Devoted to the Interests of The Wisconsin State Beekeepers’ Association H. F. Wilson, Editor


Pres. S. F. Stelling, Reedsville.         Treas. C. W. Aeppler, Oconomowoc.

Vice-Pres. Conrad Krues, Loganville. Secy. Mallitta F. Hildreth, Madison.

Annual Membership Fee $1.00.

Remit to M. F. Hildreth, Secretary, Madison, Wis.


Sister and Brother Beekeepers:

(Tempus Fugit.) It seems only yesterday that we were assembled at Madison in our last annual conclave repairing the foundation of this organization or building additions thereto where needed.

It is gratifying to see so many of our members present and I feel that as the years pass that each succeeding one will bring a larger number together, due largely to the eagerness for better understanding, now that the business is becoming an important asset to the state.

A person is not often indicted for divulging his own age, therefore. I may say that this grand organization and your president were both born in the same year, 1878. both of homely parentage, but by the usual caressing and fondling, and by the good grace of the Almighty, we have been granted a lease of life somewhat in advance of the average.

It is with fond respect that I look at my brotherly organization, and as I read its early history and see how its founders struggled and vied with each other to gain for this association a position that would command recognition and respect. Their labors seemed almost fruitless at times, yet they clung to their honest convictions and gave the best there was in them. I sincerely hope that what we have gained by their work will be added to by each one of us and that we can all do our bit to bring this organization to a state of greater perfection.

There is Invariably a period of lull in the development of every association and there is no exception with this one. Perhaps in the past we have been a little too conservative, but thanks to some of our newer members, we have taken on new life and we are on our way to a complete recovery, and when I tell you that the honey industry of Wisconsin ranks among the first ten, all things considered, you may well judge the situation for yourself.

I am pleased to note that at the opening of this meeting, our membership had mounted to 783 and is still going up. The county organizations are all getting stronger and their demands for the aid from the state have been coming in numbers. This is largely due to the fact that the beekeeper has at last come to realize that the bee business is one in he cannot go single handed to a success. His co-workers are socially incline d at times, so much so that they will at times visit their neighbors in large numbers and really forget their manners by breaking the seventh commandment of God. Now\ this is not so bad, but every beekeeper knows they frequently bring other things home with them which do not spell honey, but bring grief and disaster instead. We now realize that unless Mr. Neighbor Beekeeper is brought under control, as well as ourselves, destruction will be the next visitor. It is this that has brought every beekeeper to his knees, first asking, now’ demanding, that they, too, be brought under control, in order that they may all survive. Think you, beekeepers, what it w’ould mean if all of the affected area were cleaned up and kept that way.

This is exactly what your officers have had in mind for the past few years, knowing full well what should be done, but they could only move at a snail’s pace for want of money to defray expenses.

At the last annual meeting your board voted to ask for an appropriation of $15,000.00 for two years to place the work of cleaning up badly affected areas on a good footing. After a vigorous and hard-fought campaign with members of both houses and the governor, first by letter, then by personal appeals of your secretary and myself, we finally secured $21,000.00 for two years. This will enable us to make a very good showing, although not as good as we expected.

The main issue with our governor was the curtailment of the expenses, but when we w’ere able to show how the beekeeper had suffered and that the number of colonies in the state had been reduced from 105,000 swarms in 1915 to 47,000 swarms in 1920 and honey production in like proportion, there was no room for doubt as to necessity for some assistance. We were able to show that, had we been given the same assistance as other lines of agriculture received, we would have increased at the rate of 10% a year or would be producing 100 million pounds in this state, thereby ranking far ahead of all others. I am satisfied that our friends at Madison quickly saw the great loss in taxible property as well and they may well consider this angle, for it is an important one.

Why should not our bees be given the same protection as is given to cattle, horses, swine and sheep? We have not asked for reimbursement of loss by condemnation through inspections, but we do demand that we be given the aid to successfully carry on a legitimate enterprise of the state.

It has long been a recognized fact by food specialists that nowhere can you find a food so highly concentrated and so absolutely pure as honey, but this knowledge has been a dormant factor as far as the consumer in general is concerned. Honey has been used to a large extent in a medicinal way, but is looked upon as a luxury by the layman, while in reality it is an uncommonly good food.

Here we are assembled with stores of knowledge concerning a food for which our bodies crave, yet it is only in the last year or two that any real attempt has been made to get this knowledge spread before the public in general.

Now, then, what have we been doing of late to get the consumer out of this notion and old way of thinking? Many things, of which the two most pronounced are, creating consuming markets and better production simultaneously. The consumption being handled by national and state organizations through strong advertising mediums, while the production is looked after by the state organization. The two, however, are so closely allied that oftentimes they lap over into one another. Production should lead; therefore, protection to the producer must be animated.

I was very sorry indeed that I could not attend the Chippewa Falls meeting in August, but have been told by members attending that you had a very successful meeting. This is the one time where business and pleasure can be mixed. I am told our next Chautauqua will be held in Green Bay next year, and while I have the opportunity I want to repeat what my townspeople have already told you: “Come over to the ‘Pride of the North,’ Green Bay.” What we might lack in some things we will try to make up in others and see that you at least get a fair shake.

The program as outlined for tha coming winter schools has been given a great deal of attent.on and clearly denotes that a great deal of benefit is going to be derived from our university staff in beekeeping. Every organization in the state must of necessity see that a fine attendance is brought out at their respective meetings, for in these meetings lies the success of the industry, both state and national, and, as stated before, I am convinced that the beekeeper can no longer feel himself above master of the situation.

In closing, I want to caution every county organization to be very careful in making purchases of supplies, as nothing but the best of material can bring a satisfactory success.

L. C. Jorgenson.

Note correction—F. F. Stelling instead of S. F. Stelling, president. Our New Officers

With the exception of the treasurer, Mr. Aeppler, we have an entire new set of officers for 1922, and it behooves us all to get in behind them to build up a bigger and better association. No matter how hard our officers may work, they can do nothing unless the beekeepers co-operate with them both financially and otherwise.

Probably more trials and tribulations fall upon the secretary than on any other officer and it is only those of you who were able to attend the conventions of the past few years that are acquainted with the new secretary. We take the liberty of inserting a picture of her at work among her bees.

The new secretary believes that the enrollment for the state association should be 2000 and she asks every beekeeper to help in building up to 1000 for 1922.

Have you sent in your subscription for 1922? Will you help the secretary and the state association by sending in at leaBt one new member?

In the March issue we will give a list of all the local associations with the number of state members in each.

Mr. R. J. Martins, Vinita, RFD 2, Oklahoma, has 100 colonies of bees which he would like to move into northern Wisconsin this spring. Any Wisconsin beekeeper who would like to go into partnership with him should write this office.


At the annual meeting of the Fox River Valley Beekeepers’ Association held on December 3, 1921, at Appleton, a resolution was passed requesting you to take charge of this work.

Whereas: There iB still some unripe honey being marketed by some beekeepers, and

Whereas: This practice is unfair and very harmful to the industry.

Therefore, Be it resolved that Professor H. F. Wilson be requested to conduct experiments to determine how long honey must be left on the hives with the bees so that the honey will weigh twelve pounds to the measured liquid gallon. Also to record the amount of moisture in honey that is just sealed by the bees. The same a week later, again two weeks later, again a month later, again six weeks later. General conditions of colonies and weather conditions to be recorded in conjunction with the experiments. Samples of each experiment to be reserved and watched to see if moisture separates and comes to the top of the container. By submitting samples to determine if there is a marked difference in the flavor in connection with the degree of ripeness. Results to be published.

Respectfully submitted,

(Signed) Edward Hassinger, Jr., Secretary-Treasurer.

In this connection beekeepers of the state are urged to send in samples of honey from all parts of the state so that a survey can be made. Please label carefully and give source of nectar.


At the last session of the West Virginia legislature a bee enthusiast introduced an apiary inspection bill which he succeeded in getting passed before it was given careful consideration. Section 3-a of the bill provided that no honey could be sold in the state unless it bore an inspection certificate showing that the apiary from which it came was free from contagious bee diseases.

As it was obvious that this would prevent the sale of any commercial bottled honey in the grocery stores of West Virginia and would tie up large quantities of honey produced by apiaries with only a slight infection, the undersigned recently sent an inquiry to Mr. M. K. Malsolm, the state apiarist of West Virginia, regarding its enforcement. A reply has recently been received stating that the author of the bill was too enthusiastic and that this particular section is not being enforced. The state apiarist will ask for its repeal at the next session of the legislature.

Where bee disease is being distributed by the sales of honey from infected yards as it is in Wisconsin, a requirement somewhat along this line is often suggested. No one has yet discovered a practical way of enforcing it, however, and for the present we shall all have to protect ourselves as best we can against losses incurred by the throwing out of containers of infected honey.       S. B. Fracker.


By W. T. Sherman

My subject of better marketing was brought to my attention by a conversation had with one of the large exhibitors at the state fair, and also by reports of low sales that came to me. and by the advertised offer to fill even any small order by mail at prices that must leave the producer nothing on which to build a future business. My experience has been that any business to succeed must be compensating to a degree that all expenses be met. the owners of the business to have salary enough to give inspiration for better efforts. Then let us make the business of beekeeping a hobby, and keep the vision of our ideal far ahead or high enough up so we will be continually striving for “better markets;” also to be a better beekeeper.

In talking with this large exhibitor at the state fair he said: “We should put the price of our product, honey, down so the poorer people could buy.” I have since then thought about this a great deal and must frankly say I wonder why? Shall we lower the standard of honey in the minds of the medium and wealthier class of people that a very few of the poorer class m.'ght buy? I believe we have been going in the wrong direction long enough, for the class of people who buy a large part of our honey recognize it as a high-grade article of food which should very reasonably command a good price. The poorer class of people largely make their comparisons by the cost price rather than by the extremes in quality. Take a pail of Karo Corn syrup and a pail of any of our white honies and almost anyone will tell you there iB no comparison as to quality—the honey is so far above as to be in a separate class: and yet, please tell me why there are

Bees Bees Bees



For particulars write Geo. S. Hall Plainfield. Wis.


One thousand choice three-frame nuclei, pure-bred Italians. By express. April 15 und after as you wish. $7.00 f. o. b. shipping point. Queens during May. $1.50 ii'ch, by mail. Safe arrival and satisfaction guaranteed. One-half cash with order. H. L. McMlRRY, MADISON. WIS.

Box No. 30. some who claim to beekeepers who will advertise to sell, and some even spend their time in peddling this product of their labors in competition with Karo corn syrup? Have not these people pulled down their standard of an ideal, and are they not lowering the standard of value of honey? Who as a class are largely responsible for keeping the movie shows going? Is it not the poorer class, and ones who might use their limited amount of money to far better purposes. Would we not be doing ourselves, as well as all other classes of people who possibly might think honey too high, a good turn by bringing to them advertising in such a convincing way that they will see the wide difference in qualities of cheap syrups, as compared to the delicious and also health-giving qualities of our honeys? I believe this may be done to such a point that we shall need to produce more honey to meet the demand, and at a price that shall pay us for our labor and have a margin to build a better business on.

I feel certain that to lower the price of honey to such a level as offered by some would be to lower its value to such an extent that the wealthier class would largely say, “Well, if the honey is worth no more than that I might as well buy any cheap sweet and one that is easier to secure.

In engaging in the bee business I have read nearly all the literature on the subject of beekeeping, and have endeavored to pick out and use such methods of the best and most successful beekeepers as I could, always believing our business capable of being lifted up to a much higher plane of prosperity and usefulness; and must we not strive by helpful articles in our journals and by the companionship of our co-operative societies to elevate the standard of our ideals of our brother beekeepers.

I believe those beekeepers who have drifted down to the bottom in a business way are the present great detriment to better marketing.

Better business people are quick to recognize sound business principles in anyone, and to go to a beekeeper to buy some honey and have him quote a price that will make the people wonder why, will cause them to think something is wrong with the business or the honey. Shall we not be helping to create a better market for our honey by boosting our co-operative society, by helping these societies with all the advertising they can afford to put out, and by local advertising in our country papers. Not just to advertise to sell honey for a lower price than someone else, but to bring out its desirable qualities, make peo-


Dec. 7 To A. C. Allen........................................................................$ 179.12

“   18 By Mrs. Hildreth............................................................. $

“   18 By Mrs. Hildreth

18 By The Print Shop

“   18 By Dem. Print Co

“   18 By Dem. Print Co

Jan. 10 By R. R. Runke

“   10 To A. C. Allen....................................................................... 300.00

“   31 By Mrs. Hildreth

Feb. 5 To H. F. Wilson................................................................... 409.50

“    7 By H. F. Wilson

“    7 By Sec. Hort. Soc................................................................. 320.00

“   26 By H. F. Wilson

“   26 Mrs. Hildreth

“   26 By Wise. Hort

Mar. 21 By Wise. Hort

Apr.  2 By Wise. Hort

“    7 By Mrs. Hildreth

“   18 By Wise. Hort

May  5 By Mrs. Hildreth

“    5 By Wise. Hort

“   25 By Wise. Hort

“   28 By Mrs. Hildreth

June  8 By Mrs. M. White

July  2 By Mrs. Hildreth

“   22 To H. F. Wilson.................................................................... 224.00

"   23 By Wise. Hort

“   23 By H. F. Wilson

“   23 By H. F. Wilson

Aug.  1 By Mrs. Hildreth

“   13 By Blied Printing Company

“   31 By Mrs. Hildreth

Oct.  15 By Mrs. Hildreth

“   17 By H. F. Wilson

11 To H. F. W.lson

Nov.  9 By Mrs. Hildreth

I)?c.  2 By Mrs. Hildreth

pie really believe it is good and healthful to eat. and they will order first and pay second rather than asking to know the price first. Then better marketing must mean Better Beekeepers, Better Methods, and Better Business Ideals.


Milwaukee, Dec. 8-9, 1921.

Counties represented, 22. Total number of colonies represented, 3,373.






age per

Milwaukee .......




Waukesha .......




Dane .................

......... 7



Dodge ...............

......... 7



Sheboygan .......

......... 5



Ozaukee ..........

..... 4



Jefferson .........

......... 4



Brown ...............

......... 3



Washington .....

......... 3



Average per person, 51.


Illinois ...................... 3

Ohio............................ 1


A. M.

Thursday. Dec. 8  85

Friday, Dec. 9    110


Balance on hand

$ 905.68

$ 221.94



Fond du Lac.......

....... 3



Green ................

....... 2



Outagamie .........




Sauk .................

....... 2




....... 2



Crawford ...........




Manitowoc .........

....... 2



Racine ...............

....... 1



Richland ............

....... 1



Iowa .................

....... 1



Kenosha .............

....... 1



Price ..................

....... 1



Douglas .............

....... 1






P. M. Evening

140    108



James Gwin, Gotham, Wis.

A progressive beekeeper has always two important things in view: first, control with an aim to eradicate foul brood; second, disposing of his or her yearly product.

The beekeepers and the state have spent wisely much time and money on the foul brood plague, while the way of selling the honey has been badly neglected. Foul brood allowed in a yard for a number of years is a very bad advertisement for the sale of your honey.

As we ride along our national, state and county highways our attention is frequently called to large bulletin boards, advertising cigarettes, cigars, chewing tobacco, patent medicines, etc. As we pass by a well-maintained farm we see fastened to the fence or gate post tin placards advertising the American Fence Co., or Apex fencing, or this farm is equipped w’ith a Sharpies milking machine and other advertisements of this kind.

Now, my fellow beekeepers, how many miles will you travel before you will see this advertisement: “Honey for sale?” How many grocery stores will you enter before you see this placard: "Eat more good honey?"

The Richland County Beekeepers’ Association expects next season to purchase one hundred or more placards 12x15 inches with this attractive lettering:



Richland County Beekeepers’ Association

These placards will be sold or given to the members, whose duty it will be to see that one is posted in every business house in the county. The thing we aim to do is to convince the consuming public that we have an article for sale of which we are not ashamed.

It would be profitable if every beekeeper would keep a mailing list. When he takes off his first crop of honey have printed leaflets or post cards ready to send to his regular customers telling the kind, quality and price of his product. The quality must never be exaggerated. You will be surprised at the number of sales you will make by this plan, for we show in this way that we have a personal interest in our customers.

Gwin’s Apiary and Poultry Yards is located on Nos. 11 and 60 State Trunk Highway. A bulletin board 6x10 feet is being constructed. On top of this board, and separated from it by a two-inch space, is a board ten inches w de and full length of the main board. Upon this is printed in large letters "EAT MORE GOOD HONEY.”


Gwin’s Apiary and Poultry Yards. Extracted honey guaranteed pure.

SINGLE COMB WHITE LEGHORNS Heavy winter laying strain.

Jas. Gwin             Gotha tn, Wis.

FOR SALE Any Article.

You will note, ladies and gentlemen, that I have through these ways of advertising emphasized the word “GOOD" honey. And right here let me take the liberty to say: the consuming public would eat nearly double the amount of honey if they were sold good honey instead of the "trash" they buy.

Every beekeeper should have letterhead stationery. It need not be expensive. It should indicate honesty and quality. I received an offer from a Madison firm of twenty-five cents per pound for a ton of 1920 crop of honey. I had written to one of their employes. Honey was not mentioned in the letter. Both firm and employe were strangers to me. This inquiry was taken from a letter head.

Our newspaper advertising is badly neglected. If we were to have a beekeepers’ meeting the editor will advertise it gratis. He will give us almost unlimited space for an article on the subject of “Honey as a food," for such an article is a benefit to the public. These liberalities should draw the publisher a few advertisements. If we expect the press to help us, and we cannot get along without it in this advertising campaign, we must give some compensation. All work and no pay makes an editor a bad boy.

If you have a successful way of advertising do not discard it. Add other ways to it. I am not unmindful of the fact that there are those present who will say, “I have no trouble selling my honey.” Neither do I. That is not the point. The consuming pubic should and would eat double, yes. triple the amount they do, and at a higher price, if they knew that honey was a necessity instead of a luxury.

Ladies and gentlemen. I have given you just a few of the many ways of informing the consuming public that you have honey for sale. My subject is advertising and there is only one way in a broad sense to advertise honey. That is by good, thorough, honest education of the food value of honey. I do not believe my statement will be challenged when I say: that ninety-eight per cent of the people of Wisconsin do not know’ the value of honey as a food, and why? Because they never have learned its value. People will buy the things they know to be valuable. The time should not be far off when the prices of eatables will be based upon their respective food values. That is when honey will come into its own. I know* of fairsized families who are satisfied with twro ten-pound pails of honey as a yearly supply, when they should use at least two sixty-pound cans. How. then, shall we go at this educational work? "Charity begins at home." The beekeeper must first learn for himself, then go forth spreading the gospel of honey. I do not mean to burden the secretary of the state bee keepers’ association, but I believe he will make a great stride for the good if he will write an article on the subject of honey as a food and caus j the same to be printed in every newspaper in the state. This work could be done through the affiliated associations or in any other way most desirable tu him.

This convention should pass a reso lution requesting the Extension Dh-partment of the State University to put on the Farmers' Institute fore-someone who will present the subject of honey as a food, and the value of bees to agriculture and horticulture.

Every county fair should have a honey and bee exhibit, patterned after our state fair exhibits. Quantities of honey should be on sale, but we must not lose sight of the educational work. A few minutes' talk should be given every hour on the subject of honey as a food. Exhibitors should do their utmost to get everyone present to view the display. Be very courteous, explaining the workings of the bees in the observation hive. Get them interested, but do not expect everyone to buy a sixty-pound can of honey. At this fair is an ideal place to post your placards. It is an ideal place to swell your mailing list. It is an ideal place to use all your forms of advertising and get acquainted; but do not forget to talk honey.

This advertising campaign should be followed all the year. You will say:   “But I have sold my entire

crop.” That is where the selling trouble comes in. You will sell your entire crop within three months after it is produced, while honey should be consumed all the year. Each beekeeper should carry over a few hundred pounds to hold his home customers. If this advertising campaign is to do you any good you must hold your trade. You cannot be sure of this trade if you are out of the goods nine months in the year.

The last and most important phase of “Advertising" is “Honesty." Sell only the article you represent. Get the confidence of the people. Avoid emotional advertising. Avoid running down your competitor and his business. Those th’ngs get you nowhere. Make your customer satisfied, if he is worthy of satisfaction. It will do no harm to give overweight ; but "DON’T” cut your prices.


Devoted to the Interests of The Wisconsin State Beekeepers’ Association H. F. Wilson, Editor


Pres. F. F. Stelling, Reedsville.        Treas. C. W. Aeppler, Oconomowoc.

Vice-Pres. Conrad Kruse, Loganville. Secy. Mallitta F. Hildreth, Madison.

Annual Membership Fee $1.00.

Remit to M. F. Hildreth, Secretary, Madison, Wis.


From Neglected Bees to Profit

Mr. Chairman, Ladies and Gentlemen, Fellow Beekeepers:

Were I to tell you that I began as a beekeeper when but one year of age you would smile. Such is the case, however. When I was one year old, my great-grandfather gave me a ten dollar bill for a birthday present. 1 was, of course, too young to appreciate it, at that time. My father, hoping to raise a sweet boy, invested my ten dollars in two colonies of bees and became a beekeeper so as to produce his family supply of honey, and not be obliged to purchase it from neighbor beekeepers. jected to the prank I played upon them so much that I was unable to remove it; a fish pole would not allow me to get near enough to scratch the dirt away from in front of the hive. This happened in the month of June, because my father, like old beekeepers, with old beekeeping methods, was constantly on the lookout for swarms; he was looking the yard over, as was his custom before going in to dinner, and discovered the stopped hive. I had a brother and sister, big enough to get into mischief, but as soon as my father found the plugged hive he looked me up and ordered the dirt removed, which I did on my hands and knees. I completed the task without being stung, but when I think about it now, I believe I would rather have been stung than to have met Dad that noon hour in the proverbial woodshed.

My father’s interest in bees increased until he at times had upwards of a hundred and fifty colonies. I was enough interested in bees to be with him a lot of the time when he handled or worked with them. He told me a great deal about the bees, and answered my childish questions as best he could, and to my satisfaction. When large enough he let me help him where I could.

My close study of bees began when three one-day beekeeping schools were held in Dodge County, at which time a speaker from the Department of Beekeeping at the College of Agriculture discussed modern scientific beekeeping methods. It was plain to be seen that my father was a keeper of bees and not a beekeeper, viewed from the light of modern, up-to-date beekeeping methods, as explained at these meetings. Our county association was organized April 23. 1920. We further held six monthly meetings at the apiary of some interested beekeeper in as many sections of the county during the summer. A two-day school was held last winter. I attended all these meetings as Secretary of the Association and since seasonal topics in beekeeping were discussed at all these meetings a full year’s work in modern beekeeping methods was covered. These meetings, supplemented with extensive reading of modern beekeeping literature. 

gave me sufficient confidence to venture forth as an amateur beekeeper.

My father’s active interest in bees grew less and less until but five colonies remained. These few colonies had been completely neglected for the three last summers and two winters. About May 15th I examined the colonies for foul brood, found them clean, and decided they were worth buying modern equipment for, if Dad would give me the bees.

On Decoration Day the frames and bees were transferred to modern hives, and I thus became the owner of the five colonies—descendants of the original purchase made with my ten dollar bill thirty years ago. Four of the five colonies showed wax moths had been present in the brood frames. These were united to make two colonies by putting one hive body above the other with a perforated newspaper between. This was done after dark. The next morning the bees were united and what remained of the paper was removed. Two supers were then put on. Supers were added from time to time as needed, it being my practice to get them on as soon as they began working in the last one put on to prevent swarming. In this I was successful. When adding the first super I lifted a frame of brood into it to draw up the bees, immediately, other supers added were always placed between two supers in which the bees were busy. All frames were carefully wired, the two top wires being crossed, and full sheets of medium brood foundation were used.

In August the old brood frames were placed on top so as to allow the bees to prepare their winter quarters in new brood frames of worker comb, thus prevent drone rearing next season.

