenburg from Wisconsin from which he secured his Patten (Greening) a variety well known, reliably hardy and productive in the Dakotas, northern Iowa, Minnesota, Wisconsin, and even in Canada it has proved its worth. Mr. Patten’s success in producing this seedling further convinced him that the best winter apples for the Upper Mississippi Valley region would have to be produced in that region. He did not believe that a good winter apple would come out of the Russian importations, and constantly set before the people the necessity of planting and testing thousands of seedlings.

Out of the thousands of seedlings grown by Mr. Patten a number of varieties have been named and distributed. Other promising new varieties are being tested.

Patten (Greening), a seedling of Oldenburg, originated in 1869. It is probably the most widely known of Mr. Patten’s originations.

Eastman is a fine large and striped apple, a seedling of Fameuse originating in 1880.

Brilliant is another seedling of Fameuse originated in 1881 which bids fair in Mr. Patten’s estimation to become an important variety in Michigan and Wisconsin.

Silas Wilson, a bright red, attractive, sprightly, subacid apple, is a seedling of Ben Davis and evidently a cross with Jonathan, showing as it does many of the characteristics of Jonathan in both tree and fruit. It is of good quality, but not reliably hardy in northern Iowa unless top worked.

These are a few of the most notable varieties which Mr. Patten originated and introduced. Other new promising sorts are being tested, some of which no doubt will prove to be of value.

Developments in Pear Breeding

In the early eighties Mr. Patten secured several trees of a hardy, blight resistant Chinese pear which was first thought to be Pyrus sinensis, but which was later identified as Pyrus ussur-iensis by Prof. F. C. Reinmer. Pyrus ussuriensis is perhaps at present the most talked of blight resistant pear of all the Chinese species which have been introduced in the United States because of the possibilities which it offers as a blight resistant stock for the varieties of pears now grown in America. Mr. Patten came to recognize its value as new foundation upon which to breed for hardiness of tree and blight resistance. Today there are growing on the grounds a number of seedlings of Pyrus ussuriensis which are without doubt crosses with Seckel. These seedlings are “hardy as an oak,” one of which has been a regular and consistent bearer for more than ten years. Several thousand cross bred seedlings of these particular hybrids, crossed with such varieties as Bartlett, Flemish Beauty, Howell, Anjou and Winter Nelis are now coming into fruiting. These seedlings are very vigorous, and to date have shown no injury from blight, although they show much variation as to hardiness, vigor, type of growth, leaf area, etc. Out of this collection with such remarkable blood lines, if one may judge from results heretofore obtained by Mr. Patten’s work, will no doubt come a distinct advance in the breeding of blight resistant pears of superior hardiness.

Several hardy pears have been introduced by Mr. Patten. Seckel No. 1 is a seedling of Seckel. It is perfectly hardy at Charles City and is a vigorous grower and regular bearer. The fruit resembles Seckel in form and color, but is easily a third larger in size and quite similar in quality and season.

The most notable seedling in point of size and quality is a cross of Orel 15 and Anjou. It favors Anjou in form and size, is an attractive green pear with a red cheek, juicy, sprightly, fine in grain and ranks very good in quality. Season September.

Other promising new seedlings have fruited which bear out Mr. Patten’s early prediction that hardy and blight resistant varie-(Continued on page 71)

System in the Orchard

Will J. Platten (Contributed.)

Most orchards are planted with some regard to system. Their trees are at regular intervals, the varieties are in rows and blocks; some sort of a sketch or map is kept, and occasionally the trees are marked in the orchard. Usually, however, with small orchards and home orchards, dependence of location of varieties is left to memory and recognition by appearance.

With large commercial orchards it becomes an impossibility to remember the many details of varieties, location, and condition that are essential to the modern management of them on a profitable basis. In olden days but few businesses kept accurate record— some branches made money, some lost money—as long as the net balance was favorable, they were satisfied. In general, this condition is still true of fruit growing in Wisconsin.

The questions that modern business continually ask are— Does it pay? Will it pay? What rate does it p^y? Every orchard man should be able to answer those questions regarding his orchard as a whole, each variety, and each tree, just as the dairymen are doing with their cows.

An accurate tree record is the basis of a successful cost accounting. I will not attempt to discuss the bookkeeping end, the apportioning of costs, etc., but will confine the topic to tree records as I keep them.

The numbering and labelling of trees, maps of the orchard, individual tree records, and field note books are all necessary for a complete tree record system.

I use the coordinate system of numbering, numbering rows from north to south, and trees from east to west. Thus number 22-37 would be the twenty-second tree from the north and the thirtyseventh tree from the east; always giving the row first and tree second. Each tree bears a label or tag of copper, in size about Ix2j4 inches, having punched thereon its number and its name, abbreviated, i. e., “Wei.” for “Wealthy.” These tags are fastened to each tree on the south side a foot above ground by a long galvanized finishing nail driven into the trunk about one-half inch, the tag out about three inches by the head of the nail. This will allow about ten years’ growth before readjustment is needed. I have tried both zinc and copper tags; the zinc is inferior as tags get brittle and break. Large loops may be used instead of nails to fasten the tags on. These tags are very convenient in helping locate certain trees that might need special attention. Give the man the number and he can go almost directly to the tree instead of hunting through a whole section of the orchard to find, for instance, a tree that had blight on. The numbers are necessary also to keep the production records by tree.

A large wall map or blue print of the orchard should be made to a scale, such that trees show as dots about one-half inch apart. For a forty-acre orchard, this will give a map about thirty inches squafe. This should show the outside row and tree numbers, blocks of varieties, odd varieties in a block, vacant positions, roads, drains, and main topographic features. This map should be kept up to date by pencil changes as replacements are made. After a few years if it becomes illegible, a new revised map should be made. When there are many varieties intermingled in the orchard, it is very handy to have some photographic reductions made of this map down to a 6x8 inch size. These can be folded to pocket size for carrying into the field. With good photographic work, the variety names should still be decipherable.