A record of production was kept on the three colonies with the following results: Colony No. 1 produced 239 pounds of surplus honey: Colony No. 2 116 pounds of surplus honey; and Colony No. 3 110 pounds of surplus honey. This was an average of 155 pounds per colony. Colonies No. 2 and 3 when united had brood combs showing damage by wax moths. All surplus honey had to be stored in combs first drawn out by the bees.

These colonies are being wintered out of doors, with dry stover as a packing material. The hives with covers removed were placed together. Tar paper was used to line the packing case as well as to cover the hives. The finely chopped silage was firmly packed between the two layers of tar paper. The colonies are being wintered in two hive bodies with about fifty pounds of honey to the colony.

The total cost of equipment was $43.00. Ninety-three five-pound pails of honey were sold at $1.10 per pail, or $102.30.

The inventory today consists of three strong colonies of bees, each hived in two hive bodies of sixteen frames each ; six supers ; and fifty frames of drawn worker comb. This equipment is worth at least what was expended in time and equipment the past year. Thus three colonies of neglected bees with such care as an amateur can give yielded a neat profit in a lean honey year.

The Bee-Tight Honey House and Other Popular Fallacies By S. B. Fracker, State Entomologist.

A letter which came to the office the other day told a story something like this: “Called on Mr. S. yesterday and found he had had American foulbrood in his yard of 55 colonies last spring. When he had treated the bees he carefully stored the honey in his ‘bee-tight’ honey house until he could finish the pressing spring farm work. One day his sister looked out of the window, wondered what the bees were doing and discovered the whole bee-yard had found the supply of infected honey in the old supers. They were busy going in through the keyhole and out through the bee escapes on the windows, carrying the honey out and distributing it through the apiary. That evening they found the combs in the beehouse almost empty of the diseased honey and soon every one of his treated colonies was diseased.”

In spite of our knowing good control measures, experienced beekeepers are having many troubles similar to the story told in this letter. The persistence of disease in large apiaries is so marked and its permanent elimination so difficult that Mr. McMurry remarked to me in October, “In all my work in Wisconsin I cannot recall a single apiary which has eradicated an American foulbrood infection and come entirely clean, by treating the infested colonies." At the time I could not remind him of a successful case but the statement was so striking that I have since gone through the inspection records to find out whether the shaking treatment is resulting in the eradication of disease.

In four counties we have the foulbrood record since 1918 of 163 infected apiaries in which we know the control method employed by the beekeeper. Of these, 64 applied the shaking treatment while 99 destroyed their infected colonies, repeating as often as necessary. Among those who treated the diseased colonies about one-half (27) had yards free from foulbrood at the 1921 inspection, showing that the others spread disease during treatment or stored infected material where the bees had access to it. Among the beekeepers who destroyed the infested colonies, only one-fourth still had disease in their yards this year.

Over large areas the difference in result is great. In only one county could we say that the beekeepers have failed in their attempt to control foulbrood. That is a county which insists on treating infected colonies, and judging from the records the beemen of that county will still be “shaking bees” long after their neighbors have forgotten such disagreeable topics as bee diseases.

The purpose of this paper is to discuss some of the reasons why there are so many beekeepers, 59 in the counties just referred to, who treat or destroy their diseased bees but have been unable to eradicate the disease. If we were to publish this list of 59 you would be astonished at the many familiar names. Of all those who have failed to eliminate infection in three seasons, only two own less than ten colonies of bees and most of the yards are from thirty to one hundred colonies in size. They are not careless bee owners, but are uniformly the progressive, hard working commercial honey-producers of which associations like this are composed.

We all remember the details of the various treatments for American foulbrood and there is not a beekeeper in the audience who cannot take printed directions (if he does not know them already) and treat a colony of bees successfully. But that isn’t eliminating disease from any apiary—not by many a weary season. At least the unlucky 59 will tell you it isn’t.

There are only three things we forget when we fail to control foulbrood and none of them is given in the printed directions :

First: the fact that bees seek honey everywhere.

Second: the size of the bee.

Third: the size of the germ which causes American foulbrood and which lives indefinitely in honey from a diseased colony.

All three are “first reader” facts in apiculture, but several thousand commercial beekeepers may well be uneasy about their 1922 profits because they neglected these three little facts in 1919 and 1920 and 1921. The only thing they need not worry about while Bacillus larvae makes his home in their honey houses is the income tax!

In other words treating the infected colony is only the first step toward eliminating disease. To illustrate:

Not long ago an inspector went to look into a case in which repeated treating had not succeeded in freeing the apiary from disease. After talking things over with the owner, they went into the honey house where it was admitted a large supply of honey and comb from infected colonies was sometimes stored. As usual the beekeeper was sure his honey house was tight, although he was unable to explain the presence of so many bees. A careful search revealed the fact that the bees were making regular trips between the apiary and the honey house, entering through a crack in the cement floor and leaving whenever the door was opened.

Not long ago an old German beekeeper was observed sitting motionless on an empty hive eyeing his beehouse closely and puffing his pipe. When there appeared to be no sign of life in his figure, a friend came up and inquired what he was thinking about. It developed that the building was full of bees and he was trying to see how they were getting in. The storage room had arrangements for heating and it was later discovered that the pipe offered so large an entrance that a good size honey crop could all have been removed by the bees in a short time if they had found as convenient an exit.

In some cases there is a missing window pane in the beehouse or a half-inch crack in the siding. Even if the building itself is tight, enough bees can come in with the proprietor as he carries supplies back and forth to cause all sorts of trouble. The placing of a few bee escapes in the corners of the windows is a common arrangement and a good one in the absence of disease.

In the office we have a proverb which is the basis of one of the ten commandments of foulbrood control. It is, “There is no bee-tight honey house.” Even if we should equip one with a vestibule, arranged so the inner door could not be opened unless the outer one was closed, we should probably neglect an entrance somewhere large enough to admit a cat. to say nothing of a few bees.

The storage of infected material in the honey house is one of the largest factors in maintaining diseased yards. It provides a source of continuous infection as serious as keeping the carcass of a cholera killed hog in the barn, or tying a mad dog with a string. As long as diseased honey exists anywhere it is a menace to every apiary within reach.

Permitting old comb on which colonies have died to remain outdoors for months is another common form of criminal carelessness. Sometimes the owners are members of beekeepers’ societies, readers of bee journals, so experienced in bee disease control that they had treated infected colonies annually for from five to thirty years. This past summer inspectors have cleaned up four such cases, including hundreds of hives and thousands of frames and extracting combs. Every week the rain would soak up a few scales of American foulbrood in the old comb and a few stray bees attracted by the odor would carry a bacillus or two to a formerly healthy colony. Every year some neighbor would try to “keep a hive of bees or two” and would soon give it up “because they didn’t do well.”

It would be interesting to take a vote of the readers of this paper and ask, “How many have infected material stored in a ‘bee-tight’honey house?” “How many have fragments of old comb in the old weathered hives behind the barn?” “How many last August had hives containing infected comb piled in the woodshed, standing beetight until Johnny came in one day and pushed over the pile?”

If we want to reduce taxes, as we all do, let us first cut off the toll we are all paying to the foulbrood germ, Bacillus larvae. Twenty-seven commercial beekeepers have stopped the payment of that tax in four Wisconsin counties by carefully treating the bees and destroying infested material. Forty-seven have accomplished the same result by destroying both infected bees and material. But fifty-nine real honey producers are still paying that same tax in those same counties because of the points that are forgotten when treatment is applied, namely (1) that bees like infected honey if they can reach it, (2) that they can crawl through a space a quarter of an inch across, or (3) that the cause of disease is a germ which may be lurking in the most microscopic drops of honey.

Just a word in conclusion in the way of a progress report. The spotted, one-county area campaigns are beginning to take a coherent form. At present we are covering the entire eastern part of the state from Milwaukee and Madison to upper Michigan except Ozaukee and Washington counties. Six counties in this area seem to have no American foulbrood at the present time and five more have only an occasional colony showing disease. In the remainder, where losses from American foulbrood approached the nature of a conflagration three years ago, the problem has reduced itself to one of discovering and putting out the remaining sparks. The one exception is Dane county in which the results are uniformly unsatisfactory.

Eradicating the last cases is proving a difficult task. When only one colony in two hundred is infected, locating and cleaning it up without causing new infections requires careful work. The beekeepers everywhere are giving excellent support—particularly the one-colony “bee-owners” — and the unpleasant reception inspectors used to meet from irate housewives has become a rare occurrence.

In Fond du Lac and Dodge counties work was begun this year and plenty of infections (472 colonies) found. In Dodge County two-thirds of all the inspected yards showed American foulbrood. Neither county was completely covered even once but will be finished next season.

The older clean up areas are still showing a few cases of disease but they are destroyed as fast as discovered. In Jefferson county such was the fate this year of 3 per cent of the colonies inspected. Some other counties showed the following percents: Langlade 2’j per cent, Sheboygan 5 per cent. Marathon -V, per cent, Winnebago 3 per cent, Milwaukee 4 per cent.

In all the counties named only the infected parts were surveyed and the percentages would be much lower if we included all the bees in the county. Over 10 per cent of the colonies in the vicinity of Madison and Stoughton are still diseased, but less than 2 per cent of the total number in the county.

Of course the last traces of disease will be hard to find and will require persistence to eradicate. But with the energetic work of the honey producers American foulbrood is sure to become more and more uncommon and I do not believe it is too much to say that it may even disappear.

Note from Texas Honey Producer

At the annual meeting of the Texas Honey Producers’ Association, the members voted to continue paying an advertising tax of one cent per colony for the purpose of advertising Texas honey. "Why cannot some arrangement be made in Wisconsin whereby the members of the State Association could do the same? In this way a means could be provided for advertising and to secure a better distribution throughout the state.

A note from the same publication will indicate to the Wisconsin producers what to expect from the honey market.

Note that they are selling for eight and one-half cents a pound for the light amber grades and the darker honey is not selling at any price. (Some honey is moving in Wisconsin but a great deal more could be made to move if there was a proper means of distribution available.)


In traveling over the state we find most sections short of comb honey. Of course there is always a shortage of fancy comb honey, but if you have Wisconsin No. 1 the Secretary of the co-operative association can quickly put you in touch with some grocer who is just as anxious to buy as you are to sell. If they do not find you they will be buying the western honey, with high freight charges added to the cost.

The big crop of honey gathered by the bees in Milwaukee County this year came as usual largely from sweet clover. Only one or two farmers as yet are sowing it for pasture and hay but they are enthusiastic about it.

The State Fair for 1922

A new season will soon be here and our beekeepers should start thinking about exhibits now. Wisconsin has one of the best and perhaps the largest premium list for bees and honey given in any state. During the past two or three years, the “Honey and Bee Exhibit” at the State Fair has become a big unit in the State Fair.

We have for a long time had some pictures on hand but have not had space to show them. We include a picture of the exhibit in this issue.


Official Organ of The State Beekeepers Association

Supplement to WISCONSIN HORTICULTURE, April 1922

The State Fair for 1922

Have you made your plans for an exhibit? If not, write at once to Mr. Dittmer for space.


The fourth annual Beekeepers’ Field Meet to be held by the University Bee Department and the State Association cooperating will be held at Green Bay, Wisconsin during the third week in August. We will look for you.

A new bulletin on “Winter Care of Bees in Wisconsin,” by II. F. Wilson has just been issued by the Wisconsin Agricultural Experiment Station.

The American Honey Producers’ League

Your editor believes that every beekeeper in America should belong to this organization and give it his active as well as moral support. Very few of our beekeepers are acquainted with the work the League is doing, or of the great amount of good which the League can do for the beekeeping industry at large. An abstracted copy of the proceedings of the League meeting has been sent to our office, and we feel that these proceedings are of sufficient importance to warrant their being printed in full.

Beekeeping can never be a big industry unless we have some kind of a national organization and that organization is now with us, if we will only help build it up by giving our financial support.

If every beekeeper in the United Stated would give two cents per colony for centralizing our advertising campaigns and other phases of the work, we would, at a very little cost, be able to make honey a staple household product within a few years. Read over the report and see what has been done during the past year.

try. Why not every one send in a dollar? Also count the number of your colonies and send in two cents for each one toward a state and national advertising campaign.               H. F. W.

The American League Meeting

Fifty-six delegates and members attended the Third Annual Meeting of the American Honey Producers League at Salt Lake City on January 30-31.

The report of the secretarytreasurer showing the following financial statement of the League was filed:


Balance on hand Sec’y Chas.

Balance on hand from 1920...   466.9;)

Receipts from State organizations since 1921 meeting:

Nebraska State Beekeepers’

Association.............. 100.00

Colo. Honey Producers Assn. 325.00 Washington State Beekeep

ers’ Assn................. 100.00

Kansas State Beekeepers’

Assn.................... 100.00

Texas Honey Producers

Assn.................... 791.00

Texas State Beekeepers’


Montana State Beekeepers’


Wisconsin State Beekeep

ers’ Assn

Iowa State Beekeepers’Assn. 100.00 New York State Beekeepers’


Oregon State Beekeepers’

Assn.................... 100.00

Illinois State Beekeepers’

Assn.................... 100.00

Receipts from Allied Trades:

A. I. Root Co............... 200.00

Dadant & Sons............. 200.00

Leahy Mfg. Co

Falconer Mfg. Co

Illinois Glass Co

National Can Co

W. W. Boyer & Co

Hamilton & Menderson.....

Virginia Can Co

Marshfield Mfg. Co

Receipts from Individuals:

E. B. Ault

Wm. Glatter

L. D. Leonard

Mrs. Mary G. Alley

J. M. Davis

Bruce Anderson

Will M. Kellogg

W. E. Woodruff

W. P. Southworth


Sale of Warning Posters....

Feb. 1, 1921 to Jan. 31, 1922

Total General Fund.. . .$3,431.63


Stenographers hire...........$ 828.33

Postage..................... 178.00

Printing, Bulletins, Stationery 372.70


P. O. Box Rent



Total .................$1,395.97

Balance in fund........$2,035.66

The Executive Committee employed the secretary at a salary of $2,400.00 per year for 1921 which salary has not been paid.

There not being a quorum of the members of the League present the president was instructed to carry on the work of the League pending a postal ballot for the election of new officers whose duty it will be to select a secretary for 1922.

Honey Grading Discussed

The first subject of general discussion was on the report of the Bureau of Standardization and Grades. Mr. F. Rauschfuss, chairman, had gone to considerable expense and labor in collecting from various parts of the country, full sets of grades as used in the different districts. More than thirty of these were shown and their great variation proved the need for a universally recognized standard grader. Papers bearing on this subject were presented by Arthur C. Miller and Dr. E. F. Phillips.

A committee was asked for to examine the various samples presented and to select from them a set that would most nearly harmonize the difference of various parts of the country. This committee was composed of F. W.

Wisconsin beekeeping

H. F. WILSON. Editor

Officers of The Wisconsin State Beekeepers Association

President.....................F. F. Stelling


Vice President.................<'on rad Kruse

I/ogan rille

Treasurer.....................(J. W. Aepp'.er


Secretary................ .Malitta F. Hildreth


Annual Membership Fee, $1.00

Remit to M. F. Hildreth, Secy., Madison, Wis.

Redfield, Thos. Changry, A. G. Anderson. C. H. Wiley and J. Skovbo. An auxiliary or advisory committee composed of H. H. Root, E. T. Atwater and E. G. LeStourgeon was requested to act with them. After a lengthy discussion it was decided to withhold any final action until the next meeting of the League and Mr. Rauschfuss was instructed to continue his investigation of the subject.

Bureau of Education Report

The Bureau of Education, Dr. J. H. Merrill, chairman, filed a full report showing the activities of state agricultural colleges and making recommendations for the furthering of the work. From data presented it was learned that there are only fifteen agricultural colleges in the United States in which beekeeping is not taught. Seventeen states have extension workers in beekeeping and nine experiment stations report experiments were being conducted in beekeeping subjects.

Legal Aid for Beekeepers

Mr. O. L. Hershiser, of the Legal Aid Bureau, filed a very complete report and resume of the cases handled. Several attempts had been made to pass city or village ordinances against beekeepers and were frustrated. It was through the agency of this committee that the notice or warning posters were printed by the I .eague and sold to members of the League to display in their apiaries. 'fen cases were recounted in which legal assistance and advice was given to members of the I .eague.

The committee made a strong recommendation that a new book on the legal rights of beekeepers be prepared and printed by the League. The cost of compiling and checking the various court decisions affecting beekeeping was estimated at $100.00, and a fund was quickly raised for the purpose, donations being made as follows :

Colorado Honey Producers Assn..$10.00

Kansas State Beekeepers Assn... 10.00 Utah Beekeepers Assn........... 10.00

Texas Honey Producers Assn.... 10.00 A. I. Root Co., (By H. H. Root).. 20.00 Dadant & Sons (By C. P. Dadant) 20.00 A. G. Anderson, Cedar City, Utah 10.00 J. F. Diemer, Liberty. Mo........ 5.00

R. A. Anderson, Rexburg, Idaho..  2.00

It was decided to get out the book in an an edition of five thousand copies to be sold by the League at 50 cents per copy so that every beekeeper may have a ready reference book in case of legal difficulty. The cost of publication is to be met by a call for popular subscription. Beekeepers are asked to mail donations to the League for this purpose. No more valuable work than this can possibly be done at this time.

Arbitration and Disputes

The Bureau of Arbitration. H.

The Transportation Problem

The need for a special committee on Transportation was emphasized by the members present. Many examples of excessive and unequal freight rates on honey were cited. It was determined to have the League establish a Bure 'u of Transportation and have someone working on this matter all the time to prepare and present data to ratemaking bodies. The incoming president is instructed to appoint such a committee.

Research Work in Beekeeping

The Bureau of Research, E. F. Phillips, chairman, acting with Dr. J. H. Merrill and H. F. Wil son. presented a full report of activities to date. The change in the needs of beekeeping owing to problems growing out of the war's aftermath were pointed out and emphasized. Investigations were made of the various national institutions and state experiment stations and a report made on their findings and activities. The committee made a number of definite and specific recommendations to the League and particularly called attention to the great value of the future of beekeeping in the establishment of the C. C. Miller Memorial Library.

Needed Legislation

The report of the Bureau of Legislation was presented by C. P. Campbell, chairman, and J. C. Henager. The first report covered the matter of tariff on honey. The committee was able to present the claims of beekeepers to Mr. Fordney in such a way as to secure the recommendation of a three cents per pound tariff on honey. This is a part of the bill now before Congress and has been favorably reported by the finance committee. The Senate committee has reported their bill increasing this duty to four cents per pound. The free conference committee will compromise these differences.

This committee has also been considering federal regulation of the interstate shipment of bees and used beekeeping appliances. The draft of a proposed law on this subject, written by Mr. S. B. Fracker, was presented to the meeting for consideration.

Dr. E. F. Phillips presented a paper on this subject pointing out the esential differences in the two types of prevalent brood diseases 


Supplement to WISCONSIN HORTICULTURE, April 1022

and making suggestions to the committee. He also discussed Isle of Wight disease and the danger of its introduction into this country through the importation of queens. Dr. Phillips was requested to appoint a committee of three entomologists, who are also beekeepers. to act in conjunction with a similar committee appointed by the American Association of Economic Entomologists to further study this matter and to take whatever action they deem necessary in the name of the League.

Advertising Honey Nationally

The Committee on Advertising.

  • C. F. Muth, chairman, made a report on the national advertising campaign and the distribution of the honey recipe booklets. The financial statement of this com

mittee was as follows:

Receipts from Organizations:

Michigan State Beekeepers

Assn....................$ 192.72

Wisconsin State Beekeepers

Assn...................... 100.00

Texas Honey Producers

Assn.................... 350.00

Utah State Beekeepers Assn. 300.00 Receipts from Allied Trades:

A. 1. Root Co............... 1,000.00

C. H. W. Weber............ 500.00

Dadant & Sons............. 300.00

Falconer Mfg. Co........... 200.00

Foster Honey & Merc. Co...  100.00

Hazel Atlas Glass Co.......  100.00

W. W. Boyer & Co.......... 100.00

Leahy Mfg. Co............. 100.00

Miller Box Co.............. 100.00

U. S. Can Co

Receipts from Individuals:

F. J. Rettig................ 100.00

J. J. Wilder

S. F. Lawrence

Ernest Kohn......

Colin P. Campbell

W. W. Foster

John Kneser

Receipts from sale of booklets 31.00



Paid Proctor & Collier Co.. .$4,166.77

Freight on booklets

Expressage on Adv. matter. 21.54

Standard Printing Co.......

Magazines distributed......

Postage on booklets........ 147.47 $4,374.63

Balance cash on hand..$ 229.45

Financial Condition Advertising Fund:


Cash on hand..................$229.45

Unpaid pledge Foster Honey & & Merc. Co

Unpaid pledge Elyria Enamelled Products Co................. 200.00

Unpaid pledge C. H. Wiley.....

Unpaid pledge Georgia State Beekeepers Asn............. 100.00

Unpaid pledge Michigan State Beekeepers Assn

Unpaid pledge Utah State Beekeepers Assn................ 200.00

Total Assets.............$836.73


Due Proctor & Collier Co.......$628.77

The report of the committee showed the enormous number of direct inquiries received from persons desirous of finding uses for honey and the wide distribution of the recipe books directly into the hands of housewives. A wonderful amount of extra advertising was given through notices of the League movement that continue to appear in trade and advertising journals. On so small an investment it is astonishing what a profound impression was created on the honey market.

The meeting went on record as endorsing the work done and urged that it be continued and extended. To this end plans were made for financing the work in future and the same committee will be asked to continue the administration of the fund and the placing of the advertising. This fund is to be kept separate from the general expense fund of the League and money contributed to it shall be used for no other purpose.

Plans for Raising Money

First: An appeal is to be made to supply manufacturers, dealers, honey bottlers and the manufacturers of containers to renew the pledges of last year and to make new pledges and contributions to this fund.

Second: Beekeepers everywhere are to be solicited to send in a tax of at least one cent per colony for this fund. Every beekeeper in America will be expected to con tribute. In states having a state beekeepers organization, the local association is asked to collect a tax of at least two cents per colony. In order to co-operate with the national advertising movement they are requested to expend half of this fund in the advertising of honey within their own state and to send the other half into the general advertising fund of the League.

Third: A label or seal is to be adopted by the League and honey bottlers, and merchants who are contributors to the fund may use this seal, at a very small cost, in order to identify themselves with the League. The right to use these seals, even at a fractional cost, will provide a permanent and increasing income for the national advertising fund.

The Committee on Advertising Seals did not make a formal report owing to the absence of the chairman, Mr. C. W. Aeppler, but a dozen or so drawings of proposed seals were presented. Dr. A. F. Bonney and Edward Hassinger, Jr., made some suggestions and presented a set of carefully executed labels. The president was authorized to obtain the report of this committee and to select a seal.

Plant Honey Producing Trees

The Committee on Tree Planting, H. L. McMurry, chairman, reported some progress in their effort to have nectar-bearing trees planted along highways. Favorable action has been secured by correspondence with other organized groups in various states who are interested in highway beautification and tree planting. An appeal was made for volunteers in this work from every state. A local committee is needed everywhere to co-operate with the national committee. Suggestions as to the variety of trees suitable for planting in the different states are also requested by Chairman McMurry.

Poison Sprays Injure Bees

The practice of spraying roadsides and vacant lots with arsenical and other poisons to kill weeds was taken up by this committee and an effort will be made to have such sprays carry in future some repellant that will keep bees from taking up the poison. This subject was also referred to the Bureau of Legislation for attention and investigation.

Dates of Beekeepers Meetings

The Committee on Meeting Schedules, H. F. Wilson, chairman, made a report of their work to date and presented schedules of state meetings for the period from July 1922 to February 1923. Many states have rendered aid and support in this movement. After these schedules become established it will make it possible for many outside speakers and visitors to attend meetings at less expense, thus increasing the attendance and interest at state meetings. To show the amount of work done by this committee it is interesting to know that 910 letters and circulars were mailed to the officers of our different state associations.