The real tree records are kept in a card index; one card for each tree. I use a standard 4x6 inch card made by the printer. For forty acres on an assumption of 2,500 trees, two filing drawers each twenty inches long are required. Cards are indexed and tabbed in rows and varieties as they occur in the orchard. Using both sides, each card should care for the record of a tree for thirty-five years. In the upper left hand corner is the row number, tree number and block letter. In the upper right hand corner is the name of the variety. The cards are lined on both sides, one line for a year’s record. The years are down the left margin and a double column on the right margin is for pounds of fruit production. The center is used for remarks. Current operations, such as spraying, pruning, etc., that are applicable to all trees alike, are not mentioned in the remarks. Special work, such as blight removal or any unusual condition or treatment is noted. Notes are taken in a note book for all such special work, and also during the harvest time, crediting each tree with the pounds of fruit picked at each picking. The man in the orchard always carries his note book. About once a week the items from the note books are posted to the cards, and changes, if any, are indicated on the large map.

In addition to one card for each tree, a few general cards complete the system. One card should show the total production of the entire orchard for each year; and one give the total production of each variety. One for pruning done, one for fertilization, another for cultivation, one commenting on insect pests of the year, and finally a card should give a brief summary of weather including the last spring and first fall frost. Other cards may be kept according to the individual desire. It is not near the task of keeping these up as might appear, because there is only one line entry made per year per card.

With records like these, consistently kept up, the productivity of the different varieties, and that of individual trees is known beyond doubt. Guess work for future planting is eliminated. Poor varieties and drone trees are found out and may be top worked. Many other ways may be found to use the records in an experimental way or to increase the orchard efficiency. For the small amount of time required, it is very nice, in after years, to have a complete life history of each tree. Each grower could modify the system to meet his own requirements. More general use of some such system would eventually result in a more successful fruit growing industry in the state.

Green Bay, Wis., Dec. 20, 1921.

Many of our shrubs or trees are as ornamental with a covering of snow as when in bloom during the summer. Plant for both summer and winter effect.

The Story Of The Building Of A Village Park

Mrs. Lewis Morton, Omro.

Read at Summer Meeting, Oshkosh, August 18th, 1921

If the building of H. C. Scott Park had been merely the planting of trees, shrubs and flowers, the laying out of walks, the erection of bridges or even the digging of canals, there would have been no story, just the dry compilation of financial reports. But because the effort of building the park has produced something bigger and better than the park itself —a by-product greater than the product, “community spirit”— there is a story founded on vision and developed through persistence and sacrifice.

In the good old days of the Arabian nights when an Aladdin wished a garden or a palace, he rubbed his wonderful lamp and while he slept a magician made trees grow, waters flow or palaces arise. It was good for Aladdin; it saved him the difficulty of blue prints and contracts and labor problems, but he never knew the constructive joy of bringing into reality little by little, day after day, the object of his dreams. H.

We think of Omro as being a typical Wisconsin village of the last century, built by the lumber industry; left decadent by the receding forests; rehabilitated by the farming interests; justly proud of its ancestry, its historic river, its schools and its cemetery. Strangers invariably characterized it as a sleepy, old, unenterprising, torn by jealousies, and handicapped by prejudices; but its citizens knew its faults and loved it just the same. They loved it because they looked past the rubbish strewn river banks, and the weed grown vacant lots, beyond the unostentatious buildings and the dusty streets, and saw that Omro was a village of homes; that her first business had been and must be to make good citizens; and they knew the spirit that had erected fine schools must be enlarged; the community must have a playground as well as a workshop. So the seed bed was right in the hearts of the people for the planning of a project, the germination, growth and fruition of which has astonished even its promoters. The planting was done by an old lumberman who had spent his years among the trees of Wisconsin.

Long before the citizens knew that they wanted a park, H. C. Scott had determined to give the village a strip of land which he owned along the river bank, and upon which he had already plantci trees in furtherance of his idea. Declining years and multiplied business cares delayed the transfer of the property until a new organization had sprung into life in connection with the Presbyterian Church of the village. This organization was called the Men’s Improvement League and was headed by Rev. O. W. Johnson, pastor of the church. To them the land was given and the first organized effort was made by these men when they went down to the site and began to cut the weeds and to remove the cans which had given the place its disreputable name of “Tin Can Alley”.

Now for a second time failing health interfered with the progress of the park. The Rev. Mr. Johnson became ill and was obliged to resign before the work had advanced for enough to proceed without his leadership. At this time the Omro Study Club, an organization of women, began to feel an impulse to accomplish some tangible improvement in the village life. At one of their afternoon meetings a casual remark about the Men’s Improvement League’s needing help in their park undertaking aroused enough enthusaism to result in a special meeting being called at the school house to discuss organization along broader lines. Thus far physical disability had been the only handicap in the whole project, but now a new little imp of disaster sharpened his arrows. At this special meeting the introduction of an entirely foreign subject created such ill feeling that if it had not been for the frantic appeal of one of the promoters, the matter would have been consigned to oblivion.

The second special meeting was more successful than the first. A constitution and a simple code of by-laws were adopted ito regulate the new organization which from that time has been identified as the Women’s Civic Improvement League of Omro. No sooner had the new women’s society materialized than the Men’s Improvement League, with a characteristic gallantry that has marked the men of the village, handed over their accumulated funds to finance the first money-making enterprise for the benefit of the park. This was in the nature of a sane Fourth of July celebration. Now for a third time misfortune seemed to threaten the park, for the weather took a hand.