Interstate Co-operation

The Committee on Inter-societv Co-operation, L. D. Leonard, chairman, has been working along the line of co-operating with other agricultural, entomological, and farm organizations. In the absence of Dr. Leonard, no formal report was made but the committee was urged to continue wherever possible to assist other allied bodies and to especially co-operate with the Society of Economic Entomologists and such organizations as the Farm Bureau Federation and the State and National Horticultural Societies.

Types of Hives and Containers

The work of the Bureau of Standardization of Equipment, C. B. Baxter, chairman, was so broad that only a very little actual progress could be reported, but a great deal has been done to clear the way for future action. Mr. F. Rauschfuss reported that a dozen styles and types of hives are found by the committee to be in use as “standard” and more than three dozen kinds of frames. It was pointed out that beekeepers generally have to pay more for the hives they use because the manufacturers are put to the necessity of having to make all these different sizes and kinds. In tin honey containers, the same is true. The recommendation was made that only three to five tin containers should be used and then the factories could make lower prices on account of quantity production. In the matter of glass containers for honey more progress had been made and definite action will be expected of the League at the next meeting. The committee was ordered to continue its work and to make concrete recommendations as soon as possible.

Amendment to Constitution

The meeting went on record as being in favor of amending the constitution of the League so as to permit small state and regional associations having fewer than 100 members to affiliate with the League upon payment of $1.00 per member. The president was ordered to take a mail ballot on the following amendment:

That the words, “Provided, that the minimum fee for membership from any organization shall be $100.00” be stricken from Section 2 of Article II of the Constitution of the American Honey Producers League.

The president having served for two years asked that he be relieved and that a successor be selected. The term of office of B. F. Kindig. vice-president and F. B. Paddock, of the Executive Committee having expired a ballot was ordered taken by mail among the League membership to choose these three officers. Both these ballots have been mailed and the result will be announced as soon as received and tabulated.

A banquet was held at the Hotel Utah at 8 p. m. on January 31st. Many inspiring and optimistic speeches were made and much enthusiasm for the future of the League was shown. After recommending to the Executive Committee that St. Louis be chosen for the 1923 meeting of the League, the Third Annual Session adjourned sine die.

One Way of Saving

Brother beekeepers, do you realize what you are losing bv i; t buying your supplies through your association ? Every beekeeper in the state of Wisconsin can make a saving of from 15 to 25 per cent on bee supplies if he so desires. In other words, if you don’t buy through your local or state association you are losing $2 every time you buy $10 worth oi bee supplies. If you don’t believe it, write to the secretaries of the Fond du Lac and Milwaukee County Associations. They can tell you how they saved over $250 on buying $1200 worth of bee supplies. The saving in one order will more than pay your dues for a year.

Every beekeeper in Wisconsin should be a member of a local and the State Association. Why? For several reasons! First, for the good of the industry. Second, because of the strength which a large membership gives to any Association which is fighting for the welfare of those who depend upon the industry which it supports. If none of these have an appeal to the members of the beekeeping industry, then try them from the financial standpoint. The saving on one order when the members of an association send in together will more than pay the annual dues to both associations.

Each local association should acquaint its members with these facts and put on a drive to increase the membership in both the local and the state organizations. Buy co-operatively and sell cooperatively.

Everybody loves the “go-get ter.” Go get a member. You help yourself as well as the other fellow


Official Organ of The State Beekeepers Association

Supplement to WISCONSIN HORTICULTURE, May 1922

Wisconsin State Fair 1922

Have you made arrangements to put in an exhibit at the state fair? If not. write at once to Mr. Gus Dittmer, superintendent, Augusta, Wisconsin, for space. Date, Au-</>ist 28 t-o September 2, 1922.

Beekeepers’ Chautauqua and Conference

The fourth annual beekeepers’ chautauqua will be held at Green Bay. August 7th to 11th. The date of this conference was originally set for the third week in August, but it has been found desirable to change it to the second week. Make your preparations now to attend.

The Relation of Queens to Seasonal Management

G. H. Cole,

Of the Dadant Apiaries, Hamilton, 111.

In a general way, it is well known that a good queen is essential to the health, strength, and prosperity of a colony. However, an attempted analysis of the definite relation a queen has to success in the management of bees during the year may be of some value.

It is an axiom in beekeeping that, when other things are favorable, the amount of honey obtained from a surplus flow depends, to a large extent, upon the number and condition of the colonies of bees. Therefore, the object of all well directed manipulation previous to the honey flow is to have colonies overflowing with bees just as the flow begins. The effort to obtain this objective is begun in the fall in the preparation of the winter colony and it is at this time that the influence of the queen is especially noticeable. An inferior queen can now do much to defeat the beekeeper’s purposes.

The point has been frequently stressed that to become rapidly strong and prosperous in the spring the colony must contain numerous young, vigorous bees, just before the winter period begins. Colonies that are small in numbers or that have a large percentage of old bees suffer severely in the winter and may be quickly reduced to a critical condition. Such colonies begin brood rearing too soon, often in January or February, forcing the bees to expend their energy in maintaining an abnormally high temperature* Under these conditions colonies may die in winter or be so weak in spring that the queens cannot furnish brood with sufficient rapidity.

In the average strong winter colony there should be, at least, three or four pounds of bees, raised at about the same time from eggs laid as late as possible in the fall. Since the occurrence of killing frosts usually marks the end of brood rearing, the winter colony must be secured before this. Three to four frames of brood, Langstroth size, just previous to frost will insure the emergence of 15,000 to 20,000 young bees for winter, but this is an abnormal amount of brood for this time of year, requiring the use of queens which are at their prime in productiveness and activity.

Queens which have been laying one or more seasons rapidly slow down in their egg laying at the end of the season and stop brood rearing . early, especially where there is little nectar from fall flowers. They do not provide ideal winter colonies. The activity of young queens is just the opposite to this. They usually lay eggs continuously until frost, insuring an abundance of young bees.

The writer was once interested in an experiment which entailed the daily counting of the brood cells in eight colonies of bees and some of the results obtained well illustrate this difference in the behavior of queens at this time. Some of these colonies were headed by queens which had been in use some one or more seasons and others by young queens introduced in May, August, or September. On October 28th, an average of four frames of brood in all stages was found for the young queens and an average of one frame of sealed brood for the old queens. Colony 1, with a queen which began laying only 16 days before frost, had 3% frames of sealed brood on November 3rd. Colony 7, with a queen which began laying 6 weeks before frost, had still 336 eggs in cells on November 3rd Colonies 3 and 4, with queens introduced in May, previous to the honeyflow, had two frames of brood and no eggs on this date. The older queens had ceased egg laying long before and all of the cells were empty.

In this case, it can readily be seen that the colonies with the youngest queens were in the best shape for the winter in numbers of young bees. It could also be reasonably expected that, in the spring, these colonies would still have a maximum population sufficiently young and virile to push brood rearing activities rapidly forward.

When brood rearing is renewed in the spring, the difference in the behavior of young and old queens has been frequently noted. Here again, old or inferior queens do not serve our purposes. It is normal at this time of year for the colony to increase its adult population until the queen reaches the maximum of her capacity in egg laying. This point has been aptly called the peak of brood rearing and, from the standpoint of honey production, the occurrence of this peak is of extreme importance. For best results in the honeyflow, each colony must be built up to its greatest possible strength so quickly that most of the workers shall be young and vigorous when the flow begins.

Brood rearing usually starts moderately in March or April and



Wisconsin beekeeping

H. F. WIUSON. Editor

Officers of Tlie Wisconsin State Beekeepers Association

President.....................F. F. Stelling


Vice President.................Conrad Kruse


Treasurer.....................<’. W. Aeppler

Oc< noine.woc

Secretary.................Malitta F. Hildreth


Annual Membership Fee, $1.00

Remit to M. F. Hildreth, Secy., Madison, Wis.

increases steadily until the first of May or June. If we could accurately depict the behavior of queens during this period it would probably be something like the accompanying diagram. (Fig. 1)

Queens whose activity brings results of this sort are ideal but not all queens meet the requirements. A reduction in prolificness, due to age or inferiority, changes the picture materially. Brood rearing is then too moderate and protracted so that the peak of population comes too late.

Demuth has estimated the honey gathering population as five times normal or about 100,000 bees, a large majority of which should be reared in the month or six weeks preceding the flow. This means that 70,000 to 80,000 cells of brood must be present in the hive at about the same time. It means 2,500 to 3,000 eggs each day. This smacks of theory but the facts of experience show that these high requirements are actually met. Doolittle, whose word is well estimated among beekeepers, states that a good queen is one which will give us 3,000 to 4,000 eggs a day for a month previous to the honeyflow. Charles Dadant recorded the presence of 73,000 cells of brood filled in 21 days. In Maryland, with the honeyflow from the tulip tree due the tenth of May, the writer found colonies in the Government apiary with 14 Langstroth frames, or about 70,-000 cells of brood, on April 14th, four weeks before the flow. However, this was only from young queens introduced the previous fall. Brood in this amount, at one time, cannot be expected when a single Langstroth hive is used. These colonies were each occupying two 10 frame hive bodies.

A further experience to illustrate this point was furnished during the past season in the Dadant apiaries. We have a yard of 90 colonies, known as the Gillam yard, located on the East bluff of the Mississippi River, in reach of a large acreage of heart’s-ease and Spanish needle from which we obtain a fall flow. The colonies in this yard were largely headed by 1919 queens and, due to the pressure of other work, they were not requeened this year. The fall crop from the 90 colonies was 3% barrels of honey, or about 22 pounds per colony. Further down the bluff is the Spencer yard. This started the season with 65 colonies, also headed by old queens. The colonies were weak in spring and built up slowly, finally showing a bad infection with European foulbrood. We strengthened and requeened with young queens in June to clean up the disease, reducing the number of colonies to 40. This was eight weeks before the fall flow. By the time of the flow the colonies were exceptionally strong and the crop from the 40 was 3% barrels, or 50 pounds per colony. In this case, the difference in crop between the two yards, due largely to a difference in queens, was 28 pounds per colony, or $2.80 per colony.

There is a further objection to old or inferior queens, often overlooked, in that way they are frequently superseded in the spring or summer. To be sure, this gives us young queens, but often so late that the peak of population is delayed until during or at the close of the honey harvest and a reduction in crop results. Supersedure will also increase the amount of swarming since conditions favoring swarming are often present when the supersedure cells are built. In the Dadant apiaries, we use the large Dadant hives and seldom have many swarms. This year, of about twenty swarms, over 75 per cent were from colonies that were superseding their queens.

So far, this has very evidently been an argument favoring the maintenance of young, virile queens as an essential part of good management. There is one last gun to fire, however, which gives no mean finish to the list of facts and that is the great value of such queens in the control of European foulbrood. Everyone familiar with this disease will agree that young Italian queens do much to keep the diseases in check. Dr. Miller's slogan was, “Strong colonies of strong bees,’’ and he had European foulbrood all around him. Yet he had little of it himself because he kept his colonies so strong that it was rare for a colony to show European at all. When it did show there was a comparatively small amount, easily eliminated. Sturdevant at Washington, found it difficult to infect strong colonies headed by young Italian queens, even when large amounts of diseased material are fed directly to the bees. He has emphasized the fact that colonies with European foulbrood may be comparatively easily cleaned by strengthening and requeening. The strength of the colony has much to do with recovery. During his experiments. Sturdevant found that of 10 strong colonies, treated by requeening only, 20 per cent showed recurrence of the disease; of 20 medium colonies, so treated. 50 per cent recurred : of 14 weak colonies, 57 per cent recurred.

Our own experience this past season with European foulbrood, at the Spencer apiary, has already been mentioned. Of 65 colonies, over 25 had European foulbrood in early summer. These were treated successfully by requeening and strengthening with frames of emerging brood. Indeed, where the brood of the colony was not badly diseased it was merely removed, completely or in part and 


Supplement to WISCONSIN HORTICULTURE, May !!)>>

given in exchange for sealed brood from strong colonies, resulting in the complete elimination of the disease. It must be remembered, however, that this is not a method to be generally recommended and that a mistake in diagnosis would be disastrous.

Since good queens are so much the soul of the colony, it would be within the scope of this article to tell how queens are secured and introduced but this is a fundamental matter in which most beekeepers are well schooled and it is not our purpose to include it. There are a few things of importance, however, which may well be mentioned. In our own experience of several years trial, we do not believe it pays to requeen apiaries entirely with queens sent by mail. Supersedure is too common and too many queens fail or are slow to regain their prolificness. We think that the best results will be secured by raising queens from selected stock in our own apiaries. To secure good stock, try several untested queens from several breeders, line them up and watch them. It is usually possible to get a very good stock of breeding queens out of the lot. Queenbreeders will agree that untested queens ship best and there is a better chance of the purchaser getting his queen laying in the hive. On the other hand, a breeding queen is a year old. her ovaries are heavy, and frequently she is injured in the mails. Thus it often happens that a fine queen will be obtained and superseded almost at once.

In selecting a breeding queen from the apiary, individual colony records are almost a necessity. The common practice of transferring brood, from colonies that are strong to colonies having little brood, makes accurate selection impossible. Queens not sufficiently prolific are thus helped out and at the end of the season the comparative value of queens cannot be known. A good breeding queen should give bees that are gentle, industrious and not given to much swarming. A queen which has a fine record for two successive seasons is preferred to one with the same kind of record for one season. Nothing can be decided by the color of queens since queens are very irregular in their markings and often dark queens that look like hybrids produce fine bees. The only way to test queens is to judge their worker progeny.

The frequency of requeening is a matter of varying opinion. Some good beekeepers believe that a queen is good until she shows signs of decline, while others insist on annual or biennial replacement. The proper measure of a queen’s term of usefulness is to be found in the severity with which she is used. Seasons and locations vary in this respect, but it must be remembered that in none of the cardinal periods which we have mentioned must a queen offer a chance of failing. In most locations requeening is necessary at least once in two years and it is frequently necessary every year. In extracted honey production, especially where there are two flows a year, as with us, queens are worked very hard and must be replaced often to keep the colonies in prime condition.

The best time of year to requeen is sometimes given as August but, in the Dadant apiaries, this time is inadvisable since it means the removal of queens just before or at the beginning of the fall flow. A break in brood rearing then would be certain to reduce our crop. Unless queens are noticeably failing, they should not be removed during the six weeks previous to a honeyflow nor during the first part of the honeyflow. After that they are of little further use, as far as that flow is concerned, and may be taken out at any time. The same is true of the six week period preceding frost. We are compelled, therefore, to requeen, as far as possible, earlier in the season and aim to do it during the latter part of the clover flow. This avoids the midsummer dearth when the work would be difficult because of robbing and the failure of colonies to accept new queens. The only other time available to us is towards the close of the fall flow and this necessitates the introduction of laying queens previously produced and mated in nuclei.

The majority of our queens must bear the burden of brood rearing for the fall crop, the winter colony and the spring crop. It is a good, queen that will keep this up for two seasons and, therefore, annual replacement is becoming more and more a part of our manipulation.

A labor saving method of requeening is by the introduction of ripe grafted cells previously produced in cell building colonies. Where this method is used, however, it is important to remember that the raising of cells must be so timed that they may be introduced to the colonies to be requeened and the virgins which emerge may mate and begin laying at least six weeks before either a honeyflow or the end of the brood rearing in the fall. The time usually allowed from the starting of cells to the beginning of egg laying is about 25 days. Also, for best results, the mating period should come when there is a nectar flow', otherwise there is too great a loss of virgins and too many are either imperfectly mated or fail entirely to mate. Sufficient extra queens should be raised to introduce to colonies in which this happens. These queens may be mated in nuclei and the latter may be reunited with the colonies from which they were made. Queens left over may be disposed of as desired.

The editor of Wisconsin Horticulture regrets that the diagram referred to in Mr. Cole’s paper, line 6 p. 14 is lost, strayed or stolen. Anyway, it can’t be found.

Bee Bulletins

Control of European Foulbrood.

Fanners’ Bulletin Xo. 1084.— Control of American Foulbrood.

Farmers’ Bulletin Xo. 1198.— Swarm Control.

Farmers’ Bulletin Xo. 1215.— Beekeeping in the Clover Region.

Farmers’ Bulletin Xo 1216.— Beekeeping in the Buckwheat Region.

Copies of these bulletins can be secured by writing to the U. S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C.

Farmers’ Bulletin Xo. 975.—The Government Bulletins— Wisconsin Agricultural Experiment

Station Publications—

Bulletin 333.—How to Control American Foulbrood.

Bulletin 338.—Winter Care of Bees in Wisconsin.

Stencil Bulletin Xo. 11.—Better Queens.

Copies of these bulletins can be secured by writing this office.

Local Association Notes

The following resolutions were adopted by the Marathon County Beekeepers’ Association at a recent meeting. Such resolutions should be adopted and carried out by each and every local association in the state.

Dear Fellow Beekeeper:

We, the undersigned, being gathered together in solemn and serious (conclave, over the grave state of affairs imposed upon our society by the unbecoming silence of many warm-hearted beekeepers of Marathon county, who should be enthusiasts for our county and our state beekeepers’ associations, do hereby draw up and present for your approval and action, the following resolutions:

That, Whereas. Many members of our beekeepers’ associations, both county and state, and many more who ought to be members have forgetfully, inadvententlv. or bashfully failed to send in their "50 cents dues” for the county and "$1.00 dues” for the state association. and

Whereas, The said associations cannot promote the great bee business of our county, state and nation, entirely on "hot air.” be it hereby hastily

Resolved, (1) To amend the deficiencies by common consent; (2) to mutually agree to deprive ourselves of one round half dollar and one large dollar or their equivalent before March 10th; (3) to see that our secretaries at get these humble tokens of our undying interest in the success of the bee business.

If this sentiment produces a sufficiently satisfying sensation to awaken your slumbering love for our beekeepers’ organizations and all they have meant and are destined to mean to you. do not delay to respond to the often repeated calls of your county secretary and your state secretary.

Faithfully and cordially yours for progress in the production and marketing of the best honey in the world.

Lewis Francisco, President.

Engelbert Henseler, 1st Vice President.

Rai.i-h Gunzel, 2nd N ice President.


The following notes from the Texas Honey Producers’ Association will show how our Wisconsin beekeepers may profit from the plans followed by other associations.

What the Members Say

The two letters which follow happen to both come in the same mail and both from the same town. They are not exceptional. They show the spirit and temper of every member who has expressed himself at all. The letters follow:

1 am sending check for two dollars ($2.00) for your advertising fund. I have fifty colonies of bees, in good condition : much better than at this time last last.— John Donegan.

Received the Honey Producer today. Think the association did exactly right by voting not to pay a dividend this year. Enclosed you will find 25 cents in stamps, the one cent per colony tax on my bees, for advertising Texas honey.—Glenn

M. Anderson.

League Notes

The American Honey Producers' League is preparing a book on legal rights of beekeepers through Mr. Colan P. Campbell. This book will include all possible data with reference to matters pertaining to keeping bees in villages, towns, the decisions handed down by courts in different states where such matters have been taken to courts. It is expected that the book will sell at 50c per copy and as the number to he printed will not exceed 5,000 copies, all of our beekeepers who desire a copy should send in their name at once. This book will not be ready for several months, so do not send in your money at this time, just vour name.

Please place my name on vottr order file for one copy of the book on legal rights to be issued by the American Honey Producers' League.

Xante ............................................

Address ..................................... .......


Washington, D. C.—A traffic census of bees coming home from work is being taken by scientists of the Bureau of Entomology. A gate is provided that works on the oneway street principle and only one bee can enter the hive at a time. The apiculturists keep tab on the bees by the same device that is used by the telephone company in keeping track of the number of times a subscriber uses his telephone. As the number of entrances made by the bees is something like 300.000 a day. the Bureau of Standards experts who constructed the counting device had to provide a special source of electric current to operate the apparatus.


Official Organ of The State Beekeepers Association

Supplement to WISCONSIN HORTICULTURE, June 1<J22

Attention! Members of State Beekeepers’ Association:

Please mark August 7th to 11th on your calendar as a vacation week. This is the time for the Beekeepers’ Chautauqua which will be held at Green Bay, Brozvn. County, and should mean a vacation to every beekeeper, especially our members of the state association. Make your plans right now to come. If you have attended any of the previous ones, I need not tell you that it will be worth while, but many of our members have not had this opportunity and, therefore, I will give a few of the benefits to be derived f rom a meeting of this kind.

These are only a few of the benefits the Chautauqua will offer. Make your vacation a profitable one this year and come to this conference or we might call it, ‘‘Wisconsin State Beekeepers’ Field Meet.” Fill out the blank in this issue, mail it to the secretary’ and start boosting this meeting now. Invite your neighbor beekeepers to come also. This conference is free and every beekeeper in the state is welcome.


Wisconsin State Beekeepers’ Association.

Name .......... ...................................

Address ............................................

Check dates you can attend: Aug.

7......., Aug'g.........9........, 10........,


Do you want us to make room reservation for you?......................

If so, answer following questions:

Kind of room—Single..........double

........... No. of days ..........


Experience in Pasturing Bees on Buckwheat

Conrad G. Kruse.

Buckwheat is grown in scattered areas throughout almost the entire state.

There are perhaps a dozen counties, most of them in the extreme northern part in which it is not grown to any extent. The remaining counties had an acreage totalling near the 26,000 mark in 1921, so, though it is classed among the minot crops, it is nevertheless of much importance.

Throughout southern and central Wisconsin it is seldom grown on a soil that will raise a fair oat crop, or timothy, the latter crop fitting better into our livestock system of agriculture. But there are many lowlands, newly drained marshes, or marshes fairly drained where small grain has failed, where buckwheat fits in well and usually pays well.

Another type of soil to which buckwheat is often sown for a cash crop is the sand, drift sand, or sandy soil too poor to grow anything but rye or buckwheat or soy beans. If drouth is not too severe, a good crop is usually secured, and in my experience the past two seasons, this type of soil yields the most buckwheat honey per acre.

The buckwheat fields of Sauk County are from 20 to 40 miles from the home apiary and one of the big problems is getting within bee range of them. August first is usually the time bloom begins to show and by the tenth is generally secreting freely so it is important to move the bees early and have them on the job at the start.

My main object in migrating to buckwheat fields is to secure increase in colonies as cheaply as possible. There is no fall flow of any kind at the home yards as the country is well stocked with dairycattle which keep down the golden rod, aster and sweet clover.

Near the end of the clover flow, usually about July 10 to 15th, I begin to make increase, dividing the original colony into two, three, or four parts, depending upon its condition. These nuclei average from three to five comb in strength and are placed in regular ten frame hives, filling space with drawn comb and closing entrances almost to one bee space. Each nucleus is given a ripe cell or virgin soon after and left until the young queen is laying.



Wisconsin beekeeping

II. F. WILSON. Editor

Officers of The Wisconsin State Beekeepers Assoeialiiin

President.....................F. F. Stelling


Vice President.................Conrad Kruse


Treasurer.....................C. W. Aepp er

Oc< n onio woe

Secretary.................Malitta F. Hildreth


Annual Membership Fee. $1.00

Remit to M. F. Hildreth, Secy., Madison, Wis.

Experience has taught that to move before the new queen is laying usually results in queenless-ness, but as soon as eggs are to be found, they are ready.

Smothering heat or driving rains do not stop or hinder our operations much when moving time comes. This year, with the help of one 17-year-old boy we moved 115 colonies per day for four consecutive days, thermometer registering near the 90 mark each day and bees being on the road about three hours. Of course, they are sprayed with water while loading, and if necessary, again enroute.

All of our equipment is the standard ten frame stuff, two story hives are stapled together, bottoms are stapled on, entrance closed by pushing in a V shaped screen, cover removed and a two-inch screen frame stapled over the top.

They are stacked two and three deep on the truck and trailer, two by fours and boards between the tiers provide ventilation. Less than a handful of bees have been smothered in my two seasons of migration to and from buckwheat, even though sometimes we started at high noon, with the thermometer at 90 and a sum total of about 1500 colonies have been moved (counting both ways).

In 1920, 200 of the divided colonies were moved to two buckwheat regions, one 20 and the other 37 miles from home. The total cost of truck hire was forty cents per hive, round trip. Nearly all of these were in two story hives stapled together.