The morning dawned rosy and promising and continued so until the tables for the big community picnic were spread on the school grounds. Then came a deluge of rain, unexpected as April and as persistent as November. The picnickers, seizing baskets and provisions, rushed into the schoolhouse for protection. Outside, the rain proceeded to reduce the carnival grounds to bottomless red clay. The amateur sideshows were literally swimming in mud and water. But what was rain or a spoiled dinner or dripping tents when there was a park to build! With courage born of inspiration the crowds slopped and slushed from one show to another, getting as much amusement from their predicament as from the performance itself. In one of the tents thrilling patriotic dramas were staged. The entrance fee was two cents. Mr. Clyde Terrill, now an authority on wild ducks, was acting the part of George Washington in the “Making of the First Flag.” The play had passed successfully through the first act, the second act, and then came a halt. The curtains parted and a pretty young lady General Manager announced, “We are sorry, but we can’t give the third act now. George Washington had to go and play in the band. You may come again at 3 o’clock, or you may have your money back.” “We want our money back,” came in stentorian tones from County Superintendent of Schools H. B. Patch, and the laugh that followed fully reimbursed the crowd. This little tent with its two cent shows netted over $17.00 at the close of the day. The sane Fourth was a financial success, and better still, it had taught the Civic League its power. It was only a step to the next big undertaking, the “Greatest Five Day Industrial Fair Under One Cover in the State of Wisconsin.” This mammoth boast was made' possible because of the building that had been termed “Omro’s financial tragedy.” The old three-story, brick woolen-mill had been built on honor with the funds of another generation, but had never produced anything except failure and disappointment. There it stood, empty and forlorn and disgraced. It had failed as a woolen-mill; it had failed as a carriage factory: it had failed as a shoe-tip factory.

Mr. S. Leighton, the owner, gave the use of this building to the Civic League for their fair, and the lonesome old building teemed with preparations. Scores of busy workers transformed the dingy cobwebbed interior into a fairy-land of festoons and draperies. All the skill, art, talent and ingenuity of the village were con centrated on the old mill, and its prosaic old walls became a palace of flowers, a garden of fruits, an emporium of needlecraft, the fine arts, antiques, a labyrinth of mystery, and all this pageantry of wonders for five days for the exorbitant price of 25 cents. Of course, that was only for entrance —it cost much more to get out. Everyone must eat in the cafeteria, drink at the lemonade booths, check the babies at the rest room, laugh at vaudeville, patronize the rummage sale, fish in the magic canal, find a fortune at the gypsy’s booth. One visitor from a northern city became so interested in the magic geese that he paid one dollar for the privilege of operating them. But bigger than all this pomp and display and merriment was the community ambition to realize its dream park. This spirit of happy co-operation made it possible to present a vaudeville utilizing over one hundred people, from the grey-haired hero of an old time farce to the infant prodigy of the musical drama. With six complete changes of program, extending over a period of nine hours a day, this committee made the remarkable record of not having a single failure on the part of an actor to respond at the appointed hour.

It made it possible also to manage a cafeteria in which the work was divided along denominational lines, and yet was without sectarian differences—Methodists serving with Presbyterians, Baptists with Catholics, Lutherans with Episcopalians, and finally the Big Brothers with some of the weaker churches. And when the first thousand dollars lay safely deposited in the bank to the credit of the Civic League, what a community handshaking and congratulating and rejoicing took place.

By this time legal intricacies had demanded an incorporated Park Association and a Park Board. How well I remember the day we slipped into our rubbers and met at the park site to determine which of the native willows should be sacrificed for the artificial canal. We were following a blue print prepared by Professor Hatch of Madison. We felt our responsibility as watchdogs of the people’s money, and we were determined that every penny should bring definite returns.

The story of the development of the park is the usual story of dredging and grading, drilling and building, with the unusual touch of “bees” when business men and farmers donated labor, teams, money; when women gave vines and flowers and organized themselves into committees for transplanting them into the park flower beds. But it was happy work for it was our park that we were beautifying. Of course, there were discouragements—how blue we all felt the first spring when the river rose the highest recorded in years, and the whole park was under water. Everyone laughingly told us it was caused by the large fountain we had drilled in the park the previous fall. One venturesome lad went out in a rowboat to get a drink from the fountain.

But the park is past experiment now. The merry laughter of picnickers daily testifies to the attractiveness of the place. Each year adds beauty and interest to the locality as the personal associations increase. High on a pole stands a beautiful bird-house, the gift of a Manual Training Teacher of the school; while in lesser corners are tiny houses donated by his pupils for the birds that throng the trees. At the entrance of the driveway is an iron pillar crowned by a large electric globe. This is the gift of a one-legged man whom the citizens had helped at the time of his misfortune. He had not forgotten in the days of his prosperity and he returned to pay his tribute to the village. A rustic settee is the handiwork of a man over eighty years of age. In one corner of the park stands a circle of trees planted by the Logan Circle in honor of the boys who gave their lives in the great war and in memory of C. O. Marsh, a much beloved teacher of the village school who had suggested the plan.

Charles G. Patten (Continued from page 67) ties could be and would be originated by scientific breeding. He lived to see his prediction realized in a measure in already developed pears suited to northern Iowa, Minnesota, Wisconsin and the Dakotas.

Plum Breeding

A prominent nurseryman not long ago stated that if all the known varieties of American plums now grown in the Upper Mississippi Valley were wiped out and the plums of Mr. Pgtten’s origination were to be placed on the market in their stead, plum growing would be advanced twenty years.

Mr. Patten has bred, grown and selected from thousands of seedlings, always preserving the best. Out of this effort have come many plums pf fine size and dessert quality. Several are freestone.

The best of these plums are now being distributed for further testing as fast as cion wood can be produced.