Season was favorable, bees built up fast to rousing colonies and a surplus of 6000 pounds was extracted, leaving plenty for winter and spring feed.

In 1921, 525 colonies in one and two story hives were moved 25 miles and all placed in one yard. They were within easy range of 150 acres of buckwheat in good condition. Total cost of truck hire was 37 cents per hive, round trip.

Colonies built up fast, and the scale hive showed a total gain of 37 pounds which was a fair average for the whole 525. Season was short, ending abruptly after a three day blow of hot dry winds which blighted the buckwheat, even killing the newly set seed.

Honey is given as rent for the apiary sites and bees are away from home about six or eight weeks. They are not placed near buildings, no one is left in charge, and sometimes I am not near the yard for two weeks at a time. Honey thieves are rare, only nine combs being taken in the two years of migration.

1 consider three or four, two story colonies a proper force for an acre of buckwheat in good condition. At this ratio, the buckwheat grown in Wisconsin is sufficient for 6000 colonies to feed upon, taking nothing of value to the planter, assisting in pollination, and they would save many a carload of honey, if we womd but move them a few miles.

The Cost of Honey Production

A strong, active organization is the most urgent need of the honey producer today. Already the Wisconsin State Beekeepers’ Association has done much for the beekeepers of the state in making possible increased appropriations for the eradication of foul brood, and in obtaining a practical honey grading law. Grading will do much to stabilize the price of honey. Slowly but surely the demand for Wisconsin graded honey will increase as the Wisconsin consumer learns that the state stands behind and absolutely guarantees the purity and quality of \\ isconsin graded honev. This will assist the business-like producer to maintain a fair price for his crop, as the price "cutter" is usually the one who does not take the pains to grade his honev. and simply markets it "Ungraded Honey” to comply with the law.


One may wonder what organization has to do with the cost of producing a crop of honey. Possible in a direct way it does not have much to do with it. but indirectly, in the writer’s opinion, it has verv much to do with it. The figures thus far available on the cost of honey production plainly indicate that the present price of honev should be maintained, and efficient methods of increasing production must be used. A good start has been made in maintaining the price of honey by the application of the Wisconsin grading law. This, in the writer’s opinion, may be followed by the consideration of standard containers, and further greatly popularizing the use of honev as a valuable food. Such problems mav only be worked out through organized effort. Tips and pointers o'better beekeeping management are often obtained by attending association meetings, and from official publications of the association. The beekeeper is thus able to keep abreast of the times, and use the information which is applicable to his own particular situation.


I he cost of producing a pound of honey varies from year to year, depending on the season and the skill of the beekeeper. Therefore, records must be kept over a period of vears before any definite conclusion can be reached on the cost of producing a pound of honey.

The figures given in this paper are based on the opinions of Mr. Erank Rauchfuss. manager of the Colorado Honey Producers’ Association, and the writer.

Table 1

Investment for 500 Colonies of Bees

500 colonies of bees in one storv. ten frame

merely as a unit to figure with. Much of the equipment listed in Table 1 would be needed for less than 500 colonies of bees and, on the other hand, some of it could he used efficiently for more than 500 colonies, thus, in one case slightly increasing the cost of production per pound, ar.d in the other slightly reducing it. Such questions as to when the four frame extractor should be replaced by an eight frame machine must be based on the judgment of the owner. When another out yard should be established and when the point is reached that a separate or enlarged building will be advisable as a work shop and storage plant, will also have to be decided by the owner. The skill with which these decisions are made will influence the cost of honey production.

Interest on Investment

The items listed in Table 1 are figured at a discount of 15 per cent oil 1922 catalog prices, on the assumption that the owner is a member of a beekeepers’ association which is entitled to 15 per cent discount. The capital invested in this case for 500 colonies of bees is $10,067.01. The honey producer knowing definitely the amount of money he has invested can then proceed to figure overhead expenses on the production of the crop of honey. In Table 2 will be noted that 6 per cent interest is charged on the capital invested. The capital of $10,067.01 invested in good securities should yield 6 per cent. Therefore, it must be expected to yield the same when invested in honey production.

Deereci vrion Occurs

The equipment in an apiary gradually wears out from continuous use and at the end of a period of years it has to be replaced by new material. Improvements on appliances are made from time to time, some of which enable the producer to handle his crop more efficiently, thus making the purchase of improved equipment a good investment. In order to make possible the purchase of improved and to renew worn out equipment, it is a

sound business policy to establish a depreciation fund. In Table 2 it will be noted that 5 per cent depreciation on all equipment with the exception of on the Ford truck is recommended. This means that the equipment could be entirely replaced at the end of twenty years. The depreciation on a Ford truck is figured higher, as it is considered by the users of these vehicles that they are good for about four years.

The question of insurance is well worth considering. Hive and supers filled with combs built from full sheets of comb foundation are of inestimable value to the beekeeper. Therefore, to carry adequate insurance on buildings and equipment is sound business.

Brains and Labor Worth Money

The salary to be paid is a much-mooted question, and one that the owner must largely determine for himself. It is the opinion of the writer that a man who thoroughly knows the game and will put his knowledge into action, and also knows the fundamentals of business should be worth at least a salary of $200.00 a month for every month he devotes his full time and thought to the business. The work-id’ producing a crop of honey can be wound up in eight months in most cases. During the rush season hired help will be required. Wages at $80.00 per month for one man for three months is by no means extravagant in most cases.

The expense of running a truck at $40.00 per month for six months is based on the estimates of other business concerns, and is possiblv none too high if our apiaries are established on poor roads.

Approximately, the expense for running an apiary in a poor season is as great as in running it during a good season. All too frequently the beekeeper neglects the bees in an off year. The results of this neglect are invariable carried over to a material loss of crop the following year.

When the owner’s time is figured for eight months during the year, but little time will be available for selling honev at retail prices. The

Langstroth hives, metal roof cover with inner cover frames with full sheet wire foundation at $10.00 .....................$ 5.000.00

50 one-story, ten frame

hives with full sheets

of foundation at $3.96    198.00

1500 extracted bodies

with combs complete

at $2.22 ........................ 3.330.00

8 frame power extractor    191.25

Capping melter ................ 17.<85

Steam heated capping

knife with generator....

Honey straining appara


150 gallon honey tank ...

Fairbank scale

Hershiser wax press......

Miscellaneous tools and

fence for out yards

and rents ...................... 150.00

Buildings — Extracting

and honev house 600.00 Vehicles — One b' o r <1

truck ............................ 483.00


Table 2

Overhead Expenses for Running 500 Colonies

Six per cent of invest

ment .......... $ 604.65

Five per cent depreciation

on equipment—20 years 479.72 Depreciation on F o r d

truck 20 per cent—5

wars............................ 96.60

Insurance on buildings

and equipment .............. 200.00

Salary of owner. 8 months

at $200.00 per month ... 1.600.00 One helper. 3 months at

S80.00 per month, with

out board ..................... 240.00

Expense for running truck

for six months at $40.00

per month ...................... 240.00

Total Expenses .............$3,460.97

Costs Variable

The items given in Table 1 will, of course, vary according to the personal preference of different honey producers, and with the number of colonies kept.

Five hundred colonies kept in -ix vards are taken and so located

honey crop in Table 3 has been figured at 10 cents and 15 cents per pound to emphasize the importance of obtaining a fair price for the crop.

Table 3

Cost of Production—With 25

Pound Average


105 cases 5 gallon cans

at $1.30 ....................

.$ 136.50

Overhead ......................

. 3.460.97

Total expenses .........


15c per

10c per




12,500    lbs.

honev ........$1,875.00


106 lbs. bees-

wax at 27c   28.62


Gross in-

come ..$1,903.62


Deficit .. $1,693.85 $2,318.85

Cost to produce 1 lb. of honey..$ .28

W ith 50 Pound Average


210 cases 5 gallon cans

at $1.30 .....................

Overhead .......................

.$ 253.00


Total expenses .........


15c per

10c per




25,000 lbs. of

honev ........$3,750.00


212 lbs. of

beeswax at

27c ............ 57.24


Gross in-

come ..$3,807.24


Profit ....$   93.27

Deficit ..


Cost to produce 1 lb. of honey.$.148

With 60 Pound Average


250 cases 5 gallon cans

at $1.30 ................... $ 325.00

Overhead ........................ 3.460.97

Total expenses ..........$3,785.97

15c per 10c per

Returns:             lb.       lb.

30,000 lbs.

honey ........$4,500.00 $3,000.00

250 lbs. bees

wax at 27c   67.50    67.50

Gross in

come ..$4,567.50 $3,067.50

Profit ....$ 781.53

Deficit ....

$ 718 47

Cost to produce 1 lb. of honey.$.126

With 75 Pound Average


320 cases of 3 gallon

cans at $1.30.............

.$ 416.00

Overhead .......................

. 3.460.97

Total expenses .........


15c per

10c per

Returns:             lb.


37.500 lbs.

honev ........$5,625.00


312 lbs. bees-

wax at 27c   84.24


Gross in-

come ..$5,709.24


Profit ....$1,382.21

Deficit ....

$  42.73

Cost to produce 1 lb. of honey.$.103

With 100 Pound Average


417 cases of 5 gallon

cans at $1.30..............

.$ 542.10

Overhead .......................

. 3,460.97

Total expenses .........


15c per

10c per




50.000 lbs.

honev ........$7,500.00


417 lbs. bees-

wax at 27c  112.59


Gross in-

come ..$7,612.59


Profit ....S3.609.52

Deficit...          $1,109.52

Cost to produce 1 lb. of honey.$ .08


l-'rom a study of the cost of production it will be noted that three factors are essential in order to make honey production profitable :

I'he first two factors are largely within the range of the individual beekeeper. The third can onlv be obtained by organization, through which extensive advertising and selling campaigns may be launched.

E. W. Atkins. G. B. Lewis Co. Watertown, Wis.

“Together We Stick, Divided We’re Stuck”

So says Brother Beekeeper Painter, secretary of the Marathon County Beekeepers’ Association. It is To be regretted that our beekeepers are not co-operating with one another in the way they should. The secretary of the state association has a list of over 1.000 beekeepers who have, one time or another, been members of the state beekeepers’ association. Out of this 1.000 but 539 have renewed their membership for 1922. Ninety-one acre members have been secured to date, which gives the state association a paid-up membership of 630. The Wisconsin State Beekeepers’ Association should have at least 2.000 members in order to place If’iscoiisbi beekeeping where it justly belongs. One dollar will not make or break anv of us. but $2,000 will give Wisconsin beekeepers an organization worth while. Will not each member take it upon himself to round up one or more of the old members and secure his dollar. If you do not know who they are. ask your neighbor beekeeper whether or not he belongs to the association. If he does not happen to be an old unpaid member, get his dollar anyway, as new members are al wavs welcome.


Official Organ of The State Beekeepers Association

Supplement to WISCONSIN HORTICULTURE, July, 11122

Fourth Wisconsin Beekeepers’

Field Meet and Chautauqua, August 7 to 11, Green Bay, Wis.

This will be the biggest meet- jq.^q ing of beekeepers ever held in [j.qo Wisconsin. No greater array of H-3Q talent has ever been secured for one meeting. Dr. Phillips, Mr. E. , .39 R. Root, Mr. C. P. Dadant, Mr.

Gco. S. Demuth, Mr. E. W. At- 3^5 kins and other speakers will be with us during the entire convention. The members of the Brown County Beekeepers’ Association () are putting forth unusual effort to ]0-30 make this meeting a success and 1 j . 30 accommodations are being arranged to well take care of all    j .39

those who come. Splendid facili-   2 15

ties for camping will be provided, 3^5 but each beekeeper should bring 4/99 his own tent. In case you do not care to cook your own meals, a restaurant will be on the grounds. 9 00

Look over the following pro- 9^39 gram and then decide to meet 39-45 with your brother and sister beekeepers. Fill out the blank below j .39 and return to this office so that 2\3O complete arrangements can be 3 .'39 made.

4:15 Name..................................................

5:00 Address ..............................................

Reserve room.................................... 9:00

(for how many)

10:00 How many in your party and how 11 ;,30

many davs will you attend?............   1 :30

2 :00 3 :30 4:15 5:30

Mr. Cranefield, editor of Wisconsin Horticulture, has kindly given us four additional pages of g:00 space this month so that we 10:00 might include a number of papers H :00 which it has been impossible to 11:30 print before and should be published now in order that the in- 1 „30 formation may be of value to beekeepers for this year’s work.         ,3 :00

August 7 to 11, 1922—Green Bay, Wisconsin

PROGRAM—Monday, August 7

,               Morning


Address of Welcome............................................Mayor, Green Bay

Response for Beekeepers............................................



Early Preparation for the Honey Harvest......Dr. E. F. Phillips

Some Pre-Winter Requirements..........................Geo. S. Demuth

Foreign Beekeepersand Foreign Beekeeping Methods........

.................................................................................C. P. Dadant

Tuesday—August 8


The Successful Wintering of Bees....................Dr. E. F. Phillips

Wintering in Wisconsin........................................Geo. S. Demuth

Meeting Possible Losses with Reserves......Edw. Hassinger, Jr.


Fall Management...................................................Kenneth Hawkins

Honey in Other Foods....................................................E. R. Root

Popular Errors Concerning Bees and Honey........C. P. Dadant

Co-operative Beekeeping........................................H. L. McMurry

Wednesday—August 9


Loss of Honey in Extracting................................II. F. Wilson

Spring Management................... Dr. E. F. Phillips

Preparation for the Honey Flow..........................Geo. S. Demuth


Prevention of Swarming..............................................C. I’. Dadant

Some Recent Developments in Honey Selling..........E. R. Root

How the Market Department Can Help the Beekeepers. ..

..................................................................................C. D. Adams

The Relation of Beekeepers' Organizations to fhe Sale

of Honey.......... ..................................................Kenneth Hawkins

Business Session...................... Local Associations’ Delegates

Thursday—August 10 Morning

How to Make the Bees Work with the Greatest Energy. ..

............................................................................Geo. S. Demuth

The Control of Brood Diseases........................Dr. E. F. Phillips

How to Make Honey Vinegar........................................E. R. Root


How Shall We Winter Our Bees?................Dr. Robt. Siebecke'

The Diseases of Adult Bees...............................Dr. E. F. Phillips

Commercial Aspects of Bee Disease Control..Dr. S. B. Fracker Swarming and Swarm Control............................Geo. S. Demuth


Friday—August 11


The Entomological Basis of Beekeeping........Dr. S. B. Fracker

The Choice of a Locality....................................Dr. E. F. Phillips

Observations on Demonstration Apiaries........L. P. Whitehead

Recent Experiments in Foulbrood Control............H. F. Wilson


Various Wavs of Preventing Foundation from Stretching in the Frames..........................................................E. R. Root

BUSINESS SESSION—State Association Problems

Wisconsin beekeeping

II. F. WILSON. Editor

Oflieurs of The Wisri -n<ln State Beekeepers Association

President.....................F. F. Stelling


Vice President.................Conrad Kruse


Treasurer.....................U. W. Aeppler

Oc< noniowoe

Secretary.................Malitta F. Hildreth


Annual Membership Fee, $1.00

Remit to M. F. Hildreth, Secy., Madison. Wis.

Marketing Hints

There has been much controversy as to the size, style, and material of proper packages for the sale of honey. In this day of organization and co-operative buying and selling we must have uniform containers for our honey if we are going to make the cooperative selling of honey a success.

To obtain this uniform package or packages requires much thought and exchange of actual selling experience. To this end I submit my experience selling honey locally in Mason jars, direct to grocers on a fair wholesale scale, each grocery that handles my product having an average of 333 pounds of honey sold since last September to date. I consider that a fair average this year. The corn syrups have not moved across the counter in those stores as fast as the honey.

Let me state here that I am firm in my belief that we must have our product in stock at the grocery store to get proper distribution at least cost. 1 can sell a grocer one. two, or even three dozen Mason jars at one time at intervals of from 2 to 4 weeks when I am on the road on my regular route and can sell from four to eight grocers a day. How long would it take and at what expense would a person have to sell 100 quarts of honey? The profit the grocer gets would not pay for the time and energy spent in peddling. There are two items you cannot overlook when selling through the grocery store. First, your product must look neat and appealing to the eye and palatable. Second, you must visit, talk bees, and answer questions for the grocer to gain his confidence in you and your product. The merchants really aren’t a bad lot. I find most of them open minded and always willing to talk. Once in a while one turns abruptly around and goes about his business.

I find that in this locality the quart Mason jar sells the best. This is my third year selling honey here, having sold honey in quarts, pints, and half gallon jars.

Here is the average grocer's opinion of liquid honey as shown by extract of typical dialogue between us.—Greetings, etc. upon entering store.

“Do you handle any honey, Mr. Blank?’’

“Well, those small square boxes that the farmers bring in, and sometimes I have a deuce of a time to get them off my hands.”

(One man showed me comb honey two years old packed in a cube paper cracker box, combs bulging, and capping scraped off, propolis and dirt over everything, and honey leaking out of box, just as farmer had brought it in and traded it out. No wonder the grocers think twice before buying.)

“Well,” I would say, “I have some very nice honey with me that will not leak, and its place is where people can see it, because it looks and tastes good. In time it will candy or granulate, and if it is not sold before that time, I will exchange for liquid honey or take it back outright. This honey was extracted from the comb by special machinery, not squeezed out like our grandmothers used to do, etc.”

"Well,” he would say. “I don’t want anything in tins ; I tried that. A fellow sold me some once, and the only way I could get rid of it was to use it myself.”

“Mr. Blank, I wouldn’t sell you honey in tin ; this honev is in Mason jars. The people can see what they are buying, besides there is a use for the jars when the honey is consumed.”

By this time he would look interested and then I would get a quart and pint jar to show him.

“Is it pure?” he would ask.

“Yes sir, here is my stamp from the Division of Markets, which says that this is Wisconsin Extracted Honey, Grade Xo. 1. Color dark, and here is my number: if the honey would not be as represented, the Division of Markets would get after me in a hurry, and I am in the business for my income and to stay. How long would I last if the honey was not O. K. in every respect? You, as a grocer, know, in dealing with people, that anything misrepresented will not sell again, or the second time to the same party. Here is my proposition. I know this honey will sell; it has sold elsewhere and will sell here. Take a dozen quarts; they sell best in other stores, and sell them at so much (one-fourth more as he has no freight or dravage), and if you haven't sold them by the time I make my next trip, I’ll take back what is left, if you don’t want it; besides you needn’t pay for it now. I haven’t had a single turn down so far, so it must be a square deal. Most always, I am paid on the spot.”

When putting the jars on the counter in a conspicuous place. I give the grocer a show card in colors, something like this, and ask him if he won’t please hang it directly across the counter where most trading is done. I paint these cards myself, have a new color scheme and legend for the occasion. They help wonderfully in selling the honey.

When I would come back on my next trip, he’d say. “By George, that honey of yours sold fast; I’ve been out of it for some time. Have you got some along? How much have you at home?”

He would then order enough for some time and pay on the spot.

I have yet to take back any of my jars that wouldn’t go except the half gallon size; they were a little big for trade, but they were exchanged for quarts.

Why I ain in favor of Mason jars in this locality, or any similar to this. Extracted honey was comparatively new to people here when I arrived with bees in 1916. In order to help educate the people to the use o"f honey, it had to be put in glass where it could be seen, and a container used that would be of some value when the honey was consumed. I can put up honey at less cost in Mason jars than in other jars holding the same amount. When properly labeled, a quart jar of liquid honey looks good enough to eat. Most grocers will not take honey in tin, because they generally are not attractively labeled. Rather than work up hill with tins, I use Mason jars. Managing a general merchandise store in the winter, my jars come to me at wholesale figures. I can sell many more new customers honey in glass than in tin, because new patrons generally want just a taste at a time and in glass is the best way to sell it to them. They can see that it looks good. After buying in that form for sometime I call their attention to the saving when buying larger quantities, such as 10-pound pail and 60-pound tin. They become steady customers while to some I have sold a ten-pound pail at first and next year they still have half of it. Why? Their taste had become glutted, they were sick of honey from eating too much at first when it tasted so good. I know of several such instances.

To sum up 1 believe that this is the best policy to sell new, or prospective customers small quantities in glass that their eyes may have a taste first, then their mouths will water and you will have a customer who will later buy larger quantities in tin.

Would like to give my opinion on subject of co-operative marketing. In first place why sell to big jobbers at a low figure ? Do you think that those jobbers would handle the honey if their bank account did not swell when selling it again? Why can't the beekeepers who have a surplus over their local demand get together and have a packing house of their own ?

Send a man on the road, a real drummer, the same as any other jobber. We Wisconsin honey producers could compete more successfully with western honey, instead of having our honey blended with it, in order to sell it to the people here. Western honey ranks very inferior to our product. Why, we couldn’t eat the honey they have out there. Put a shoulder to the wheel and push.

An incident in our store today. Our grocery jobber’s man was around, with him came a representative of a National Sugar Refining Co. His product was what he claimed to be 100 per cent cane syrup. After considerable talking (I always like to find what the other fellow knows) he said this syrup was 80 per cent invert sugar and 15 per cent pure corn syrup, making a 100 per cent product. He claims he was running in competition with Karo. But he also knew a lot about honey, but did not let out much as he knew that was my business in the summer. Indirectly that product is being passed as being as good as honey. It tastes as if you had made a syrup of brown sugar and the difference with Karo is very marked. I bought some because it was a good business proposition, and the grocer who knows little or nothing about honey will also buy. “Domino Syrup’’ is the trade name. In some families this syrup will take the place of honey. Remedy: "More Advertising.’’

Therefore, I repeat, we beekeepers must do something in the way of getting our product in an attractive form before the public through the regular trade channels for distribution, cutting out. of course, the bottling jobber by having our own plant. For instance, a central packing plant for uniform packages at minimum cost. Sell to wholesale grocers and have our man go with whole sale grocer’s salesman giving dem onstrations to introduce honey in our package with a proposition that will realize a profit for the grocer. I'm sure the producers will profit also.

A word about advertising. If every producer in the state would take it upon himself as a duty and a benefit to himself as well to paint or have painted neat honey selling signs and post same along main highways around his home, the state would be pretty well covered with signs, and then they will not think that their money in signs, or advertising is benefiting some one else more than themselves.

As I have painted some show cards, neat and attractive, I find it is not a cheap job. Why couldn’t the State Association go together and have a quantity of signs, four by six feet as a suggestion, made and sell to members at cost? Everyone knows that advertising costs, but it brings returns.

H. A. Schaefer.

The Next Step in the Marketing of Honey

By C. D. Adams, Department of Markets.

Last year the reason for and effect of the state honey grading law was discussed at our annual meeting. It appears some believed the standardizing of honey grades would solve the whole problem of marketing honev. Such were doomed to disappointment. Others saw it as the first step in the right direction. Before any commodity can be successfully marketed it must be so classified that the various grades will mean something definite to those who deal in it. But every business man knows that there are other very important steps to be taken, before an article of real value is disposed of at a profit. Probably the first of these is an advertising campaign. One soap manufacturing concern in Milwaukee has planned an advertising campaign for 1922 that will cost over $2,-000,000. The value of the bee, bee supply, and honey business in Wisconsin, is conservatively estimated to amount to $5,000,000 annually. Probaby any manufacturing concern of like magnitude would not think of setting aside less than $50,000 for advertising purposes. As we have another paper dealing with this subject at this meeting I shall drop it here.

After a product is properly graded and advertised it is not ready to be marketed until it is put in suitable containers with attractive labels.

At present honey is marketed in 57 varieties of containers and about 40 of these are second-hand and look it. The most popular of these, and one of the poorest, is the screw-top Mason jar. Aside from being second-hand it has more serious faults. In most cases the glass is far from white and consequently the honey loses most of its attractiveness; secondly, even though a rubber is used on the top it is almost sure to leak. Still another objection is that the size and weight varies considerably. So it is not surprising that the grocer very seldom displays honey in such containers in a prominent place.

The various sized bottles are better in appearance, but for obvious reasons are seldom used by the producer. Much can be said in favor of the various sized tin containers, but a very valid objection is that the beauty of the honey itself is lost.

Special white glass containers holding three, six and twelve pounds have been tried out by several of our leading beekeepers in the last two or three years and the only objection to them heard so far is their cost.

I have only mentioned these containers to bring out the fact that we have too many poor containers on the market for the successful displaying of honey to the best advantage. Every successful manufacturer of food products endeavors to reduce the number of his containers and make them attractive and distinctive.

The next important step is an attractive label. There are already a great number of stock honey labels on the market, but little can be said in favor of most of them. In visiting the grocery stores over the state I find many beekeepers make their own labels. These may be made to comply with the law but a customer has to be pretty hungry for honey to buy it thus labeled. Grocers tell me almost daily that the average housewife judges food by its appearance rather than its flavor or food value.

Honey has few equals in its natural attractiveness and value as a food, but our containers and labels cover up the first and the housewife does not know the second point.

But granted we have a nice label we can easily spoil it smearing it with the rubber grading stamp. At best these stamps are none too attractive and as commonly used they are far from it. Another and more serious fault is that there is none of the common stamp pad inks that will not fade when exposed to the light a few weeks. Manufacturers tell us that only the black stamp pads are expected to be used when the printing is to be exposed to the •'ght.

But you say, “What are we to do? We understood the law required us to use them.” Such is not the case. The Department of Markets recommends that you have the wording of the stamp printed on your labels. If you have not the stamp you simply apply for a “Packer’s Number.” and with this have your labels printed. Your local printer can make a fairly satisfactory black and white label.

But with a correctly labeled article in a well labeled and attractive container you may become a bankrupt in one season. We must not overlook the most important factor—the cost of production.

Wisconsin beekeepers cannot now and may never be able to produce honey as cheaply as the western beekeepers. If it were not for the difference in the flavor of the honey there would be no reason why we should continue beekeeping in a commercial way. Until we know what it costs to produce honey under the varying conditions we shall not know what we are doing. The few beekeepers who are keeping books and charging their time against the bees ar-e not the most enthusiastic. They know that the men who sold their honey this year around ten cents a pound wholesale made very poor wages. Let us have more bookkeepers.

The basic reason for grading Wisconsin honey was to call the attention of the consumer to “Wisconsin Honey.” Even now a surprisingly large number of people do not know that there is a marked difference in pure honey. When they buy honey and do not like it they think they have been swindled with adulterated honey and refuse to buy again. These people must be educated to call for honey that is produced in the north central states under a trade mark that means something.

But there is such a diversity of honey produced in the various localities and in different seasons even in the same locality that it is very difficult for us to produce a uniform quality. This can only be done by blending the various honeys and this requires an expert. So we are forced to conclude that we need a central packing plant. This we shall certainly have in time but in the meantime we can greatly improve our marketing conditions by agreeing on fairly uniform containers and labels.

Why should the members of this association not have uniform labels? Certainly it is worth considering. Why not have a committee to submit samples at our next meeting?

W I S C () N S 1 N B E E I< E E P I N G

Xupp/rwirnf to WISCONSIN HORTICULTURE. July. ll>2.i

It Pays to Organize

Every beekeeper is confronted with many problems, some of which he-has no difficulty in dealing with, but there are some which defy the best efforts of the most enthusiastic person unless he directs his energies toward securing the support of his neighbors. Some beekeepers are members of the state and county associations and bewail the fact that all beekeepers do not support these organizations. If these members will work to make their association indispensable to every beekeeper in the county and state they will soon find that every interested person will be anxious to join and support the association. It is not always easy to convince the doubters that they should join, but the results obtained by one county association are such as to leave no room for argument as to whether or not it pays to organize.

During the year 1917 it became quite evident to a few of the beekeepers of Milwaukee county that, unless some very rigorous action was taken immediately, the beekeeping industry would become extinct in this part of our state. American foul brood had become so prevalent that almost every apiary was affected. The Milwaukee County Beekeepers’ Association was organized on May 17, 1918. and had for its objective the elimination of American foul brood and the improvement of the home market. It was further stated that the association was devoted to the interests of the beekeepers of Milwaukee and adjoining counties. Thus, while the organizers had two main aims, they, at the same time, stated their desire to help the industry in every possible way.

As a result of the efforts of this association, the State Agricultural Department started a foul brood inspection during the summer of 1918. The result was as had been expected by those interested in forming the local association. The majority of apiaries were infected. The beekeeper was told to clean up the diseased colonies, but a re-inspection in 1919 showed a surprisingly large amount of disease still present. The clean-up edict was enforced more strictly than during the previous year and in a number of cases diseased colonies were destroyed by the inspectors. The amount ot disease discovered during the 1919 inspection was so large as to very much discourage the officers in charge of the work. When they started on the clean-up campaign they fully realized that if they could eliminate American foul brood in Milwaukee county they had nothing to fear in the remainder of the state, but at this time it looked as if Milwaukee was hopeless. To illustrate the seriousness of the situation an officer of the agricultural department stated at a public meeting that if there was not an improvement the following year he would go before the legislature and request an act making it a crime to keep bees in the county. The following year showed a big improvement and after last summer’s inspection Dr. Eracker looked pleased when Milwaukee was mentioned. In previous years the mention of the name brought a very sad look to his face. The state authorities very probably would not have come to this hotbed of disease to try out the area clean-up method if it had not been for the efforts of the founders of the local beekeepers’ association. If your county is threatened with foul brood “Go thou and do likewise.”

The second aim was the improvement of the home market. Every beekeeper knows that a few years ago there were almost as many prices asked for honey as there were beekeepers. This does not tend to an improvement of the market or to the prosperity of the industry. If any product is to command a permanent market at remunerative prices one of the first requisites is a reasonably uniform price. When ore beekeeper sells his crop direct to the consumer at or near the wholesale price he is doing himself, as Well as all other beekeepers, an injustice. When the consumer has used all his under-priced honey and is ready and willing to buy more the only honey available is selling at a higher, but quite reasonable price, the consumer frequently refuses to buy, believing the price asked is exorbitant. I he beekeeper who sold retail quantities at wholesale prices believed that he was better off to spend his time and deliver the honey direct to the consumer instead of permitting it to go through the regular channels. Later when the consumer demands honey at wholesale prices the retail and wholesale merchants endeavor to meet that demand by buying at a figure that will enable them to supply it. The result is that when Mr. Beekeeper has a new crop the price is considerably lower than it was the previous year. Every county has one or more beekeepers who insist on selling below the prevailing price. A few years ago Milwaukee county had a number of them,; last year there was only one. This result was attained because the beekeepers had learned that the demand for Wisconsin’s superior honey always exceeds the supply and that by asking a fair price the demand was stimulated and the beekeepers received a reasonable price for their product. We do not ask or expect excessive prices, but merely sufficient to provide a reasonable return for the labor and capital invested, and some insurance against the poor season. Only by supporting an association can beekeepers hope to accomplish this. It may seem hopeless at first but gradually even the most skeptical see the advantages.

Several years ago a member of the State Agricultural Department urged the beekeepers of Milwaukee to club their orders for supplies and this advice was taken. The first year the order amounted to about $350.00. resulting in a saving of about $50.00. The following year the order amounted to about $800.00. with a saving of about $160.00. Naturally when a person finds a good thing they tell their friends about it. The fact that members could save money bv placing their orders through the association was well advertised

among the beekeepers of the county. This year the order amounted to over $2,000.00. with a saving of over $550.00.  '1 his result can he

duplicated by every county association in our state. A few years ago Milwaukee beekeepers offered as an excuse for some of their sirs that this country was different from all others. Now we do not offer it as an excuse but say that while we are different from most others, there is no reason why every other county cannot do as well or better. It is up to you, Mr. Beekeeper; get behind your county and state association and boost. Make them such that the slightly interested and doubting beekeeper will become an enthusiastic supporter.

It DOES pay to organize.

H. V. Wilson.


The Beekeeper and the State Department of Agriculture

C. P. Norgord, Commissioner of Agriculture

As I looked over the large number of beekeepers attending this convention 1 thought back to the small groups which met a number of years ago at Madison and dis cussed the problems of honey production. The rapid increase in the size of the association shows the work which you have done to stir up interest in organizing beekeepers and getting them to pull in the same direction. Getting together in large groups is the great slogan of the day and is. I believe, the secret of the freedom of the future farmer. He will have to depend upon it to receive justice in comparison with those engaging in other occupations. I am reminded of the story of the Texan who was adept with his whip. As he was driving along he would snap a fly here and snap .another there with his whip. One dav a stranger who was admiring his skill in picking them off noticed a hornet and asked. “Whv don’t you snap that flv?” “No! No!” said the Texan. "I don’t snap tint kind of a flv. Those fellows are organized ”

When the beekeeper works alone others infringe on his rights and he is unable to protect himself. When he joins with other producers whose interests are the same he accomplishes a great deal more. We all have a selfish streak, we are out to get all we can. Merchants are in the best position to follow their inclinations and large corporations and dealers have long had close organizations which are effective in allowing them to dominate. Farmers so far have never developed a means of taking their share of the returns of their labor effectively. They must co-operate with each other in the same w'ay that bankers, grocers, hardware dealers and lumbermen are organizing for mutual assistance.

Beekeepers, like all other agricultural producers—farmers, breeders, gardeners and fruit men—are being compelled to unite with each other as a result of the pressure of outside organizations. Where will they be if all other groups are organized except themselves? The farmers’ work is the basis and foundation of all national prosperity and if agriculture is not profitable, commerce cannot be kept in a healthy condition.

The farmer should have the same advantage that everybody else has. We must have more of the spirit to see that everyone else gets their share as well as our selfish self. We should get less of Adam in us and more of Jesus Christ in us. The farmer has a better training of honesty in himself than anyone else. Business men know that honesty is the best policy. They are showing it more than they did years ago. It is wisdom to be honest, fair and just. We want farmers to get no more or less but the same that others are getting.

1 am sure that Professor Wilson in organizing the county and state associations. Doctor Fracker and Mr. Adams in bee disease control, all of the men who have spread the beekeeping gospel and drawn the beekeepers together have been doing good work. What we want is to have that seed grow out and be the leaven to protect the beekeepers of the state in their business.

The State Department of Agriculture has a peculiar relation to you, particularly in the work of the eradication of bee diseases. 1 believe we are on the right track in eradicating the diseases of bees by the area clean-up method. We have been trying to eradicate foul brood for years. Here and there apiaries have been cleaned up and good work done but when apiaries were surrounded by oceans of foul brood the condition was bad. The disease has not been getting back by one-hundredth part in the area cleanup campaign as before and we therefore feel that this is the right policy and that we are justified in going ahead with that policy. \\ e cannot reach quite as many places in the area clean-up but we cannot get all good things by any one policy. We shall have to follow thi-policy, which I believe is a good one. and get funds enough to push it along fast enough so that it will get to your county in a reasonable length of time.

We are not all wise, we are of the class that makes mistakes and we have two ears open for any statement of mistakes that are made We have a will to follow any suggestions and to try and correct ary mistakes. We shall be glad to correct any that have been made where possible. The state of Wisconsin is a big area and it is not an easy matter to avoid neglecting some one here and there, but our will is good and we have the way to do. We shall be glad to have the beekeepers offer suggestions at all times and the Department of Agriculture of the state of Wisconsin stands ready to co-operate and help you in every way possible.

The bee disease inspection reports show that the beekeepers clean up at the rate of about 50 per cent a year. This means that in the area clean-up campaigns for everv 100 diseased apiaries there will be 50 less this year and 25 the following. In some counties the rate ha-

Wise () N S I N B EE KEE I’ 1 N G


been faster than this and in others slower.

The department is not entirely satisfied with this rate of improvement. In fact, being satisfied is stagnation rather than life. We believe that with strongly organized groups of beekeepers, with ardent and enthusiastic support and with more general interest in the bee disease situation the rate of progress can be greatly increased. If counties which have 100 diseased apiaries one year could show a reduction to twenty-five the following year and to five in two years the costs of clean up would be much less and the losses from disease tremerdouslv reduced.

There are two classes of critics of area clean-up work, whether it be cattle disease, bee disease, or plant disease, which we are trying to eliminate. The first group continually criticizes the inspectors for not being drastic enough; without appreciating in many cases the difficulty of the situation or the need of using reasonable care and tact they insist on an exaggerated amount of burning and killing. Many of them seem to believe that as long as their property is not involved there should be no limit to the drastic nature of the clear-up methods. The other group feels that conditions will right themselves eventually without very much assistance, that all the beekeeper needs is suggestions, that even a regulation or order is an infringement on personal liberty and that inspectors and officials should never go farther than to suggest means of improvement. It is clearly impossible for a department to satisfy both these groups. Representing the state, they must continuously appreciate the importance of private property and the value of tact in handling difficult situations. The same policy in all of the department’s work is to give the owner an opportunity of saving everything possible out of a bad situation and onlv enforces severe regulations when other methods have failed.

On the other hand, no results can be secured without making the work cover 100 per cent of all the cases of disease and personally being sure that every case is finally cleaned up. There may be cases in which the employees of the department act too hastily but there are probably still more cases in which more pressure should have been used. No two men would be able to agree in every detail as to the handling of complicated clean-up cases, for no two of them have exactly the same slant at the situation.

Neither the State Department of Agriculture of Wisconsin nor the beekeepers of this or other states knew when the area clean-up campaign was adopted whether it would prove a success in eliminating American foul brood or not. The number of years the campaign has been carried on is too short to show positive results. The rate of progress is sufficient, however, to at least convince us in the department that it is possible to reduce the diseases of bees at least to a negligible quantity and probably, in most counties, at least, to eliminate them entirely.

As long as the department and the lx-ekeepers’ organizations stick together, support each other and are willing to make mutual sacrifices and expend mutual effort together, we can look for progress of which we shall all have the right to be proud.

Treating Diseased Bees Out of Season

By A. C. Allen

First I wish to say that I greatly regret not having the privilege of meeting with my fellow beekeepers in this convention. I do not think I have missed attending our annual convention for the past twenty years, and I doubt if there is another member of our association who can say that, and I want von to know that my thoughts are with you at this time.

This paper will be short but I hope valuable to some one. So much has been said and written about the curing of bee diseases that it might seem there is nothing more to say ; yet there is nothing of which we can say “we know it all” and by experience we are finding that our past methods of dealing with American foulbrood has in many instances only prolonged its stay with us and encouraged its increase.

The general teaching and practice for many years has been that during a good honey flow was the only time the disease could be successfully eradicated.

To allow diseased colonies to remain in the yard from early spring to the June honey flow and. where some have not been treated during the flow, to remain for fall treatment or in most cases until the following June, is a most dangerous and unnecessary practice.

Every beekeeper of experience knows that when bees take their first flight upon being removed from the cellar, all do not return to their own hives, but in the excitement and joy of a recess from winter confinement some enter neighboring hives, and bees from diseased colonies having loaded themselves with honey caused by the disturbance of carrying them out of the cellar, are just as apt to enter wrong hives as the others are.

If colonies are known to be diseased when put in the cellar they should be marked and stacked separate from the others and removed first in the spring, placing them some distance from the main apiary or in the front row, and give them time enough to take their flight and quiet down to their own hives before removing those not diseased.

Then Treat Them

Any day after this at an hour when it is too cool for bees to be flying, yet warm enough so they will not chill, shake these bees from their combs into the same hives they were wintered in and return to the dark cellar without food for 48 hours. While they are in the cellar prepare other hives 


Supplement to WISCONSIN HORTICULTURE, July. 11122

on the same stands with packing and protection as warm as they would need in winter. At the end of 48 hours place five or six frames of wired foundation in these hives and toward evening dump the bees on them and at once invert a ten-pound pail of very warm sugar syrup on the frames and put on another hive body, which fill with leaves after covering the pails with paper and gunny sacks. In three or four days they will have the foundation quite well drawn out and you should then add some frames of honey saved over the previous fall from healthy colonies for this purpose, or continue feeding syrup until they complete the job of comb building and the queens are laying nicely. Thus you have cleaned up your yard in early spring.

During the honey flow use the common method of treating. Should any be found diseased after the flow is over they should be treated, but the method is somewhat different than that of springtime, which is as follows:

Fill as many clean hives with frames of wired foundation as you wish to treat. Then on a cloudy or misty day when bees are not flying much, or toward sunset, place these prepared hives under the diseased ones, lay a cloth (I use a flour sack) saturated with a 10 per cent solution of carbolic acid and water, which is just wet enough to not drip, over the frames of the diseased colony and place the hive cover on this. In a very few minutes nearly every bee will have left their combs and run down onto the foundation below, thus necessitating very little shaking or brushing, which latter should be done directly onto the frames before removing this upper hive body. Feed sugar syrup until all combs are well built.

In closing I wish to say that after four successive years in treating diseased bees by putting them onto full combs of honey in October and November, I find it to be a 75 per cent failure, the disease reappearing the next season, although in the last two trials the bees were starved 48 and some of them 56 hours before being put onto the solid combs of honey, and some of them had one empty dry comb in their hive while they starved that they might deposit any diseased honey, which was removed perfectly dry in every case, showing that if they had deposited any it had been consumed. However, three-fourths of those so treated had the disease the following season. They wintered as well as any, showing that their long fast did not reduce their vitality as some have claimed.

I now treat by the foundation and syrup plan as late as October and I know from experience that foulbrood can be successfully cured at any time from April to November, and when we reach the point of removing it as soon as discovered, then, and then only, will we be able to sing the song of victory.          Portage, Wis.

Helping Our Beekeeping Industry

The Salem, Oregon, Statesman is pleased to receive and print the letter from Paul V. Maris, director of extension of the Oregon Agricultural College, which will be found on the Pep and Progress pages of this issue, referring to the help that is being given to the beekeeping industry of Oregon.

As the Statesman has said before, it would pay the fruit growers of the Salem district to subsidize the beekeepers, with a money subsidy.

But it would pay still better for every fruit grower to keep bees, and to provide late bee pasture for them—to raise more white, alsike and sweet clover, and scatter more Scotch bloom and in other ways give the bees plenty of work for their late honey flow. The early honev flow here in the Salem district is great, and the making of a long season would render this the best bee country in the world.

In that way the orchard men will subsidize themselves: they will improve the fertility of their soil, and they will get three crops for one —the clover, the honey and the fruit—and they will make sure the fruit.

This can be made a veritable land flowing with milk and honey.

Most fruit blooms must have the help of insects in pollenizing. especially in seasons when there is much rain and very little sunshine. The pollen of cherry blooms does not carry at all. It must be carried by insects, and honey bees alone are sure and reliable polienizers of the cherry blossoms. The}- literally improve each shining hour; they work when there is the least show of sunshine, if only for a few minutes in a day. They are the original “working fools.” These “virgin daughters of toil” work themselves to death in six weeks; but their vigorous queen lays from 2,000 to 3,000 eggs a day. and in a good hive there are 30.000 to 60.000. and even 100,000 bees, at the height of the season, so that one hive of bees in full working condition will fertilize millions of fruit blossoms in a very short time.

There is nothing more interesting in nature than the honey bee. and nothing in the work of man more fascinating than apiculture.

The authorities of the Oregon Agricultural College can scarcely stress beekeeping too much for the fruit districts of the Willamette valley, as long as there is a single fruit tree whose blossoms are unvisited by the winged workers of the hive.

Many beekeepers on our main traveled roads have for years been regularly supplying tourists from other states. We found one who had a considerable trade of this kind but had never received a mail order. This year he had some attractive labels printed including the grading requirements and to his surprise he soon began receiving mail orders from friends of the tourists he had sold to. Thev probably never knew his correct address before. "It pays to advertise.”


Official Organ of The State Beekeepers Association

Supplement to WISCONSIN HORTICULTURE, August 1!U>

System in the Apiary

By. A. Swahn, Ellsworth, Wis,

In considering this subject I find myself up against many obstacles. In the first place I find that no definite system or working plan can be suggested that will apply to all apiaries or to all beekeepers. The only thing that can be done is to generalize and make this paper merely suggestive of a system which might be worked out to advantage by some of our present day beekeepers who are a little strong on the old school methods.

There is one point, however, on which we must all agree, and that is that there must be some system or working plan in every apiary in order to make it a success. In this day and age of keen competition the methods employed by our grandfathers are passe,' and must be thrown into the discard and some well organized system established instead.

We will lay the corner stone for our suggestive working plan in the month of March. It must now be taken for granted that we had all our brood chambers and hive stands numbered before placing in cellar last fall. This is very important in order to keep an.accurate record of every colony, and in order to place them on the old stands in the spring. Theoretically there may be no good reason why they should be placed on the old stands every year, but practically it will be found an advantage to do so. Another thing which goes hand in hand with systematic management is spring and fall protection against cold. In order to make the results of good management profitable there must be enough capital behind the business to provide sufficient and suitable equipment to obtain these results.

In the north it is absolutely necessary to provide an outside cover <>f some kind sufficiently large to cover the brood chamber and one super. This will provide plenty of room for the queen to lay in as well as room for sufficient stores to carry the bees thru until they can care for themselves. These covers should be made of Insulite or some other good insulating material which will keep out the cold as well as retain the inside heat. This outside cover can be left on until about time to put on supers for the main honey flow. If we are provided with such covers the bees should be put out the latter part of March if it is possible to do so. in order to give them an early flight. We should not wait for a warm day. It is much better to put them out when it is too cold to fly because they will not make such a rush to get out when a warm day does come.

As the colonies are placed on the spring stands all those needing stores should be marked showing approximately the amount each one should be given. Every beekeeper whose yard is free from American foul brood should reserve. enough honey in frames to care for his spring feeding. However, it does not matter so much how the bees are fed if they are given enough to tide them over until they can gather food from the field. My pet plan is to place the frames of honey in a super below the brood chamber and let them help themselves. If we expect bees for the honey flow we must provide food in the spring to raise them on. Our honey crop depends mainly upon spring stores and protection against cold. After both of these have been provided let them alone until some warm day when the thermometer shows at least 70 degrees. We should then go through every colony very carefully in order to record the condition of each one in our note book. All those marked O. K. at this examination should be let alone until possibly sometime in May when it might be well to look them over again to see what attention is needed.

Make every examination a very thorough one so as to eliminate any unnecessary work. Do nothing without a very good reason. If everything is normal more harm than good will be done by disturbing them. If anything is wrong make it right at the earliest possible moment. Have a plan and work that plan. Our record book will tell the story of our apiary if kept right. When we are through work at night we should copy our notes into a regular record book showing the exact condition of every colony at each examination. We should do all our planning at home and do our work in the apiary. We should lay out our day’s work the evening before according to our record book and then do that work and no more. We should never get into the habit of pottering with every colony. Depend upon the record book and our good judgment.

By following this system it is surprising how much can be done in a short time. It would be entirely out of place for me to suggest any definite plan for making increase, queen rearing, etc., a_ every beekeeper has his favorite system. I might suggest, however, that we should never consider ourselves too wise to learn. We should read all the bee books and journals. attend as many meetings as possible and keep in close touch with modern methods. We are very apt to find some ideas which are better than our own. In addition to systematic management we should install every labor saving device possible. Our motto should be “Greatest results with least labor.” If the honey producing business is our main support we should work out a system and equipment by which we can care for a greater number of colonies with the same overhead expense. This will increase the profits by cutting down the cost of production. System applies not only to the bee yard but to the honey house as well. The extracting unit should be as coni-

W I S C O X S I X B E E I< E E P I X G


Wisconsin beekeeping

H. F. WILSON. Editor

Officers of The Wisconsin State Beekeepers Association

President.....................F. F. Stilling


Vice President.................Conrad Kruse


Treasurer.....................C. W. Aeppler


Secretary.................Malitta F. Hildreth


Annual Membership Fee, $1.00

Remit to M. F, Hildreth, Secy., Madison, Wis.

pact as possible and arranged so as to eliminate every unnecessary manipulation. Xeatness should also be a feature. Everything should be kept neat, clean and orderly. All supplies should be so arranged as to be accessible with the least work. The yard should be kept free from tall grass and weeds as this will assist very materially in doing the work with dispatch. Every detail of our work should be studied very carefully and we should always try to improve our working methods.