These are a few of the things Mr. Patten accomplished in a life time of unselfish effort. He gave the people of the Upper Mississippi Valley, where climatic conditions were not conducive to fruit growing, new varieties of apples, pears, and plums of superior hardiness and of better quality. His contribution to horticulture will not only benefit the immediate region of Iowa and its contigious territory but the whole of American horticulture.

Pine cones or pine wood makes good fireplace fuel.

Wisconsin 'horticulture

Published Monthly by the

Wisconsin State Horticultural Society

16 N. Carroll St. Official organ of the Society.

FREDERIC CRANEFIELD. Editor Secretary W. S. H. 8.. Madison, Wis.

Entered at the postoffice at Madison, Wisconsin, as second-class matter. Acceptance for mailing at special rate of postage provided for in Section 1103. Act of October 3, 1917, authorized July 15, i018.

Advertising rates made known on application.

Wisconsin State Horticultural Society

Annual membership fee. one dollar, which includes fifty cents, subscription price to Wisconsin Horticulture. Send one dollar to Frederic Cranefield, Editor, Madison, Wis.

Remit by Postal or Express Money Order. A dollar bill may be sent safely if wrapped or attached to a card. Personal checks accepted.

Postage stamps not accepted.


II. C. Christensen. President...........Oshkosh

W. A. Toole, Vice-President...........Baraboo

Frederic Craneflold, Secretary-Treasurer. . Madison


President, Vice-President and Secretary.

For Three Years.

A. K. Bassett......................Baraboo

C. L Brigham..................Blue Mounds

Wm. Lon gland..................Lake Geneva

Fur Two Years.

Paul E Grant..............

J. F. Hauser..............

Richard Marken ............

W. E. 8preiter.............

For One Year. F. M. Edwards..............

James Livingstone ..........

Wm. Nelson ..............

Arno Wittig................

, Menomonie . . . Bayfield Gays Mills . .Onalaska

Fort Atkinson . . .Milwaukee .....Oshkosh Sturgeon Bay


H. C. Christensen              Frederic Cranefleld

W. A. Toole

The Convention

It is probably best to dismiss the convention held in Madison December 14-16 with a few words. For two reasons: the usual trite statements that it was the “biggest and best ever held” coupled with an account of those present, etc. ,etc., is of no interest to our readers; secondly to give a worth while summary of all the papers and discussions would require at least two issues of the paper. Those who attended, some from a distance of three hundred miles, enjoyed every hour and went away satisfied with their investment of time and money.

It is estimated that California will produce half the beans raised in the United States this year, or about 4,000,000 bushels.

What’s On Your Mind?

This half-hour session, lengthened to an hour Wednesday of Convention week, proved highly interesting. The topic on the program was as follows:


What’s on your mind about the Society and its affairs? About the Convention and the manner it’s conducted? About Wisconsin Horticulture, the paper? If you have criticisms or suggestions be on hand at 1:30. Your time limit will be exactly two minutes.

The discussions brought out by the chairman, Mr. W. A. Toole, centered about the paper and the criticisms offered were for the greater part constructive and helpful.

Certain things were brought out concerning the editing of Wisconsin Horticulture that can now be brought before the reader by the editor without any feeling of embarrassment. One question asked was “Why is not the paper larger?” Another member gave it as his opinion that the paper is not as good as it formerly was. A scathing criticism was made of the cover designs. All who participated did so in the best possible spirit and great good will result.

Best of all was the hearty response on the part of members present to an appeal by the chairman for help for the editor. At least fifty members agreed to furnish contributions during the coming year.

Many, many times as editor, I have sent out appeals for help, pleading, begging, coaxing readers to write of their own rich experiences for the benefit of others. For three years there was scarcely a copy of the paper but contained an appeal of this sort. The returns were meager. I have not complained nor do I mean to do so now. The busy men and women who are readers of the paper too often feel that the things that they know so well, know frontwards, backwards and crosswise, are too simple and too trivial to write about. No greater error is possible. The most successful publication ever issued by this Society was the garden supplement of 1918, reprinted in 1919 and 1920. Over 150,000 copies of this supplement have been distributed and the effort to fill the demand for other copies strains our financial resources. Why is it so? Because the five subjects in the supplement were written in simple language and tell the elementary things about sowing seed, transplanting, hoeing, etc.— the A. B. C. of gardening.

The purpose of the Society is to create in the hearts of people a desire for things horticultural and then through the paper and other means furnish help to do these things. No editor writes or can write all that is in his paper. Even if he had the necessary knowledge to do it, which is never the case, the paper would soon become stale and very unprofitable. It is his business only to edit. He buys, begs, or steals his material. In the case of papers published for profit the problem is an easy one. There is an editor-in-chief, with money at his disposal to buy material, with one or more assistants, a circulation manager, an advertising manager and a trained office force. We are not in that field nor do we want to enter.

The secretary of this Society edits Wisconsin Horticulture, incidentally : it cannot be his sole thought. The foundations on which the Society rest, must, with

the aid and under the direction of the officers and members, be kept propped up. The extensive field work must not be neglected, the convention programs must be built up ; the daily correspondence must be attended to and plans evolved for new work. We do not want to entertain an ambitious publishing program, we do not expect to enter the field of horticultural publications, or do we? We want a little paper just our own for Wisconsin only, do we not? Will you help make it that? Otherwise, George will have to do it as best he can in such time as he has to give to it, and will aim to do it cheerfully. Which brings us back to the questions asked at the convention, “Why is not the paper larger and why is it not better?” It was founded as a sixteen-page paper and is advertised as such. Since publication it has averaged a fraction less than eighteen pages exclusive of supplements. For the year following the addition of four pages of “bee” matter the paper was a twenty-page paper. Beginning with January the editor began preparations for a sick spell and for several months thereafter the paper edited itself, or was missing entirely. Between September 10 and December 10 five issues were edited, after fashion, and mailed. Wisconsin Horticulture is a sixteen-page paper. All you get over that is clear profit. We do not want a big paper, do we? Or do we? Just a little one all our own. Will you help? I cannot conclude without extending my sincere thanks to all at the convention who offered help; to the scores of members who have from time to time sent cheerful letters with compliments

which I know are undeserved, but which none the less do hearten one a bit. Nor will I be quite satisfied to stop until I have whispered a secret to you, my dear readers:   During the twenty

eight years that I have been a servant of the public, although in a minor capacity, no other task that has fallen to my lot has given me greater pleasure, nor served to make me more content with life’s duties than editing this paper. We will now turn our attention to other matters.

Frederic Cranefield, Editor.



Honor Where Honor Is Due

Not all Milwaukeeans are of Scotch birth or descent, but many of them are of that sturdy race. About five hundred of them, members of St. Andrews Society, foregathered about banquet tables in Milwaukee recently. A full account of their meeting is not of interest to us, only a printed line or two:

“In the business session which preceded the banquet, officers were installed as follows: James Livingstone, president;" etc., etc.

The Scotchmen of Milwaukee will now call him “President Livingstone." Because we love him we call him “Jim,” as we have always done.

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Balsam and other evergreens from the bogs and marshes make good Christmas trees and are of no value for other purposes. A few spruce planted in or near the windbreaks on one’s own land are easier to get and as a rule more lasting than those shipped in.

Flower buyers are becoming more particular as to variety now. Formerly purchases were made as to color only. Now varieties are called for.

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The Spirit of Contentment

By Elizabeth Held

Dear Readers: One of the best places to study “folks” is in their own homes. They are much more likely to be themselves, to forget the veneer they sometimes use when you meet them out in the world.

Being a horticulturist of course I asked them if they had much of a garden. Imagine my surprise when I was told that they cultivated two acres of ground. Perhaps you may not wonder at my amazement when I tell you that both of these sisters are close to the seventy mark. “Why, it must be dreadfully hard work, isn’t it?” I asked. “Oh, yes, it’s hard, of course, but we enjoy it. You see, we raise things no one else around here bothers with, and that people in the city are glad to get. We think of this all the while we are working, of the pleasure it will be for our customers to get these things we are raising, and we don’t mind the work at all. Besides we feel that we are very fortunate in being able to work. That is the way we earn our living,” she added simply. “Of course we have a little laid by for a rainy day, but we do not wish to use this until we are obliged to.”


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ing reply. “We usually find something to keep us busy—and we travel quite a good deal.”

“Travel!” I was surprised for I had never known them to go very far from the old home:.

“Well, we call it ‘travel,’ ” said the younger sister. “It’s a game we invented to pass away the time when we’re tired of everything else. We find it real interesting.”

At my request they started on one of their imaginary journeys. At first I sat listening with a sort of smiling tolerance. It seemed funny to think of these two women playing a game of make believe. But all at once I sat up straight, for the imaginary traveler was saying: “It’s about time for us to start back home, but I think we will stop and see Cousin Will at Denver. We will surprise him; stay over night at the ranch and in the morning our genial host will drive us down the mountain road to the station with his ponies and buckboard.” You see, I had known Cousin Will when I was a child. There was a never-forgotten Sunday afternoon when, on one of his rare visits to the old farm home, he had gone with us to slide down hill. After doing all the hair-raising stunts he could think of, he voted the hill tame, and taking a sled to the roof he poised it for one brief instant on the ridge pole, then, with a whoop that would have shamed a Comanche Indian, he slid down the long sloping roof of the house into the snow banks below. I was not sitting in an easy chair by the side of a glowing coal fire, listening to an imaginary account of this drive. Indeed not. I was holding fast to the" sides of a swaying swinging buckboard watching a pair of plunging ponies as he drove down that steep mountain road at break neck speed. I saw a hatles^ driver with a well remembered smile on his face, his capable fingers held the lines. Though I was enjoying the ride I didn’t draw a real breath until we reached the valley below. All at once I heard a jolly little laugh. "Aren’t you going to get out of that rig? We won’t get home tonight if you don’t hustle.”

“It does get ‘real,’ doesn’t it?”

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said my hostess. “We think it’s more fun than going to the movies.”

There was silence then for a while, but I didn’t notice it. I was busy with my thoughts. I was beginning to understand that indefinable something that had puzzled me. These two people were contented in spite of the fact that they had to work hard at an age when most people feel they are entitled to a rest. They enjoy it because it helps to give others pleasure; they are thankful because they are able to work, and instead of grumbling and finding fault with cold stormy weather, they play the game of "make believe.” In other words they live out Ella Wheeler Wilcox’s advice: "If you can’t have what you like, like what you have.” “The Spirit of Contentment,” I thought, as I went slowly up the stairs to bed.

The best part of a visit is the memories you bring back with you, if they are pleasant ones. If they are not, why I usually try to forget them.

The memories of this visit are both vivid and pleasant. They have helped, for when things don’t go as I like, I just play the "game.” And do you know that when I’m contented and happy without, I usually get what I desire. So I really believe the Spirit of Contentment has come to abide with me. Do you think this is a queer way to tell about “folks?” Well, I suppose it is, but then, I have to keep up our reputation, you know. They’ve always said you could never tell what a woman would do next.

A little sand over beets, carrots, and other roots will keep them from shriveling.

Do Not Be Led Astray

Unless tremendous climatic changes occur soon or varieties hardier than any now known appear, grape growing in the northern half of the state is very unlikely to prove a profitable investment. The following from an Ashland paper is misleading. We are not apt to have as much grape weather in some time as we had last summer:

Raising grapes as a commercial proposition in Bayfield county may become profitable. On the Pine Tree farms vines of three varieties are bearing fruit and the first shipment of Concords made to the Duluth markets proved the fruit was of the best variety.