Some men can handle 200 colonies in less time and with less effort than it takes others to care for 100, owing to better system and working efficiency. Our success depends almost entirely upon the amount of money and good management put behind the business. Xo business can possibly hope to succeed without sufficient capital to make efficient management possible. W'e cannot establish an efficient and 100G honey producing system of management without sufficient and suitable supplies to do it with. W'e cannot put in our time to the best advantage without such an equipment. The bees cannot put in their time to the best advantage without it. Time lost by the bees in rearing brood or in gathering nectar is money lost for the owner. Many so-called poor years are caused directly by lack of supplies or proper management. We should either finance and manage our bees properly or get out and do something else for which we are better fitted. An over developed wishbone does not work well with an under developed backbone. In other words we should not start anything which we have not the backbone to carry out to the limit of its possibilities.

The honey producing business is one consisting mostly of details, all of which go together to either make or break the owner. In order to make a poor year out of a good one simply fail to give your bees the proper attention at the proper time and you will get it. If we must stop to extract in order to get supers for the honey How the chances are that we will lose enough honey to more than pay for the extra supers we should have had. Remember that in order to produce maximum crops of extracted honey the bees must have a lot of super room. This room is called ripening room because as we all knew the bees do not always deposit the nectar in the place where it will remain. They scatter it around in order to ripen it before placing in its permanent cells. Unless this room is given the crop is likely to suffer. System and good management shows itself again during the extracting period. If sufficient supplies have been available and used at the proper time it will be found that we will have a superior grade of thoroughly hive ripened honey which will always command the top market price. Another advantage is that all the extracting can be done at one time. My plan may not be perfect but I always let my clover and basswood run together and grade them as white. After the clover is all gone and before the fall Howers come on 1 remove the clover and basswood and protect it in the honey house against robbers, etc. I then leave enough supers to provide ample room for the fall flow. As this flow is likely to consist of a mixture of the darker honeys I never extract it. but save it all for spring feeding. If fall feeding must be done I use nothing but the best cane sugar.

Right at this point bear this fact in mind, that there is no such thing as a bee proof honey house. They will get in, in spite of all you can do. Everv vear I tell mvself that now I have every possible entrance closed and not a single bee wi.i get in. Every year I find that the bees have slipped one over on ni. again by finding a new entrance '1 here is only one way to protec. the honey from the bees that car be depended upon and that is t -protect it in the supers. If the Ho«>r is not smooth and tight, place an inside cover or something tight under each super so they cannot get in at the bottom. W e should then pile the supers very carefully so a> to leave no space between them, anti then place a cover or something tight on top of each stack of supers. In this way they can be kept safely. If we are so fortunate as to haw American foul brood, guard even -thing very carefully during extracting. Keep the bees out if possible, but as that cannot easily be done we will have to resort to the next best thing which is to close the escape and keep them in. I f the bees cannot be kept away from the honey they must not be allowed t<-get back home with it. Better b\ far that a few bees die than to haw them spread diseased honey among your healthy colonies. American foul brood can be eliminated if every detail is taken care of. Remember that if just one drop of diseased honey should be carried to a healthy colony it might in a short time spread disease to the whole apiary.

Plenty water should always be available in the extracting hou<v. so that everything can be cleaned thoroughly. A good rule to follow where American foul brood exists is to consider every drop of honev and every frame and hive body and in fact every part of the equipment diseased and to conduct ourselves accordingly.

Xo matter from what angle we look at the honey producing business we find system and capital staring us in the face. W ithout either of which we cannot hope '• > reach the climax of success. Financial success does not depend so much upon having a great num’»eof colonies as it does upon good


Supplement to WISCONSIN HORTICULTURE, Aupust Hi"

management. We will get greater returns on the money invested by having only 25 colonies properly financed and managed than by having 100 with insufficient equipment and poor management. As a rule we can blame ourselves for our poor years, and as a rule we can also blame ourselves for our poor prices.

In conclusion will say that success depends upon systematic management, capital, co-operation and organization.

For Our Beekeepers’ Wives

No doubt many of the wives of <>ur beekeepers wax their floors. Why buy floor wax when you can make a good one out of beeswax. 1 he following two formulas were taken from Farmers’ Bulletin 1219. I'he first one as worked out by the U. S. Bureau of Standards and the second by Dr. A. '1'. Kerr, of Cornell University.

Homemade Floor Wax No. 1

1 pint turpentine.

4 ounces beeswax.

3 ounces aqua ammonia (strength 10 per cent.)

1 pint water.

Mix the beeswax and the turpentine and heat them by placing the vessel in hot water until the wax dissolves. Remove the mixture from the source of heat, add the ammonia and the water, and stir vigorously until the mass becomes creamy.

()n varnished or shellacked floors this wax should be applied lightly and any excess wiped off at once, because ammonia dissolves varnish and shellac. Unfinished oak flooring polished with this wax will be darkened somewhat as a result of the chemical action of the ammonia.

Homemade Floor Wax No. 2

1 i pound beeswax.

1 pound paraffin.

1,4 pint raw linseed oil.

11/4 pints turpentine.

Melt the beeswax and the paraffin, add the linseed oil and turpentine. and stir the mixture vigorously. Unfinished wood will be darkened somewhat by this wax as a result of the absorption of the linseed oil.

Turpentine is highly inflammable; therefore care must be taken in making these waxes to heat the ingredients only by setting them in hot water and to have no flames in the room.

Grading Stamps

Beekeepers desiring grading stamps should send their orders direct to Mr. B. B. Jones, Stale Division of Markets, State Capitol. Madison. These stamps are furnished at a cost of 35 cents each and beekeepers will get their orders tilled more promptly by including the cost of stamps with their order.

Isle of Wight Disease

This disease is not known to occur in America at the present time but our beekeepers should be on the watch for it and where any unusual symptoms among either adult bees or brood occur, specimens should be sent to the State Apiary Inspector or the Bee Department of the University.

This trouble is due to a tiny mite which crawls into the breathing tubes of the bee where it feeds and develops into countless numbers. They become so thick that the air supply- is shut off from the parts connected with these trachae. As a result the bees lose the power of flight and finally die.

'I'lie seriousness of this disease may be indicated by the following clipping from the Bee World published at Oxon, England.

“The so-called Isle of Wight disease first became known about 1904 and gradually spread from the south of England to the north of Scotland, although some regions have escaped, and some bee keepers have been very fortunate in having had no attacks. 'I bis disease has been cpiite calamitous and discouraging, in many cases stopping a very fine industry. In one case near Aberdeen a small farmer lost 49 out of 50 hives, owing to Isle of Wight, and that is but a single instance of the destruction wrought by the disease.

As is well known, the bee, which is usually a model of efficiency, becomes sluggish, tremulous, falls off the frame, loses the power of regular locomotion, ceases to be able to fly, crawls about in large numbers outside the hive upon the ground, dying off in hundreds when seized with Isle of Wight disease. It is quite certain that an individual bee, once attacked, never recovers. The so-called recovery of stocks or hives is simply due to the replacement by new bees being more rapid than the spread of the disease.”

Stamping and Labeling Honey

By C. D. Adams,

Department of Markets.

There has been considerable complaint of the ink used on stamp pads fading when exposed to the light. In many cases we find labels have been stamped with the grading stamp but so badly faded that it requires close inspection to find it.

We took this matter up with the G. B. Volger Manufacturing Company, one of the largest manufacturers of stamp pads, and they admit that it is very hard to make a satisfactory ink that is to be exposed to strong light. They say that their Black Stamping Ink No. 211 will be satisfactory when stamping wood or paper that does not come in direct contact with the honey, but probably could not be used for stamping sections on account of its odor. For sections they recommend their Black Excelsior Stamp Pad and Black Rubber Stamp Ink.

None of the purple ink commonly used seems satisfactory. It ■s intended to be used in letters and books not continuously exposed to the light.

But why use the rubber stamp at all? The Marketing Depart ment has for some time been urg ing the printing of the desired information in the body of the label and dozens of our beekeepers have been doing this. It is not even

necessary to have a rubber stamp. Some do not have. They simply wrote to the Department requesting they be given a “Packer’s Number.” There are no charges for this. They then went to their local printer and asked him to print them an attractive label, giving their name and address and some information about granulated honey. At the top of the label are the words “Wisconsin No. 1 Honey.” Let the word “Honey” be the outstanding feature of the label. If any red ink is used, here is the place for it. In some other part of the label, usually at the bottom, is found color ........, net weight........, and Packer’s No.......... The Packer’s num

ber should be printed in. The color and weight may be left blank and filled in with ink.

Of course it is better to have the labels printed by some of the firms making a business of such work. Up to the present time there has been little space left on the lithographed labels for extra printing and when the rubber stamp was used it marred the otherwise attractive label and often was not legible.

This matter has been taken up with some of the leading firms and we hope now to have colored labels designed especially for Wisconsin honey.

As yet we have found only one comb honey producer using a printed label for each section but we believe it a good idea. We must not forget that people buying food pay too little attention to flavor. They are attrcated by that which pleases the eye and what is so unattractive as a leaky, travel-stained, propolis-covered section of honey? On the other hand, few foods are more alluring than clean, uniform, beautiful comb honey, nicely displayed under glass, with an attractive label on each section. The cartons often used are sanitary and the very fact that the producer uses them indicates that the contents are above the average, but they do not catch the eye of the housewife who is probably thinking of buying something else.

So let us use more and better honey labels and thereby help create a demand for one of nature’s best foods.

The Art of Preparing Exhibit Honey

From The Bee world.

“Those veterans who do not believe that scientific knowledge should prove a solid foundation for successful practical beekeeping will be shocked to learn that the veteran exhibitor, Mr. J. Pearman, bases his art in preparing exhibit honey on an elementary knowledge of physics. Addressing a meeting of Staffordshire beekeepers at their autumn exhibition on September 24th, he said that ‘after selecting and extracting his combs of honey he strained the honey into his ripener through a piece of warm and clean flannel. After standing a few days he drew off about forty or fifty jars, filling the jars completely up to the top. They were then stored in a warm place for about a week, which caused the air to rise to the top. The surface honey, about a couple of teaspoonsful, was then skimmed off, which took away all froth and thin honey. These bottles of honey were drawn upon for the different shows; and to remove granulation, it was warmed up once and once only. Honey warmed up more than once loses flavour, aroma and color.’ ”

Notes for Wisconsin Horticulture

According to a note copied from the Bee World, September, 1921, and taken by them from “Die Biene und Ihr Zucht” for March, 1921, bees wintered on syrup only, start breeding later in the spring than those wintered partly on honey. Amount of stores resulting from feeding sugar syrup:

By weight 1 pound water to 1 pound sugar equals 1.2 pounds of stores.

By weight 1 pound water to 1’ S pounds sugar equals 1.8 pounds of stores.

By weight 1 pound water to 2 pounds sugar equals 2.4 pounds of stores.

Send In News Letters

This office will be glad to receive letters from our members telling of the condition of their bees when removed from the cellar or when unpacked. Give us the per cent of your winter loss, condition of stores, whether or not you have any honey on hand, how long you have been in the bee business, or anything else that you think might be interesting to other members of the state beekeepers’ association. We shall be glad to devote a space in this paper for “notes from Beekeepers” if our members will furnish the notes. Do not wait until we write and ask you for certain information. just send us a “newsy" letter once a month or so.

We are finding beekeepers in several sections of the state who report that bees harvested a good crop of alfalfa honey this year for the first time. Let us not be deceived—this does not happen often. The unusual weather con ditions made it possible.

The Ideal Honey Strainer

One that NEVER FAILS and needs no washing or changing until close ot extracting It is simply made from a yard ot % inch mesh tinned wire cloth, the ends lapped two inches. Around this common window screen tinned and ends lapped one inch. Outside this double wire is two thickness ot cheese cloth, like a bag fitting rather close, bottom ot each same as sides. Set the strainer in storage tank and honey trom extractor in this strainer will never clog. At close of season or anytime strainer needs washing, just lay strainer on side in running water with open end so the inside cappings will run out with the water. Often my first extracting has a lot of wintered honey in combs and much of it is candied, which will clog any other form of strainer, but in this it rests on bottom and is easily removed any time.


Official Organ of The State Beekeepers Association

Supplement to WISCONSIN HORTICULTURE, September 1922

Wisconsin Beekeepers’ Conference and Field Meet

Two hundred and ten people registered at the Fourth Annual Conference conducted by the University of Wisconsin and the State Beekeepers’ Association, cooperating. No little credit should be given to the local beekeepers of Brown County for the success of this meeting and the splendid time given all the visitors. Mr. W. P. Brenner, president of the Brown County Beekeepers’ Association; Mr. J. N. Kavanaugh, secretary of the same association, and Mr. Frank Mongin had charge of the local arrangements and were busy all the time trying to make things comfortable for the beekeepers. Mr. Brenner and Mr. Mongin also held their autos at the service of the speakers and took them on several trips to the surrounding country.

We take off our hats to the ladies who made arrangements for the picnic and provided the excellent food for the best and largest gathering of this kind ever held in Wisconsin. Mr. Kavanaugh as toastmaster furnished much merriment and fun at the expense of those on the program.

An expression of thanks is also due to the mayor of Green Bay. who welcomed the beekeepers and furnished each one a free bathing suit.

As in previous years, the main success of the program was due to the excellent talks given by the outside speakers, Dr. E. F. Phillips, Mr. C. P. Dadant, Mr. Geo. S. Demuth, Mr. E. R. Root, Ken-nith Hawkins, and Mr. Colin P. Campbell, vice president of the American Honey Producers’ League.

An outline of the proceedings of the conference is given here and an abstract of some of the talks will be given in following issues of Wisconsin Beekeeping.

Through the kindness and cooperation of the G. B. Lewis Company, Dadant & Sons and A. I. Root Company, a number of prizes were given. These were awarded through drawings made at the end of each day.



Registered, 22. Attendance, 22.

Speakers : Announcements—H.

Address of Welcome—Mr. W. P. Brenner.

“Bright Prospects’"—Dr. E. F. Phillips.


Registered, 37. Attendance, 60.

Speakers : Address of Welcome —Mayor of Green Bay.

Response for Beekeepers—H.

“Early Preparation for the Honey Harvest"—Dr. Phillips.

“Some Pre-Winter Requirements"—Geo. S. Demuth.

Prize Drawing—One years' subscription to American Bee Journal—Wm. Hanneman, Cecil, Shawano County.



Registered, 54. Attendance, 124.

Speakers: “Foreign Beekeepers and Foreign Beekeeping Methods—C. P. Dadant.

“Successful Wintering of Bees” —Dr. Phillips.

“Meeting Possible Losses with Reserves”—Edw. Hassinger, Jr.

Miller Memorial Library Comes to Wisconsin—Announcement by C. P. Dadant, Chairman, Miller Memorial Committee.


Registered, 36. Attendance. 140.

Speakers: “Co-operative Beekeeping’’—H. L. McMurry.

Practical Application of Theory of Wintering”—Geo. S. 1 lemuth.

“Co - operative Marketing” — Kennith Hawkins.

Prize Drawing—Copy of “Dadant System of Beekeeping”—A.

J. Pfluger, Brillion, Calumet County.


Registered, 19. Attendance, 110.

Speakers : “Popular Errors Concerning Bees and Honey”—C. P. Dadant.

“Candy for Shipping Cages”— E. R. Root.

“Spring Management” — Dr. Phillips.


Registered, 5. Attendance, 136.

Speakers: Announcements.

Question Box.

Invitation from Fond du Lac County Farm Bureau:

“Fond du Lac County Farm Bureau welcomes and invites the Wisconsin Beekeepers’ Association to Fond du Lac for 1923 annual Conference and Field Meet. Your problems are our problems ; be they producing, marketing, distributing or advertising your product, we speak for you. Let our county beekeepers prove our hospitality.”

(Signed) R. R. Runke, Fond du Lac Farm Bureau.

“Prevention of Swarming”—C. P. Dadant.

Miller Memorial Library—Dr. Phillips.

Business Session—Delegates of local associations.

Resolution passed by members at this business session:

“Resolved, that it is the sense of this meeting of delegates of county beekeepers’ associations, that we recommend to the state association assembled at Green Bay. Aug. 7 to 11. 1922, and to the board of managers of the state association, the adoption of standard labels and packages for Wisconsin honey.”

Prize Drawing—One copy of "Honey Bee”—Thos. Cavill, Lawrence, Wis.

Some of the 211 Registered.



Registered. 17. Attendance, 115.

Speakers: “How to Make the Bees Work with the Greatest Energy "—Geo. S. Demuth.

Invitation from Jefferson and Dodge Counties’ Associations and

“Wisconsin Beekeepers' Association : Please accept an invitation to hold your next Chautauqua at Watertown.

“This city is on the Dodge and Jefferson County line, on the St. Paul and Northwestern railroads half way between Milwaukee, Madison. Janesville and Fond du Lac on state highways 19 and 26.

“Mayor Wertheimer extends the free use of the municipal camp ground on the Rock River and the sessions may be held in the dance hall at the camp ground or in the City Hall. There are five good hotels also.

“Adam Grimm’s early activities at Watertown in introducing some of the first Italian bees brought to the United States would also make this a fitting memorial to him and other early Wisconsin beekeepers.

“You will be very welcome.”

Dodge County Beekeepers' Association.

A. A. Brown, Secretary.

Jefferson County Beekeepkeepers’ Association,

W. R. Abbott. Secretary.

G. B. Lewis Company. Kennith Hawkins.

“What the American Honey Producers’ League Is Doing”— Colin P. Campbell, vice president. A. H. P. L.

“The Entomological Basis of Beekeeping”—Dr. S. B. Fracker.

“How the Market Department Can Help the Beekeeper"—C. D. Adams.


Registered, 7. Attendance. 111.

Speakers : “S w arming and Swarm Control”—Mr. Demuth.

“Commercial Aspects of Bee Disease Control”—Dr. Fracker.

Resolution as follows passed by the members in attendance:

“The Beekeepers of Wisconsin in Fourth Annual Conference, 210 strong, assembled at Green Bay. have enjoyed the high privilege and the unique advantage of sitting under the instruction of men in whom we recognize our foremost national and international leaders in the educational work and progressive development of the beekeeping industry.

“We have sat at the feet of the masters of our calling in the scientific and practical sides of both the production and distribution of honey.

“We have been inspired by our instructors through their effective presentation of the best information known with respect to modern beekeeping practice and by their fine spirit and sincere desire and effort to uplift and help us.

“Let us hope that we have drunk deep from the fountains of knowledge and inspiration. We shall take away with us whatever we brought with us the power to appreciate and assimiliate.

“Our vision has been widened, our perspective corrected, out


Supplement to WISCONSIN HORTICULTURE, September HU!

Biggest Beekeepers' Banquet.

ambition stirred. If we profit by our instruction and grasp our op portunity, we shall not sit complacently and drift, but will redouble our efforts to put Wisconsin on the beekeeping map, to the end that our industry shall move up in the scale of importance, from the tenth rank in Wisconsin industries to the seventh or eighth and ultimately make for the individual success of all legitimate honey producers.

“We tender our sincere thanks to Dr. Phillips, Mr. Demuth. Mr. Dadant and Mr. Root for the genuine practical and inspirational values obtained through their instruction.”

Beekeepers in Attendance per 1. C. Painter.

Discussion on Marketing—Dr. Siebecker, I. C. Painter and H. F. Wilson.

6:00 P. M —PICNIC.

138 Attended.

Toastmaster—J. N. Kavanaugh.

Speakers — W. P. Brenner, Frank Mongin. Dr. Phillips, E. R. Root. C. P. Dadant, Mrs. Fred Christiansen and H. F. Wilson.

Prize I Jrawings : «

1 Queen Bee — Mrs. Leonard Pfeifer, Sawyer, Door County.

5 lbs. Dadant's Wired Foundation for Split Bottom Bar—Julius Gentz. Wabeno, Forest County.

One Year’s Subscription to ‘'Gleanings in Bee Culture”—Ray Sundberg, Menomonie. Dunn County.



Registered, 10. Attendance, 40.

Speakers:  “The Diseases of

Adult Bees”—Dr. Phillips.

"rhe Control of Brood Diseases”—Dr. Phillips.

“How to Make Honey Vinegar”—E. R. Root.

“Melting of Wax”—C. P. Dadant.

“Use of Beeswax in Candy Making”—W. P. Brenner.

“Use of Beeswax for Floor Polish"—Discussion.

The following resolution was passed:

“We. the beekeepers attending the Beekeepers’ Chautauqua at Green Bay. hereby express our deepest appreciation and sincere thanks for the many courtesies, privileges and hospitality extended to us by the members of the Brown County Beekeepers’ Association and tlie mayor of Green Bay. We especially thank the ladies who provided the splendid banquet.”

Beekeepers in Attendance.

Per Secretary.

Prize Drawings:

1 Modified Dadant Hive—Andrew Stevens, Stockbridge, Calumet County.

1 lb. Airco Foundation—L. T. Bishop. Sheboygan, Sheboygan County.

1 lb. Airco Foundation—E. A. Radtke. Menomonie, Dunn Con nty.

1 lb. Airco Foundation—Mrs.


Supplement to WISCONSIN HORTICULTURE, September 19.>>

Wm. Hanneman, Cecil, Shawano County.


Attendance, 32.

Business session of state association members.

Registration of Beekeepers’ Chautauqua, August 7 to 11 No. No.

of Peo- of

pie Reg-County. istered.




Ashland ........





Brown ..........





Calumet ........





Chippewa ......





Crawford ......





Dane ..............





Dodge ..........





Door ..............





Douglas ........








Fond du Lac..










Kewaunee ....





La Crosse ....



Langlade ......





Manitowoc ..















Milwaukee ....





Monroe .........

. 1









Oconto ..........





Ozaukee ......

. 1




Pierce ............



Polk ..............

. 2




Richland ......

.. 1




Rusk ..............





Shawano ......





Sheboygan ..









Walworth ...










Waushara ....





Waukesha ....






.. 5

Total registered

for Wisconsin..200

Total number of colo

nies represented........7,577

General average per person in attendance ....................39 colonies

Average per bona fide beekeeper in attendance ............61 colonies Registered from other states— Ohio, Indiana, Michigan, Illinois, Iowa, Georgia, Washington, D. C.—10, representing 2,793 (?) colonies of bees.

ing kept bees 60 years.

ing kept bees 50 years.

ing kept bees 45 years.

ing kept bees 40 years.

ing kept bees 35 years.

ing kept bees 30 years.

ing kept bees 20 years.

10 Beekeepers registered as having kept bees 15 years.

7 Beekeepers registered as having kept bees 10 years.

27 Beekeepers registered as having kept bees 5 years.

ing kept bees 4 years.

15 Beekeepers registered as having kept bees 1 year.

24 persons interested in beekeeping registered.

Miller Memorial Library Comes to Wisconsin

The committee in charge of the Dr. C. C. Miller Memorial Library has decided that, all things considered, the University of Wisconsin is the best place for such a library and an effort will be made to create under this memorial one of the finest beekeeping libraries in the world. Under the agreement made between the committee and the university, all bee books and bee journals will be available to the entire beekeeping interests of the United States.

Our beekeepers are urged to very carefully go through stacks of old magazines and pick out all the bee journals that you can find. Send these in to the Miller Memorial Library. University of

Wisconsin. We are especially interested in receiving copies of journals started in the United States and discontinued after a few volumes had been printed. Miss Mathilde Candler, Cassville, Grant County, Wisconsin, has just turned over to the library two volumes of the Rural Beekeeper, published at River Falls, W'is., in 1904 and 1905. If anyone has other volumes of this journal, we would appreciate a donation, or even an oportunity to buy these to complete this set.

Wisconsin beekeepers have already given more than $100 to this memorial, but as the total sum subscribed so far is only about $2,000, additional subscriptions are needed. We are, therefore, asking our beekeepers to make further donations. An initial subscription taken at the Chautauqua brought $33. If you cannot contribute in cash, please donate your old bee books and journals. A list of the contribu

tors follows:

C. D. Adams

Otto Kiessig...........

Edw. Hassinger, Jr

C. W. Stauss

R. A. Schwarzkopf

Claude Moll

J. T. Clemens

Mr. and Mrs. C. W. Herring


Dr. and Mrs. R. E. Minahan 5 00 Martin Krueger

A. A. Brown.........

Fred Leonard

Lewis Peterson

Geo. Jacobson

Dunn County Aggies

E. S. Hildemann

E. A. Barleman

L. T. Bishop

V. G. Milurn

John F. Otto

C. W. Radloff

A. V. Pollock

Harvey Fisher

A. H. Kapelke

Mrs. F. Christiansen

Kennith Hawkins

M. F. Hildreth


Official Organ of The State Beekeepers Association

Supplement to WISCONSIN HORTICULTURE, October 11)1.1

Beekeeping and Popular Errors.

By C. P. Dadant.

Editor American Bee Journal, Hamilton, Ill.

Many popular errors are injurious to the beekeeping interests, because they create an unfair prejudice against bees. To know what these are, and to be prepared to answer them and demolish them is of great importance to the honey producer. If we could educate the people properly upon these matters, we could probably secure a much greater regard for our industry.

I will therefore confine myself to a consideration of the errors usually current among the public on the question of bees and honey.

One of the most common errors is to believe that bees are injurious to sound fruit, principally grapes. The grape grower, in times of honey scarcity, when his grapes are ripening, sees bees upon damaged grapes and takes it for granted that they are the authors of the damage. This is incorrect. Bees cannot damage sound fruit. The physiological fact is that their mandibles are not armed with teeth. They are made of a horny substance, and are shaped much like spoons, working together sidewise instead of up and down like our own jaws. They can pull apart cloth, paper, and some harder substances, because they take hold of minute fibers that project and pull upon them until the fabric comes apart. But the skin of fruits is smooth and hard enough to prevent them from boring through it. Some people think that the bees sting the fruit. That is another mistake. If they did so, some of their poison would get into the fruit and make it deadly to them as well as to other insects, for the poison of the bees is stronger than that of the rattlesnake, though in much more infinitesimal quantity.

The actual test which proves that bees cannot damage sound fruit is that we can starve them on it. Take a bunch of sound, ripe grapes, crush one berry, puncture another berry slightly with a pin, then put the bunch in the center of a hive of bees, right in the cluster. Examine it the next day, and you will find that the crushed berry has been entirely sucked dry, that the punctured berry has been sucked down to a certain depth, but that no other berry has been touched.

So the bees cannot damage sound fruit, and their action upon damaged fruit is simply a provision of nature which dictates that nothing should be lost. However, in the case of bees, if a bad winter comes and they have much of this unsound juice in their hives, it makes them sick and many die, for it ferments and even turns to vinegar in the cells.

Many people take things for granted, without hunting for proof, other than a casual observation. That is not astonishing, and we would all be inclined to assert, for example, that the sun turns around the earth, instead of the earth turning on itself in 24 hours. It took the knowledge of the astronomers to teach us that the sun is immovable, as far as we are concerned, and that we are revolving in space at the speed of a cannon ball. So a man is quite excusable in believing things that are not so, although they appear so.

Another error common among the people, though in less degree than the former, is that bees damage flowers when they work upon them. Bees are beneficial to flowers. In fact, many flowers need the agency of insects to fertilize their fruit. Apple trees, pear, plum, cherries, raspberries and many other fruits would be barren if it were not for the insects which help distribute the pollen upon their pistils or female parts.

Horticulturists have tried covering apple buds with gauze and keeping them covered until after the bloom, and in all cases, few, if any, of those blossoms bore fruit. Similarly, if the blooming takes place in rainy weather, when insects such as bees cannot visit the blossoms, the blooming is a failure. Or if a very strong wind blows during the best of blooming, one will perceive that the tree has most of its fruit on the sheltered side, the insects having been unable to withstand the strength of the wind on the windy side.

There are plants upon which the male and female parts are on different blossoms. Such are the melon, the pumpkin, the cucumber. If you look carefully at the blossoms of these plants you will see that some have the rudiments of the fruit under them, while others look barren, having only a blossom with stamens, but no little round fruit under. These are the male blossoms, which bear the pollen or fecundating dust of the flower for the other blossoms. The bees are needed there.

Among strawberries, there are kinds which are only staminate, others pistillate. Without the help of the bees those strawberries are barren.

We might go on indefinitely on this subject. Clover, for instance, needs the bees to fertilize and to bear seed. You are probably aware that the first crop of red clover does not yield much seed. That comes from the fact that the bumblebee is ordinarily the only bee that can get honey from the long corolla of the red clover. There are but few bumblebees in spring, so there is but little fertilizing of the clover. But in summer, when the second crop blooms, the bumblebees are numerous and it is readily fertilized. The honeybee cannot suck honey out of red clover, except in some extraordinary seasons, when its corolla is short. In 1916, the dry spring caused the red clover to have a short corolla in our vicin-


Supplement to WISCONSIN HORTICULTURE, October l!)g>

Wisconsin ^eekeeplna

H. F. WILSON. Editor

Officers of The Wisconsin State Beekeepers


President.....................F. F. Stelling


Vice President.................Conrad Kruse


Treasurer.....................C. W. Aeppler


Secretary.................Malitta F. Hildreth


Annual Membership Fee, SI.00

Remit to M. F. Hildreth, Secy., Madison, Wis.

ity, and the result was that the farmers were greatly astonished to find that the first crop had plenty of seed. We knew why, for we had seen our bees harvest honey from it.

Red clover failed to yield any seed in Australia until, at Darwin’s suggestion, they imported bumblebees into that country.

It is therefore very evident that bees are beneficial to flowers. The horticulturists who thoughtlessly spray their orchards during the bloom, and thus poison many bees, are working against their own interests as well as those of their neighbor beekeepers. The proper time to spray an orchard is just before and just after the bloom. Spraying during the bloom also destroys much of the pollen by diluting it in poison, and thus decreasing many chances of fertilization.

Another error often made by the public is to think that the little yellow or brown pellets that the honey bee brings to the hive are beeswax. Those pellets are pollen, the fertilizing dust of the the flowers which I have just mentioned. The bee gathers this pollen to be used in feeding its young, the larvae which occupy the cells, and grow there, finally transforming themselves into perfect winged insects. The queen lays eggs into the cells; in three days those eggs hatch into little worms which are nursed until they are large enough for their transformation into pupae. Then the bees seal the cell with a capping of wax and other material. At the end of 21 days from the time the egg was laid, a young bee with wings comes out of the cell. The food of this young bee while in the larval or worm state is a pap made by the digestion of honey and pollen in the stomach of the nurse bees. Beeswax, instead of being brought in from the outside, is produced within their bodies, much like the production of milk in the cow, or fat in the hog. Wax is a fatty substance, and its production is made from honey, voluntarily or involuntarily by the bees, and it takes as much honey to produce a pound of wax as it takes corn or feed to produce a pound of fat. The proportion depends, as we all know, upon the conditions in which the animal finds itself, being greater when conditions are unfavorable and less when they are favorable. It is commonly accepted that comb costs the bees from 7 to 20 pounds of honey for each pound of comb produced, the average amount required being about 10 pounds to 1. So if we can sell our honey at 20 cents per pound, the comb in which the bees store it costs us $2 per pound. That is why we use what is called a honey extractor, a machine which throws the honey out of the comb by centrifugal force without damaging it, so that it may be returned to the hive to be filled again. Extracted honey costs the beekeeper about half what comb honey in sections costs him to produce. That is why extracted honey often sells at less than comb honey, though it is in every way as good.

Another error is to believe that all honey should be alike in color and flavor. Honey varies just as much, in taste and in looks, as flowers vary. White clover honey is usually water white and of a very mild taste. Basswood honey is also white, but of very aromatic flavor, tasting just like basswood blossoms smell. Heartsease honey is of pink amber, Spanish needle and goldenrod honeys are of bright yellow color and strong flavor. Buckwheat honey is dark brown and smells and tastes just as one can imagine when passing by a field of buckwheat in full bloom. Honey-dew, which is a product of plant lice, is the poorest of all, being almost black and of very indifferent flavor. But all honey is sweet, containing about 85 per cent of saccharine matter, while the vile glucose made of corn starch and sold under names, such as Karo, or Red-clover, or other fancy names, contains less than 30 per cent of sweetness. People who fear adulteration in honey should taste it. They would soon recognize whether it was sweeter than those cheap syrups.

Many people are also unaware of the fact that honey will harden, granulate, or candy, when it is exposed to cool temperatures after it has been taken out of the combs. Many imagine that such honey is either spoiled or adulterated when the fact is that the granulation of honey is a test of purity. The people who imagine that honey “turned to sugar,” as commonly said, is adulterated, are helping the dealers in cheap corn syrup to fool them by making them believe that that cheap product is better than granulated honey. The fact is that honey has three times the sweetening power of commercial glucose.

By the way, here is another popular error which should be demolished. That is the belief that there is such a thing as manufactured comb honey. One of the noted chemists of the United States, some forty years ago. told as a hoax that there were factories where the honey comb was manufactured out of paraffin, filled with commercial glucose, and sealed over by machinery. He also said that there were manufacturers of eggs, and that the only difference between those eggs and the natural hen’s eggs was that the former could not hatch.

This story was accepted as true by many newspapers at that time and there are still many who believe that there is such a thing as manufactured comb honey. The chemist who invented that story 



excused himself by saying that he did not think people would be so gullible as to believe it. But we find it necessary to fight it even at this late date, because since the invention of comb foundation, the combs of honey in little sections are always straight and almost perfect, and this helps to entertain the error.

Aside from the fact that the making of the entire comb is an impossibility, there is a very easy way to convince the man who will listen to the incorrectness of this idea. The combs of bees are just like the leaves of trees, although all built in the same way, on a similar pattern, there are no two alike. You might spend a whole day putting tree leaves side by side; you would never find two exactly alike, no more than you would find two men exactly alike. In the same manner, you might spend a whole day placing sections of honey side by side, you would find no two combs alike. If they were made by machinery there might be half a dozen patterns, but you would find many exactly alike.

That which gave plausibility to the story was the manufacture of comb foundation, which is the making of the base of the honey comb out of beeswax, the bees’ own product, and giving it to them to build upon. This secures perfectly straight combs and makes the labor of the beekeeper a pleasure, in the production of honey. But the bees accept only beeswax foundation. Attempts, by dishonest manufacturers, to give them foundation made out of a mixture of paraffin, have always proven a failure, for they know their own product and will accept no other.

Now there is still another error into which even experienced beekeepers fall, that is the belief that the little bee-moth can do injury to bees. The bee-moth feeds upon old combs. The winged moth lays its eggs at the entrance or on the cracks of the hives of bees, and when a colony is too weak to care for its combs the little worm which hatches enters the hive, makes webs through the comb and finally destroys it.

In other words, the moth grub is a scavenger, just like the grub of the carrion fly which devours the bodies of dead animals which are left exposed to the air in summer. But the moth can no more injure a healthy colony of bees, which contains a queen and a sufficient number of bees to cover its combs, than the carrion fly can kill a healthy cow by laying eggs upon its hide. Both the moth and the carrion fly have a mission to fulfill, and if we suffer from their actions we have only ourselves to blame. The trouble, in the case of bees, is that when a colony is very weak, the bees in it crowd about the entrance all day long and the casual observer may imagine that the colony is strong, while probably all the bees are there, on the outside. When night comes, the bees re-enter the hive; then the moth, which is a “night-bird,” comes and lays its eggs near the door. The tiny little creatures, when they hatch, enter the hive and hide in the combs, eating their way as they go. Soon the hive is entirely filled with them, and the beekeeper says: The moth killed my bees. It is only his ignorance which is the cause of their death.

It is very important for beekeepers to fight these more or less unreasonable errors, for most of them work to their detriment with the masses. If no one mistrusted the purity of the honey which our bees produce, the sales of honey would be eight or ten times as numerous. In fact, we could probably not fill all the requirements of the trade in our most successful seasons. So it behooves us to post the public in every way on the popular errors concerning bees and honey.

Members who desire to buy honey to keep up their local trade should write to the secretary for a list of the members who have honey for sale.

First Prize Recipes, Bee and Honey Exhibit, State Fair 1922.

Honey Drop Cookies.

Class No. 25.

y2 cup butter.

Pinch salt.

1 cup chopped walnut meats.

About 3 cups flour.

Beat the honey, eggs and butter together. Sift flour, baking powder and salt and mix to make a stiff dough. Drop with a teaspoon on a butter tin. Bake until brown.

Mrs. H. V. Wilson, South Milwaukee, Wis.

Honey Cake.

Class No. 24.

1 cup honey.

1 cup shortening, part butter and part lard.

1 egg.

Pinch of salt.

y2 cup sour milk.

1 teaspoon soda.

y2 teaspoon cinnamon.

% teaspoon nutmeg.

About 4 scant cups of flour.


Chocolate Frosting: Melt bitter chocolate over water (about two squares). When melted stir in honey until thick.

Miss E. M. Goelzer, Oakwood, Wis.

Honey Nut Cake.

Class No. 26.

1% cups honey. y2 cup butter.

y2 cup sour cream.

y2 teaspoon soda.

1 cup chopped walnuts.

% cup sweet milk.

Flour enough sifted with three teaspoons of baking powder to consistency of cake butter. Ice top of cake with granulated honey, mixed with chopped nuts. Miss E. M. Goelzer, Oakwood, Wis.

State Association Convention.

Board of managers’ meeting December 13.

Convention December 14 and 15 at the Auditorium, Milwaukee, in connection with the W isconsin Products Exposition.

At the prize drawings given at the Beekeepers’ Chautauqua, Green Bay, August 7 to 11, the copy of “Honey Bee Book” was drawn by Mr. Thomas Cavill. Mr. Cavill gave his address as Lawrence, Wis. There is no postoffice under the name of Lawrence, and if any of our members know this beekeeper, please send his address to the secretary.

Inventory Your Beekeeping.

Although we as beekeepers should always be checking up our beekeeping, there are two natural times each year for looking over the past months’ work and taking an inventory of our beekeeping. The most interesting time is generally in the fall after the crop is harvested and we like to point out the colonies which have stored the most and we take less pride in what others have done. In the spring we have another chance to check up our fall and winter management.

We may take results as a matter of course and explain them as “fate,” or simply pass them by. But for every result there is a cause and we should find it, if possible. Success and failure are very closely related, for to enjoy uniform success one must know the causes of failure. To merely say that certain colonies died during winter, dwindled away in the spring, or, on the other hand, stored a bumper crop of honey, is of no value. Unless we know the causes we cannot avoid losses or duplicate successes. To neglect to find the causes is to deprive ourselves of our greatest means of future success.

Rut why is it so necessary to know the causes of our successes and failures? Let us introduce a fundamental fact of educational psychology, which is that the process of learning is completed in an expression, not in our impressions. By impression is meant receiving ideas from our own experiences or the experiences of others, by seeing, hearing, reading, etc. By expression is meant doing or acting in accordance with the judgments we form from these ideas. Let me illustrate. Someone says to introduce queens by the honey method and explains how (impression) and we follow out the directions (expression). We haven’t learned how until we have done it successfully, no matter how thoroughly we know the directions. But how often we say that we have learned as soon as we get the information. How many times we “learn” and do not put down the directions in “black and white” until we can use them and then find out we have forgotten something essential because we fail. How many a beekeeper has tried Dr. Miller’s simple method of raising queens and had the bees build drone comb on his carefully prepared starters. Perhaps he got the directions from somebody who “knew how” by reading. Even if descriptions are complete, our own experience is necessary. How many of us have memorized the characteristics of European Foul Brood and found that neglected brood had so many of them that we were reasonably sure it was E. F. B. We have no right to say that we know without the experience.

By emphasizing the fact that we do not know when we get impressions, I do not condemn or belittle impressions. I only want to emphasize the other side and completion of the cycle of learning, the expression. Any beekeeper who deprives himself of reading the bee journals, attending beekeepers’ meetings, etc., is robbing himself of his greatest sources of impressions. The more impressions we can get before we act the greater is our chance ot succeeding, but to continually keep on getting impressions with out using them is to acquire a bad habit. The rule is, “Use it or lose it.” Reading, listening, observing, etc., may degenerate into mere intellectual entertainment without practical value.

Let us return to our losses and successes. These are the results of our own acts; either we did do or didn’t do as we should. If we know what we did, and unless we have records we probably will not know, we can aid our experiences by new ideas from the experiences of others and form new judgments for future action. When we act again we should be more successful. What we do is of much greater importance from our standpoint than what others have done. Our successes and failures are our expressions and by them only we learn, if we can understand their causes.

Beekeeping appears so simple to most people until they get into it. Then it seems so hard to obtain uniform success. And the reason is because it requires so much experience; so many different situations must be met and understood. We can read all we wish, but no matter how full we are of “book learning,” we have to meet the situations face to face, often more than once, before we know. There is an abundant source of learning right in our own bee yards, all we need, if we only get our impressions and use them. Let us take advantage of these natural divisions of the beekeeping year to find out how wisely we have either caused the bees to conserve or to expend their energy.

Ivan Whiting, Sec’y, Sheboygan County Bee Ass’n.

Dr. S. B. Fracker has consented to act as secretary of the American Honey Producers’ League.


Official Organ of The State Beekeepers Association

Supplement to WISCONSIN HORTICULTURE. November mil

Convention Will Be Held at Milwaukee

At the last convention the following motion was passed: “The Secretary is hereby given authority to take a mail vote on whether or not the state convention be held in 1922 at Madison or Milwaukee, in connection with the Markets Exposition as was done this year.”

To carry out this plan, the secretary sent out on September 15th, a letter to each member asking for his vote in this matter. To date ( Nov. 7th) 110 votes have been received for Milwaukee and 24 for Madison. Since the majority of votes are for Milwaukee the convention will be held at that place. We hope more of our members will attend this year than in previous years. Look over the following pi o-gram and make your plans to attend.



2:00—Board of Managers’ Meeting, Milwaukee Auditorium, J»il waukee.


9:00—Social Meeting. Paying Dues.

9:30—Call to Order.

Reading minutes of last convention.

Secretary’s Report. Treasurer’s Report.

Report of Standing Committees.

Report of Board of Managers.

Appointment of Committees.


.1 :30—“Value of Cooperation,” A. A. Brown, Sec’y Dodge Co. Ass’n.

“Standardizing Honey Labels and Packages,” B. B. Tones, State Division of Markets.

Report of Label Committee,' C. W. Aeppler, Chairman.

“A Standard Honey Container for the State Association,” H. F. Wilson.

Open discussion on a uniform and standard container for the state association.

“Box Hive Beekeeping and the Marketing of Apiary Equipment,” Dr. S. B. Fracker, State Entomologist.

“Miller Memorial Library,” 11. F. Wilson, University of Wisconsin.

Address, H. C. Dadant, Dadant Company, Hamilton, Illinois. (Topic to be announced later.)


7 :30—Beekeeping “Movie.” FRIDAY MORNING, DECEMBER 15'ril 9:00—“Progress of the Area-

Clean Up Work in Wisconsin,” C. D. Adams, State Apiary Inspection Department.

“The Attitude of the State Department of Agriculture Towards Bee Disease Eradication Work,” C. I’. Nor-gord, State Commissioner of Agriculture.

“The National Honey Producers’ League,” Dr, Fracker, Secretary.

“ Commercial Beekeepers and their Success”—Representative of the G. B. Lewis Company.

“Some Data on Spring Brood Rearing,” Ivan Whiting, Plymouth.

“Plans for 1923 Extension Work,” L. P. Whitehead.


Open discussion on How to Make Our Association More Valuable.

Business Session.

Report of Committees.

Old and New Business.

Election of Officers.

Appointment of Standing Committees.

Wisconsin Products Exposition Milwaukee, December 14th to 20th, Auditorium State Association


Through the splendid cooperation and financial support of the members of the State Beekeepers’ Association, the affiliated locals and supply companies of Wisconsin, the Honey Booth for the State Beekeepers’ Association at the Wisconsin Products Exposition is assured. Your secretary was indeed pleased to have the members respond so quickly in providing financial help as well as samples of honey and takes this opportunity to thank all members, local, and supply companies who donated either money or honey for this booth. A list of those making donations is included.

It is easy for all of us to realize the advertising value of such a booth, but perhaps only a few consider the educational value in such an exhibit. An attractive display of honey—and the committee is going to put forth every effort to make it attractive—will do more to put the public straight concerning HONEY than any other plan we could undertake at this time, where the cost would not be more than $125. What good will it do to advertise our product if the public has not been convinced that we have a TRUE product? This brings us back to educational work. It is through educational channels that the public will be convinced of the true value of our product, honey. We produce a first class product— let’s place it in its proper place. The State Association Honey Booth will try to aid in that direction.

Supplement to WISCONSIN HORTICULTURE, November 1922

Wisconsin beekeeping

II. F. WILSON. Editor


Ext.     <


[Jomb Lbs.

W. A. Luinlev............

.. 5

G. A. Gust..................

.. 5

.. 15

A G rebel....................

.. 10

A. H. Kapelke............

.. 10

J. I.. Robinson............

.. 5

B. J. Thompson..........

.. 6

L. O. Brainard............

.. 5

I.. A. Loboda..............

.. 5

Carl H. Maass............

.. 4

Emilv F. Creydt..........

.. 1

Frank Yansky............

.. 1


M J Krubsack..........

.. 4

J C Hatch.................

.. 2

Edw. Hassinger ........

.. 1


Herman Gullickson....

.. 1

F. E. Matzke..............

.. 12


H. L. Hartwig............

R A Klabunde..........

.. 1

’ 1

H. Lappley ................

... 5


Alfred Martin............


A. V. Pollack............

... 10


Pete Cass....................

... 5

A. F. Haberman........

.. 2

L. J. Corbeille............

.. 1

1 lenry Meyer ............

... 2


A F. Schneider..........

.. 6

Theo. Qtialley ............

... 2


Chas. McKinney........

... 5

Glen Aspinall ........

.. 2%

C. W. Radio*! ........

.. 5

Wm. Hanneman ......

.. 5

Theo. Gentz ..............

.. 5

T. A. Moller ..............

.. 4

R. A. Schwarzkopf.

... 5


Conrad Kruse ..........

... 1

M. A. Shepard ..........

... 2/,

Otto & Procknow ......

... 10

Wm. Michaelson ......

... 5

Mathilde Candler .....

... 12

Wm. R. Pember ......

... 4

F. D. Leonard...........

... 2

C. E. Zilmcr .............

... 5

Total .....................



Officers of The Wisconsin 8tate Beekeepers


................F.  F. Stelling


Vice President.................Conrad Kruse

Logan ville

Treasurer. .

...................C. W. Aeppler

Oct nomowoc

Secretary. .

...........Malitta F. Hildreth


Annual Membership Fee, $1.00

Remit to

M. F. Hildreth, Secy., Madison, Wis.


Individual Members

John J. Tanner........................$

John Kneser

C. H. Maass

A. E. Jaeger

A. F. Schneider

Andrew Stevens

A. II. Kapelke

Emily F. Creydt

II. V. Wilson............

11. J. Vernik............

Wm. Sass

A. A. Brown

M. J. Krubsack

W. E. Krause

A. R. Tibbetts...

Wendell Burg

Jas. Gwin

A. E. Sherman

Emilie Muller

Frank Yanskv

Geo. S. Hall'

James L. Howard.............

Arthur J. Schultz

Herman Gullickson

Wm. Cezar

Supply Companies

Lotz Company

A. H. Rusch Company

Affiliated Locals

Brown Co. Assn

Milwaukee Co. Assn

Fox River Valley Assn

Sheboygan Co. Assn

Dodge Co. Assn

Shawano Co. Assn

Richland Co. Assn

N. E. Wis. Assn

Rock Co. Assn

Langlade Co. Assn

T? A. Moller

F. D. Leonard

John H. Paas

Conrad Kruse

Wm. Michaelsen

Mathilde Candler

Total ..................................$113.00

The Honey Market and Co-operative Maiketing

Many beekeepers of Wisconsin are interested in a state marketing association and a great many have agreed to support such an organization. However, the present market condition in Wisconsin is very unsatisfactory for the reason that beekeepers are offering honey for sale in ten pound pails at prices varying from 10 cents to 25 cents per pound. Wherever this condition exists you are bound to find the industry very much demoralized. It is not necessary to mention the fact that beekeepers who are selling honey as low as 10 cents a pound retail are really not making enough to cover the time they have given to their bees. This is a well known fact. What is needed is a general uniform price. This price should be set by the State Association at our next annual convention. A Price Committee should be selected to consider the matter of prices for Wisconsin honey, both retail and wholesale.