Since the Pine Tree farm has shown the way other persons are becoming interested in the project and grape growing should soon become an important commercial enterprise.

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We do landscape work.

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Begin now to make up the seed and shrub list for next year. Try a few new things each year but rely mostly on the standard sorts.

Tramp well about the apple and tender ornamental trees. This will discourage mice from finding homes near them. Now is the time to get the rabbits that are waiting for more snow to girdle apple trees.

Don’t forget the birds this winter. Put up a bit of suet or tie a sheaf of grain on a post or tree. Birds soon find it. Quail or other wood fowl may be kept on the place if a pile of straw with some grain in it is left in a sheltered place near their haunts.

For Sale: A good-as-new berry box wire stapling machine, adjustable to fit any size box. Wire enough for car load of boxes. $15.00 for both.—N. E. France, Platteville, Wis.

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AMONG WISCONSIN BEEKEEPERS Devoted to the Interests of The Wisconsin State Beekeepers' Association H. F. Wilson, Editor


Pre®. S. F. Stelling, Reedsville.         Treas. C. W. Aeppler, Oconomowoc.

Vlce-Pres. Conrad Krues, Loganville. Secy. Mallitta F. Hildreth, Madison.

Annual Membership Fee $1.00.

Remit to M. F. Hildreth, Secretary, Madison, Wis.


Wisconsin State Beekeepers’ Association

Milwaukee Auditorium, Milwaukee, December 8 and 9

The annual meeting of the Board of Managers was called at 2 p. m. December 7, at Committee Room A, Milwaukee Auditorium. The President, Mr. Jorgensen, appointed the following committee on credentials: Mr. Hildemann, Mr. Brenner and Mr. Hansinger. The committee reported the following associations as having delegates with credentials:

Mr. Sass of the Fond du Lac County Association and Mr. Rahmlow of the Price County Association did not have credentials but as both of these men were secretaries of their respective associations, the board of managers voted to allow them to vote. Other beekeepers attending the meeting were allowed to remain and take part in all discussions but were not allowed to vote. were read by the secretary and approved by the board.

The matter of continuing our arrangement with Wisconsin Horticulture for 1922 was then brought up by the secretary and after considerable discussion as to the value of the paper, a motion was made and carried that we continue our arrangement with Wisconsin Horticulture at 50 cents per member.

Whether or not the state association desired to hold a summer meeting In connection with the beekeepers' Chautauqua held by the University In August was the next matter brought up. Mr. Brenner extended the Invitation of the Brown County Beekeepers’ Association that the summer meeting be held at Green Bay. After a rather lengthy discussion a motion was made and carried to the effect that the State Beekeepers’ Association hold their Bummer meeting in connection with the beekeepers’ Chautauqua at Green Bay. A motion was also made and carried that this meeting be held the third week in August as arranged by the University.

The report of affiliated associations was then read by the secretary and approved by the board of managers. This report will be Included in detail later. It was the general opinion of the board of managers that each delegate present should explain to his association when he returned the necessity of having every affiliated association send a delegate to the board of managers meeting and if necessary that a special meeting be called by the local association to elect that delegate. Each delegate present agreed to ask their secretary to send in their annual report by the time set by the secretary of the state association.

The report of the extension committee was then read by the secretary and approved by the board. This report will be printed later in detail.

The American Honey Producers’ League was then discussed and the question as to whether or not the Wisconsin State Beekeepers’ Association should continue its section in the national organization was considered. One of the directors suggested that we Increase our dues to $2, $1 of which was to go for membership in the league, but the majority of directors did not think this would be satisfactory and this motion was not carried. A motion was then made and carried that we continue our membership of at least 100 in the American Honey Producers’ League.

A motion was then made and carried that a committee of three be appointed at this convention to study during 1922 all beekeeping matters which might come before the legislature in 1928 and to report back at the convention in 1922.

A motion was also made and carried that the state association ask for an appropriation of $3,000, at the next legislature for the purpose of promoting the association and the beekeeping industry.

A discussion on the value of monthly reports followed and many of the directors requested that we have a crop report for the state sent out from the secretary’s office just after the honey flow.

A motion was made and carried that the salary for the secretary for the ensuing year be $180.

It was decided that the nominating committee meet the following morning at 8 o’clock.

The meeting of the board of managers adjourned at 5 p. m.

Thursday Morning

The convention was called to order at 9:45. The minutes of the last convention were read by the secretary and approved by the convention.

The recommendations of the board of managers were then presented to the convention as follows:

The convention voted to take the matter of approving the recommendations up later at the regular business session of the convention on Friday.

The report of the secretary was then read and approved by the convention.

Greetings from Brothers Allen, Dittmer and Bartz, who were unable to attend the convention, were read by the secretary. An explanation of our affiliation with the American Honey Producers’ League was then given by the secretary and the convention decided to consider this later.

President’s address (to be printed later).

Just before the president finished, Mr. E. R. Root came in and our beekeepers were happily surprised since we did not know he was coming. We were all very glad to have Mr. Root with us and the president asked him to address our convention. Some notes were taken on Mr. Root’s talk and these will be published later.

Mr. C. P. Norgord, commissioner of agriculture, being present, was called upon by the president to address the beekeepers. His remarks covered the present beekeeping situation very well and will be published later.

Thursday Afternoon

The afternoon session was called to order at 2:15. Mr. C. W. Aeppler, treasurer, read his report which was accepted by the convention.

Mr. A. A Brown then read a paper "From Neglected Bees to Profit,” which will be published later

Mr. N. E. France was unable to attend the convention and his paper was omitted. It will, however, be published sometime during the year.

"Choosing a Location in Wisconsin,” by H. L. McMurry was next on the program, but Mr. McMurry was not able to be present and this paper was omitted.

A paper on "Experience in Pasturing for Buckwheat Honey,” by Mr. Cruse was also omitted and will be published later.

"Hubam Clover,” as discussed by Mr. Brenner was very interesting to our beekeepers. Mr. Brenner has had some actual experience with Hubam clover and we are very sorry that Mr. Brenner did not have a copy of his talk to leave with the secretary. Some notes were made, however, and these will be included In a later issue.

Mr. Atkins then gave us some very interesting and enlightening figures on beekeeping as a business. He showed quite clearly that one must secure a yearly average of at least 60 pounds per colony in order to make beekeeping pay. Mr. Atkins did not leave a paper with the secretary but it is hoped we will be able to secure this data for publication.

"Bee Yard Experiences,” by H. H. Moe was not given since Mr. Moe was unable to attend.

"Treating Diseased Bees Out of Season,” by A. C. Allen, was also omitted as Mr. Allen could not come. We have a paper from Mr. Allen on this subject which will be published later.

Mr. Sass, in his talk, "The Association,” brought out the value of live local associations, what they have done for their beekeepers and how they helped the state association. This paper will be published later.

Mr. L. G. Foster, assistant director of the state division of markets, in his talk, "Cooperative Marketing,” brought out the following three essentials which are necessary to make a cooperative association successful:

The president then appointed the following committees:

Auditing—Mr. Wolkow, Mr. Edward Blumer, Mr. Gwin.

Resolutions—Mr. Brown, Mr. Rahm-low, Mr. Hanley.

The following recommendations made by the board of managers were voted on separately and adopted by the convention:

Thursday Evening

The evening meeting opened at 7:30 when a movie showing how Lewis Beeware is made was given by Mr. E. W. Atkins. An informal discussion followed until a later hour.

Friday Morning

This session was called to order at 9:45. The president was unable to be present and since the vice president, Mr. Bartz, was not in attendance, Mr. Mongln consented to act as chairman.

Mr. Hassinger brought the following recommendation of the board of managers before the convention: "That the secretary be given authority to take a mail vote on whether or not the state convention be held in 1922 at Madison or Milwaukee in connection with the Markets Exposition as was done this year.”

A motion was made and carried that the secretary be given this authority.

"The Next Step in Marketing,” by C. D. Adams, brought out very clearly the grading and marketing problems. This paper will be published later.

Mr. Sherman’s paper, "Better Marketing,” could not be given as Mr. Sherman was not present. This will be published later.

"Sweet Clover, Its Value to Agriculture and the Beekeeper,” by H. E. Rosenow, was also omitted as Mr. Rosenow could not be present on account of the unexpected death of his little girl.

Mr. L. T. Bishop explained his method of out-door packing and an open discussion was held on outdoor wintering. Mr. Bishop has had very good success with his out-door wintering and has promised to prepare a paper for us on this subject.

"Advertising,” by Mr. Gwin wBs next. This paper will be published.

"Plans for 1922- Extension Work,” by L. P. Whitehead was omitted in order to give Mr. Cale and Mr. Root more time on the program.

"Relation of Queens to Seasonal Management,” by Mr. G. H. Cale was very interesting and valuable to our ■beekeepers. Mr. Cale gave the beekeepers an opportunity to ask questions and many of our members took advantage of this. This paper will also be published.

Dr. Siebecker was unable ;to be present and his talk, "Comb vs. Extracted Honey," was omitted.

Mr. Root then gave our beekeepers a talk on wintering bees without sugar honey. Some notes were made on this talk and as soon as they can be assembled will be published if we can secure Mr. Root’s permission.

"Bee-Tight Honey Houses and Other Popular Fallacies,” by S. B. Fracker, was the next paper given. This will be published.

As all the papers had been given the business meeting was next in order.

The following resolutions were recommended by the resolutions committee and adopted by the convention:

Resolutions as Adopted by the State


God haB seen fit to remove from the midst of our beekeeping fraternity. Mrs. A. I. Root, loyal friend, a charming personality and a tireless coworker, and

Whereas, the loss of the most inspiring coworker of our beloved and revered friend Mr. A. I. Root, will be felt more and more as time passes, therefore,

Be it resolved, that we, the beekeepers of Wisconsin in annual convention in the city of Milwaukee assembled, extend to Mr. Root and other members of his family who mourn the loss of so noble a woman as Mrs. Root, the heartfelt sympathies of the Wisconsin Beekeepers’ Association, both collectively and individually, and

Be it further resolved, that the secretary of our state association send a copy of these resolutions to the bereaved family and cause same to be spread upon the records of our association.

Whereas, the Wisconsin Cooperative Honey Producers’ Association has seen the advisability and benefits to be derived from the display of Wisconsin honey in a booth at the exposition,

Be it resolved, that the State Beekeepers’ Association set aside the sum of $25 for the purpose of defraying the expenses of such an exhibit at 1921 Markets Exposition. The treasurer is hereby authorized to pay the above amount to the treasurer of the Wisconsin Co-op Honey Producers’ Association.

Whereas, Wisconsin beekeepers have derived a vast amount of pleasure and enthusiasm from the inspiration we have received from Dr. Miller’s teachings and exemplary life, therefore,

Be it resolved, that the State Beekeepers’ Association in convention assembled, pay the amount of $40 to the Dr. Miller Memorial Fund and we further recommend that all Wisconsin beekeepers contribute as liberally as possible to this fund.

Whereas, certain county boards have appropriated money to help the state defray the expenses of this work in their respective counties,

Be it therefore resolved, that the Wisconsin Beekeepers’ Association encourage the various county associations who have not already done so to appeal to their county boards for financial aid in eradicating this disease and that the state department of agriculture be hereby encouraged to give precedence to those counties offering such financial aid.