We are making arrangements with a honey pail manufacturer in Pennsylvania to furnish us with lithographed pails. These pails will be stamped with a state association label and there will be a place on the top of the pail for individual beekeepers to place their own name. It is not expected that these pails will be used before the year 1923. However, every pail of honey under the association label should sell at a uniform price, both wholesale and retail. A scale of prices suggested by the Michigan State Beekeepers’ As

sociation is as follows:


1 to 5 5-pound pails

6 to 12 5-pound pails

13 to 25 5-pound pails

26 to 100 5-pound pails

101 or more 5-pound pails


1 to 5 5-pound pails

6 to 12 5-pound pails

13 to 25 5-pound pails

26 to 100 5-pound pails

Honey prepared for the retail market should be heated to 160 de-

Supplement to WISCONSIN HORTICULTURE, November

grees, thoroughly filtered and packed in new pails neatly labeled.

Per Lb. 1 60-pound can, light honey

f. o. b. shipping point

1 60-pound can, amber honey .125 1 or more cases of 2 60-pound


Certainly in Wisconsin we ought to be able to do nearly as well, if we cannot do better, and it is suggested that ten pound pails be retailed at not less than $2 for white honey and $1.75 for amber honey. Five pound pails should be retailed at not less than $1.15 for white and $1 for darker grades. Arc the beekeepers of Wisconsin ready to adopt a uniform container and sell their product at a uniform price? The prices of the lithographed labeled pails will be about two to three cents more than for the ordinary cans. However, this type of container is very much better than the ordinarypail now in use. Orders for more than 5,000 pails have already been received. Other beekeepers who are interested should write us. We expect to give more definite information on this subject at the convention in December and also in the next issue of “Wisconsin Beekeeping.” Beekeepers should come prepared to discuss this matter at the meeting and leave their order for next year's containers.

To the Members of the State Beekeepers’ Association and Officers of Affiliated Associations:

The Legislative Committee of the State Association is trying to line up all beekeeping matters which should be brought before the legislature in 1923 and would like to bring a few things before the members now so that they can think about them before the annual convention.

We believe the following things a re needed:

An appropriation for the State Association to help promote its welfare by having annual reports printed, circulars regarding the value of honey, bring in outside speakers, put on honey displays. The money received from individual membership dues is not sufficient to take care of this. Investigations show that other agricultural organizations in Wisconsin are receiving appropriations for this purpose. In some cases these organizations have less than 100 members. We have at present 700 members.

A new beekeeping buliding at the University so that enough room will be available for teaching work, for a beekeeping museum, for investigational work, a building our beekeepers will be proud to show. Three states received appropriations for this purpose the past season. Shall Wisconsin be at the bottom? Just visit the present housing quarters to convince yourself that there is not enough room to carry on good work in any line of beekeeping work.

Bring up the matter of poison spraying to get the orchardists and horticulturists to cooperate with the beekeeper. Since bees aid greatly in cross pollination of plants and fruit trees, convince the horticulturists and orchardists that it is to their advantage not to apply poison spray while trees are in full bloom.

Jas. Gwin, Chairman. Robert Siebecker, Conrad Kruse,

Legislative Committee.

Honey Tariff Bill

On September 21, President Harding signed the Fordney-Mc-Cumber Tariff Bill, which provides that all honey coming into the United States from foreign countries carry an import duty of 3c per pound. This replaces the import duty of 10c per gallon which has been effective since the 1913 Tariff Bill.

Isle of Wight Disease Bill

This bill regulating the importation of bees into the United States was passed by the Senate, August 23 and has been signed bv the President.

The head of the Traveling Library Department of the Wisconsin Free Library Commission reports that a number of copies of new editions of The Honey Bee, by Langstroth and Dadant, have been received and are now available for distribution.

The beekeepers have not been taking full advantage of this library which has a considerable number of copies of several standard works on apiculture, including Beekeeping, by Dr. Phillips; The Life of the Bee, by Maeterlinck, and many others. All residents of Wisconsin are entitled to secure these books for three weeks on an agreement to prepay the transportation charges to Madison when they are through with them. The books may be kept three weeks and renewed for three weeks more if desired.

A State Association Advertising-Fund

The Texas Honey Producers’ Association has a plan whereby every beekeeper pays into the association a one cent per colony tax for a special advertising fund of Texas Honey. Would it not be well for Wisconsin beekeepers to do something of the kind? One cent per colony is a small amount for each beekeeper to pay, but the total would amount to a great deal. Such a fund, for instance, would permit us to print posters which could be distributed in grocery stores and other places where honey is sold. We could also print a small pamphlet to be handed to individual customers reached by the storekeeper and also the beekeeper. This matter will be brought up at the next annual convention. In the meantime we would appreciate receiving opinions from all beekeepers who are interested.

Through the office of Secretary F. E. Millen, the members of the Ontario Beekepers’ Association have obtained $60,000 worth of goods, including half a million containers, and $10,000 worth of bees and queens.—G. B. Lewis Company notes.


Supplement to WISCONSIN HORTICULTURE, Norember l'J’2

Honey Booklets

When you sell a big order of honey to the grocer, give him a few copies of ‘‘Honey; How and \\ hen to Use It.” Get your supply today from the American Honey Producers’ League. Secretary’s Office, Capitol Annex, Madison, Wisconsin. The price is $4.50 per hundred, or if you cannot use that many, 20 copies for $1.25.  10% discount to

affiliated members of the League.

The Bee and Honey Exhibit at the 1922 State Fair

The 1922 State Fair as a whole, and the Bee and Honey Department in particular, was by far the best in all respects ever presented in the Badger State. The different features combining to achieve this unprecedented success are:

Following is a list of the large exhibitors. and awards to each :

A. L. Kleeber............... $163.00

F. T. Houghton

Caroline Johnson

Donald W. Reisner..............

John Kneser ........................ 102.00

Jos. M. Barr............

Charlie Pritchard

Theo. Bronson.. .................$

Green County

Grant County

Wood County

Sauk County

Small awards

Total awards ....................$993.00


1021           835.00

1922 ...................................... 993.00

In addition to these large exhibits two large and creditable commercial exhibits were conducted by the G. B. Lewis Company. Watertown, Wisconsin, and the A. I. Root Company, Medina, Ohio.

Mr. I.. P. Whitehead, of the University. exhibited a frame of bees with ripe, sound fruit in the upper part, accessible to the bees, to demonstrate that bees will not puncture sound fruit. Mr. C. D. Adams, of the Division of Markets, was with us every day, a useful and interested attendant. The secretary of the State Association conducted the booth of our state organization the latter part of the week and solicited members.

The practical and instructive demonstration of a hive of bees with lectures twice each day were given by Mr. Jos. M. Barr, v.ho held the attention and interest of large crowds practically every day.

We are still lacking one thing to complete our department and that is a daily practical demonstration of uncapping, extracting, bottling and canning honey. So far it has been impossible to carry on such a demonstration because of insufficient room. However, the prospects for having this addition in 1923 are voed, as we hope to have a new and larger building then. We also expect to be able to place not less than twenty large exhibits, have office rooms for the Superintendent. Judge and Secretary of the State Association, as well as plenty of space for quality goods in Class 2.

A total of 240 entries was made this year.         Gus Dittmer,


Prize Recipes

Bee and Honey Exhibit—State Fair, 1922

Cocoa Spier Cake—Class 24

11 i Cups Honey

1 Teaspoon Cinnamon

1 Teaspoon Nutmeg, grated

'2 Cup Milk

Mix Hour, spices, baking powder and cocoa together. Cream honev, butter and eggs. Add half of the Hour mixture, then the milk and remainder of flour. Bake in lavers. For filling—mix 1 cup of granulated honey with one-half cup melted bitter chocolate and chopped almonds. Spread between and on top of cake. Sprinkle top with chopped nuts.

Mrs. John Kneser. Hales Corners, Wis.

Soft Honev Cake—Class 24

2 Eggs

1 Teaspoon Ginger

1 Teaspoon Cinnamon

Mrs. Donald Reisner.

Waukesha. Wis.

Soft Honey Cake—Class 26

2 EKSs,

1 Teaspoon Ginger

1 Teaspoon Cinnamon

Chas. Pritchard. Wisconsin Rapids. Wis.

Honev Kisses—Class 26

Beat the whites of 3 eggs, add 2 tablespoons of honey. 2 tablespoons corn starch and enough cocoanut to thicken. Bake in a quick oven. Mrs. J. M. B\rr,

West Allis. Wis


Official Organ of The State Beekeepers Association

Supplement to WISCONSIN HORTICULTURE, December 1922

Miller Memorial Library

The first book to be sent in to the Library was a copy of Die Biene and die Bienenzucht, by A. V. Berlepsch. This donation was made by C. W. Aeppler, Oconomowoc, Wis.

A first edition of Langstroth on the Honey Bee was sent in by B. P. Sands, Brookline, Mass.

A reprint of Quinby’s “Mysteries of Beekeeping” has been sent in by A. G. Rauschelbach, Bay City, Mich.

Mr. A. C. Miller of Providence, R. I., is making arrangements to send us his entire library containing several hundred volumes.

Since our last report in the September issue, the following contributions have been made to the Miller Memorial Library Fund.

Local donations:

Rock County Bee Assn..........$ 5.00

Milwaukee Co. Bee Assn......

Winnebago Co. Bee Assn. ..

Richland Co. Bee Assn

Baraboo A alley Bee Assn......

Northeastern W is. Bee Assn. 5.00

Sheboygan Co. Bee Assn......

Washington Co. Bee Assn ...

Total ....................................$37.00

Bv individual beekeepers :

A. H. Seefeldt........................$ 1.00

G. M. Ranurn....

Jos. M. Barr

Conrad Kruse ................

Total .......................... $10.00

Miss Clara G. Jones. West Bend, Wisconsin, has offered to contribute the entire library of her father, (.’apt. Geo. W. Jones, deceased. This library contains a number of splendid old books and numbers of bee journals which are valuable. W'e hope every beekeeper is Wisconsin will look up old journals and bee books and send them into this office. We shall he glad to pay the freight.

Renew Your Membership

Soon the New Year will be here and the secretary will be sending you a notice to renew your membership for 1923. Why not surprise her by sending your dollar before the renewal notices are sent out? Every member who renews before receiving a notice saves his state association postage expense. RENEW NOW.

Lafayette County Beekeepers Organize

The beekeepers of Lafayette County recently organized a county association. They immediately voted to affiliate with the State Association. This is the 44th local association to be formed in Wisconsin and the 33rd local to become affiliated with the State Association. The officers of this organization are:   President, Joseph Kurth,

Mineral Point; Vice President, Henry Arnsmeier, Darlington ; Secretary-Treasurer, John G. Franz, Darlington. They have eleven members in the State Association.

Newspapers all over the United States have published the half interest purchase of a queen bee. We include the article for our members.

Queen Bee to Spend Her Winter in the South

Amenia, N. D., Oct. 12.—A half interest in Achievement Girl, a queen honey bee of the Amenia apiaries, has been sold to J. M. Cutter & Son, Montgomery, Ala., for $150, setting a new record for bee values, according to W. A. Crites, manager of the Amenia bee farm.

The queen was mailed to Alabama, where she will spend the winter, to be returned to North Dakota next spring. She was a member of a colony which last summer set one of the three worlds records for honey production, according to Mr. Crites.

Tariff on Honey

There is a proposed reduction of $2.75 per hundred pounds in rate on comb honey in carloads from North Pacific points to points in Wisconsin, Illinois, Michigan and Minnesota.

.According to L. T. Floyd, Provincial Apiarist of Manitoba, honey production gave Manitoba a revenue of $400,000 in 1922.—Taken from Lewis Bulletin, News Items.

Co-operative Associations

Co-operation means releasing honey when markets ask for it, resulting in increased returns for the producers without adding to the consumers’ expenditure. Moreover. co-operative associations stimulate demand for their products through standardization, advertising and by continuous adoption of better marketing facilities.

Co-operative Beekeeping

Wisconsin is noted the world over for the spirit of co-operation which exists among its people. Along with this spirit of co-operation there exists a certain tendency for progressive development which extends to every part of the state. This spirit exists among our beekeepers to an unusual degree and as a result, it is fairly easy to get both moral and financial support for any undertaking which promises good results for our beekeeping industry.

There are today forty-four local beekeeping associations in the state, thirty-three of these being actively-affiliated with the state association. These associations working together co-operatively have been able to secure a suitable means of bee disease control and standard grades for honey, which have greatly benefited the beekeepers of the state.

The educational program provided by the University has been fully supported by attendance at the local meetings and the summer conferences. We have given full support


.Supplement to WISCONSIN HORTICULTURE, December 1'Jii

Wisconsin Seakeeping

H. F.

WILSON. Editor

Officers of The

Wisconsin State Beekeepers Association


.............F.  F. Stelling


Vice President. . .

..............Conrad Kruse



.............0. W. Aeppler



.........Malitta F. Hildreth


Annual Membership Fee, 11.00

Remit to M. F. Hildreth, Secy., Madison, Wis.

to the American Honey Producers’ League and to the beekeepers of Wisconsin belongs the credit, through the financial support which thev have given, for the placing of the Memorial Library at our University. There still remains, however, a very important matter upon which full co-operation has not been secured, namely, CO-OPERATIV E MARKETING. If a proper plan for organizing a marketing association can be developed which will include a standard product, standard containers, standard prices and an advertising program, we can easily sell several times over the total crop produced in Wisconsin in any year.

Our next effort along this line will be to bring about the use of standard labels on containers for the members of the state association. If our beekeepers will unite in adopting a uniform price for the product to be sold under the Association label and in the Association containers, our battle will be half won. Then, if we can unite to support a state-wide advertising campaign to bring our product before the public and will co-operate with one another in a uniform distribution. we will have completely routed the c emv and the field will be ours. In this effort each local association should start a campaign in their county to carry out this co-operative plan. One or more local organizations will form a basis upon which to build the entire state. Have <<.'<■ amont/ our mcml’crs someone <eho is teilhnri to dc-oelol this Ilan anil Iiil it across'.'

II. F. W.

Advertising Honey

'Hie secretary just received the following clipping, taken from a local Fond du Lac newspaper:



Eggs, strictly fresh—35c.

Butter, prints, lb.—46c.

Butter, tubs—45c.

Potatoes, new, bu.—35c.

Cabbage, per cwt.—35c.

Onions, lb.—2c.

Peas, dry—5c.

Honey, comb, lb.—25c.

Honey, strained, lb.— 151?/20c.

Will our local associations please note that HONEY is included? The Fond du Lac County Beekeepers Association, through co-operative effort, brought the proper pressure to have HONEY included in daily market quotations—and note the price. Our other local organizations can do the same. Take this matter up with your local newspapers and see that HONEY is listed in Market Reports. This is one result of co-operative effort or efficient organization.

Honey—Something That Is Sweet, Yet Healthy

Health can be secured by a judicious choice of foods. Honey is the healthiest sweet known and was much sought after by the ancients.

As a food, honey contains vita-mines and small portions of practically every mineral element used by the human body.

Honey is . refined nectar removed from flowers of various kinds by honey bees. Every flower produces a different flavored nectar and so we may have as many kinds of honey as there are flowers. But as each flower produces only a tiny drop of nectar, it is necessary that there be many thousands of blossoms of one kind in order to get large amounts of a certain kind of honev. trees, sage, fireweed, alfalfa, sweet clover, white clover, alsike clover, wild raspberry, buckwheat and many other plants.

Pure honey is produced in marketable quantities from orange, eucalyptus, tulip trees, basswood

Pure Wisconsin Honey has its source from clover, wild raspberry, basswood or buckwheat.

Wisconsin clover honey is the finest honey produced both as to quality and flavor. It is light amber colored or may be almost white.

Basswood and wild raspberry honey have a rather spicy flavor which is much preferred by some people. If you have never tasted either of them, buy a jar and enjoy one of nature’s tastiest sweets.

Buckwheat honey is very dark in color and has a peculiar flavor which one must learn to like. When one has acquired a taste for it, it is quite desirable.

In choosing honey for table use, the consumer should sample the different kinds that are on the market and select the one that suits. Because one flavor does not appeal to you, do not go away feeling that you do not like honey.

Honey is a natural sweet which has /io ill effect on the digestive system.

Honey is one of the most healthy sweets known and is commonly recommended by physicians for patients who are suffering from indigestion because of the ease with which honey is taken into the human system. It is also known that bacteria which cause Typhoid Fever. Dysentery and other human diseases cannot live in honey for more than a few hours. Honey is therefore sure to be free of such disease germs and may possibly be beneficial in the prevention of such diseases.

It is recommended as a preventive for coughs and colds and its constant use will help you to keep well during the winter.

As a spread for children, it may be given to the smallest child without harmful results. It is very beneficial to children as a mild laxative and will help to keep them well. It is a splendid food to sweeten bread for children who are in the habit of eating between meals as it does not spoil the appetite for other food.

WHEN BUYING HONEY INSIST THAT YOU GET PURE WISCONSIN HONEY, NO OTHER IS JUST AS GOOD. Blended honey containing honey from other states is commonly sold on the market under the label, “Wisconsin honey and honey from other states.’’ Why? Because other honeys are cheaper and a; portion of Wisconsin honev improves the flavor.

—H. F. W.

Members of the Wisconsin State Beekeepers’ Association may secure a fine little booklet, ‘‘How to Sell Honey,’’ free by writing to the A. I. Root Company, Medina, Ohio. This booklet will give you some good information concerning different methods of selling honey and also illustrates the importance of uniform labels, containers and prices. Send for your copy today.

The U. S. Department of Agriculture recently issued a publication entitled “The Insulating Value of Commercial Double-Walled Hives,” by Dr. E. F. Phillips. Send to the Secretary, U. S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C.

How Is It With Your County?

Recently about 175 beekeepers of Sheboygan County on the mailing list of the secretary of the county association all received the latest government bulletin on beekeeping, entitled “Beekeeping in the Clover Region.” These bulletins are sent out by Congressman Edward Voigt, who requested the mailing list. Each person first received nine bulletins and later the one just mentioned. This method may waste some good literature, but it certainly is getting what the government has to offer into the hands of the beekeepers.

Renew Your League Membership Now

One hundred nineteen members of the Wisconsin State Beekeepers’ Association were affiliated members of the American Honey Producers’ League during 1922. Several of these have already renewed for 1923. Why not send in your renewal now ?

Is Membership in the League Worth a Dollar?

The future of the American Honey Producers’ League depends entirely on the members of state associations. How many are willing to send an extra dollar a year to the secretary of their state association for the privilege of affiliation with the League?


Affiliation with the League carries the following privileges.

Annual Meeting of the League

The annual meeting of the League will be held at St. Louis, on February 6, 7, 8. 1923.

A popular program on beekeeping and honey marketing will be carried out and all Wisconsin beekeepers who will be able to attend should write Dr. S. B. Fracker, Secy., State Capitol, Madison, for reservations.

If a good attendance is assured, reduced railway fares will be arranged. .

Average Colony Yield Estimated At 53.8 Pounds

The Division of Crop Estimates states that the average yield this season has been 53.8 pounds per colony, as compared with an average of 44.2 pounds, last year.

Production this year is estimated to have been divided as follows:

Comb 28.7% ; Extracted 59.7% ; Chunk 11.6%: Details by the states will be published in next issue.

Market News Service, Nov. 15. 1922.

Raspberry Honey Wanted

We should like to secure a sample of pure raspberry honey. Any member Inning such honey should write the secretary.

Value of Honey Bee to Horticulture

T. K. Massie has an able article on page 19, of the October Dixie Beekeeper on the value of the honey bee to horticulture. He shows how necessary the honey bee is to fertilize and cross pollinate the flowers of fruit trees. His estimate is that the bee is of ten-fold more value to the fruit grower than to the apiarist and places an estimate of 220 million dollars as their possible economic value. TIis conclusions are well supported by authorities and references which he cites.— I-Tom October Beekeepers' Item.

Richland County Bee Assn. Passes Resolutions

The following resolutions were passed by the Richland County Beekeepers' Association, at its annual meeting October 7, 1922.

Whereas. The State Bee Inspector. Dr. S. B. Tracker, gave the beekeepers with affected vards two years to free their yards of the aforesaid disease, and,

Whereas, This year being the third, more drastic measures were used, and,

Whereas. The State Department of Apiary Inspection is desirous of working in harmony with the beekeepers,

Therefore, be it Resolved, 1 hat we the Richland Beekeepers' Association in Annual Meeting, heartily commend the plan pursued by the State Apiary Inspector.

Be it further Resolved, That we express our appreciation for the work of Messrs. Momsen and Kuenzli. deputy bee inspectors, for their thorough work and the manly way of meeting and treating the members of the industry.

Whereas, No other industry is making greater strides toward development, every thing considered, and.

Whereas, The University of Wisconsin is giving a complete course of instruction in beekeeping. and.

Whereas, Said university has a complete equipment of apparatus and equipment for instruction in both class room and laboratory, and.

Whereas. The housing quarters for instruction at said university in beekeeping is very inadequate and far below the plane of other courses, and.

Whereas, A museum showing all equipment used in earlier beekeeping should be collected for the benefit of beekeeping instruction and Wisconsin beekeepers,

Therefore, Be it Resolved, That we the Richland County Beekeepers' Association in annual meeting assembled, respectfully request that suitable quarters be given for instruction in bee culture.

Be it further Resolved. That a copy of these resolutions be sent to the Assemblymen elect for Richland County and Senator for this district and the Wisconsin Horticulture to be published in the Beekeeping section if space permits.

Whereas, The honey production in the state can be increased hundreds of tons from natural resources already present, namely, the clovers, basswood trees, dandelion. buckwheat, berries and fruit bloom, and,

Whereas, It is generally known that bees aid greatly in the cross pollination of these plants and cause an increased production of seed and fruit, and,

Whereas. The beekeeping industry has received no financial aid except for the prevention of bee diseases, and,

Whereas, Financial aid is now being given to help promote the interests of other agricultural and horticultural associations.

Be it Resolved, That we, the Richland County Beekeepers’ Association, respectfully request an appropriation of an amount to cover the budget now being compiled to be expended through the Wisconsin Beekeepers’ Association in promoting and advancing the beekeeping industry by means of bee and honey displays, state beekeepers' convention, annual reports and other publications.

Jas. Gwin, Secretary.

Richland County Bee. Assn.

These are timely resolutions since the Legislature will convene in January. 1923, and ever', local association should pass similar ones. Now is the time for our locals to line up such work so that when the Legislature meets, our beekeeping problemcan be presented in a systematic manner and receive proper consideration.

Honey Recipe Booklets

Honey sales may be stimulated by offering a recipe book as a premium to each purchaser. The best thing of this kind ever issued is the one recently published by the American Honey Producers League—twenty-one pages on the keeping of honey, and its use in bread, cakes and candy making. Honey producers should put this into the hands of every purchaser.

Order from S. B. Tracker. Secretary of the American Honey Producers’ League. Capitol Annex. Madison. Wisconsin. The booklets can be secured at the following rates:

20 copies ..............$

100 copies

1000 copies

Ten per cent discount to affiliated members of the league.

For Sale—Fifty stands good healthy bees in movable 8 frame hives. 50 comb honey supers, 100 extracting combs, 2 frame extractor, 30 gal. tank,««nisc. supplies all new.

This is a clean, up-to-date apiary: inspected Sept. 8. 1922. by Mr. France; 15 years in beekeeping. Good reason for selling. Write for prices, Ernest Rani-seier. Argyle, Wis.