Whereas, sweet clover is one of our best honey plants, and

Whereas, our highways and railway right of ways are extensively cropped with this plant; and

Whereas, it is a practice of the section crews and patrolmen to destroy this plant from time to time thus cutting off a good supply of nectar for honey production, therefore.

Be it resolved, that we both individually and collectively through our associations both state and county appeal to the railway maintenance of highway departments and the state and county highway departments to instruct their section crews and patrolmen to delay the cutting down of this plant until after the blooming period.

Whereas, crop reports and assistance in marketing are most urgently needed in this time of general business depression,

Be it therefore resolved, that the Wisconsin State Beekeepers’ Association In convention assembled, extend their thanks to the above departments and pledge their support and cooperation to the fullest extent.

Whereas, the Wisconsin State Beekeepers’ Association under the help and inspiration of Professor H. F. Wilson, and

H. J. Rahmlow, A. A. Brown, Frank Hanley.

The following label committee was appointed:   C. W. Aeppler, C. D.

Adams, R. L. Slebecker.

The nominating committee gave the following report:

For president—F. F. Stelling, H. L. McMurry.

For vice president—Conrad Kruse, H. J. Rahmlow.

For treasurer—Edward Hasslnger, C. W. Aeppler.

For secretary—M. F. Hildreth, Frank Hanley.

The following officers were elected: President, F. F. Stelling; vice president, Conrad Kruse; treasurer, C. W. Aeppler; secretary, Malitta F. Hildreth.

The convention adjourned at 5:30 p. m.


Received Dues From

113 members at 50 cents each....$

571 members at $1 each.............. 571.00

1 member at $1.50

4 associations affiliated at $5 each

Total ............................................$649.00

(Includes dues of H. E. Towns, Oct. 7.)

Paid to C. W. Aeppler, Treasurer

February 3 ......................................$409.50

July 22 ............................................ 224.50

October 11

Total ............................................$649.00

Expenses Paid by Secretary

Postage ............................................$ 83.27



Register of deeds

Dr. Miller Memorial

Chautauqua tags

Chautauqua expenses

Secretary’s expenses, trip to


Total -..........................................$159.46

Received From Mr. Aeppler

February 4 ......................................$

July 26

October 17

Total .......... $140.11

Balance due secretary..............$ 19.35

Total number of paid-up members

for 1931

Members paid to July 1 1921

Unpaid members (paid to Dec. 31,

1920) .............................._

New members this year

Members paid for 1922

New affiliated associations

Approved Budget for 1922

Income for 1922— Estimated dues 800 members at

$1 each..........................................|800

Proposed expenditures—

To Wisconsin Horticulture

Expenses of secretary’s office

Salary of secretary

Printing new directory

Total proposed expenditures..$780


Report blanks were sent to each affiliated association, 29 in all, on October 6th, asking that these be filled in and returned to the secretary’s office by November 15th. Up to the time of the convention 24 reports were received. During the convention Marathon County Association and Chippewa County Association reported. No reports were received from Rusk County and Clark County Association. Two associations were found to be below the required membership in the state association, Vernon County having 8 members and Door County Association having 8 members.

The following new associations affiliated with our state organization this year:

Dodge County Bee Association Waushara County Bee Association Door County Bee Association Marinette County Bee Association


No. Mem-Name of Association.   bers.


Mem- Meet- Aver.

Value of Order.


No. Members in Order.


tings. Attend.


Baraboo Valley ......22





Brown County ......23





$ 40.00



Dane County ..........20








Dodge County ........53








Door County ..........16



Fond du Lac County.52



Fox River Valley.....22







Grant County ........35








Green County ........35





Jefferson County ..33








Langlade County ..38





Marinette County .14





Milwaukee County 49








North East ...............58



Richland ..................19





Shawano County ...12







Sheboygan County 44








Vernon County ......26



Walworth County 20





Washington County28








Waushara County .29








Winnebago County 23





Wood County .........30







Price County ...........18








Waukesha County .37



Marathon County ..28





Chippewa County ..22



Meetings held during December 10, 1920, to December 2, 1921—57, with an average attendance of 21.

During the same period 10 two-day bee schools were held and one three-day bee school.

The third annual Beekeepers’ Chautauqua was held at Chippewa Falls, with a total registration of 160 and an average dally attendance of 60.

108 new members were secured for the state association.


Total letters .................................-

Total pages of manuscript........................................................*

Total receipts

Total stencils cut

Total circulars sent

Total league circulars sent

Total envelopes addressed

Total cards made out

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New Hardy Grapes

William Pfaender, Jr., of New Ulm, Minn., declares there are now grapes in Minnesota that can be grown there successfully without winter protection.

The standard varieties, such as Concord, Moore’s Early and others can be grown in Minnesota, but a fair crop can only be expected if they are well protected in winter. For several years, however, growers have raised a quartette of grapes, all of the same parentage—being crosses of the native wild grape and Concord—that are perfectly hardy in severe winters where the thermometer often drops to 20 and 30 below zero.

The wild grape, with which the Concord was crossed, was quite sweet, a late bloomer, and matured its fruit very early, which is also-true of these hybrids. The vines of these hardy grapes drop their foliage early and ripen up their wood perfectly. They are vigorous growers, and annual bearers of a good sized bunch and the berries are nearly as large as those of the Concord. They produce jelly and unfermented grape juice of superior quality.

These grapes can be successfully grown much farther north than southern Minnesota, and are now being tested near Winnipeg. Man., and Indian Head, Sask., Canada.

They are known as “ Suelter’s Minnesota Hybrid Grapes” and named by Mr. Suelter, the originator : Beta, Dakota, Monitor and Suelter.

Evergreens make good outdoor window box or porch box decorations and add a little color to i their surroundings.