Planting and Care of Street Trees, a Municipal Function

One of the characters in an early-day American romance of the time when the Stamp Act was causing all kinds of trouble is recorded as declaring that New York never would be a real business city because Broadway and Maiden Lane were lined with trees. The Van Vrooms, the Stuyvesants, the Artavelts, and other early settlers of the country saved fine trees about their homes, on the village greens, along the country roads, and in the fields. But one will see no trees nowadays on Broadway, and Maiden Lane has been transformed from the pleasant, tree-bordered region of Dutch homes with flower gardens into the busiest wholesale jewelry district in America, if not in the world.

Business Streets Bare of Trees

Beauty and comfort gave way to the inroads of commerce, not only in New York but in most of America’s great cities, so that today trees in a business street are a rare sight. There are elm-shaded villages in New England; maple-shaded towns in New York and the Ohio valley, and there are oak-tree streets to be seen in the southeastern states, but for the most part this refers only to small towns or cities—never to the congested centers of population where they should have been preserved. Washington, the national capital, is one of the exceptions, and even there the plantings were not always wisely arranged.

The tree growth on the streets of the average American town or city is ragged and unkempt in appearance, while that of the suburb or small village often is not much better unless the planting has been done under municipal control, and the plantings on a street have been confined to a single kind of tree. The telegraph, the telephone, the electric light, and the trolley car have added their share toward the mutilation or destruction of the good trees that were in existence at the time of their coming.

Faulty methods of pruning have caused disfigurement and ruin. “Success follows the careful planting of good trees which are given adequate protection and timely attention,” says Farmers Bulletin 1209, Planting and Care of Street Trees, just issued by the United States Department of Agriculture. “Every tree should be trained to its proper form while tiquity.

young, so that severe pruning will not be necessary later. Guards are necessary, too, for several years.

“To the mutilation of severe pruning has been added the destruction of many trees in centers of business because they excluded a little light, or made the store less prominent, or were somewhat in the way of using the sidewalk for merchandise.”

Unpaid Commission Does Best Work

The bulletin insists that providing shade on city streets is as much a municipal function as providing lights or sidewalks and should, therefore, be cared for by public officials. Probably the most efficient way of arranging for proper supervision, it says, is through an unpaid commission of three or five members which in turn employes an executive officer. Methods of organization are described, and numerous illustrations show how trees should be planted. There are chapters also describing pruning, spraying, transplanting, and other subjects of importance in every town or city whether it has trees or wishes to have them. The bulletin may be had free upon application to the Division of Publications, United States Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C.

The Growers and the New Marketing Law

The purpose of the law which was enacted by the 1921 Wisconsin legislature establishing a Department of Markets, is, broadly speaking, to promote conditions under which products and commodities will be marketed to the greatest benefit of all the parties concerned in their distribution, namely, the growers, dealers and consumers. This law, which gives the Department of Markets extensive powers, aims to establish a better system of distribution of farm and other products by means of checking unfair practices in business and eliminating the waste and unnecessary expense incidental to the present system of marketing of such products.

The marketing law is based upon the idea that the present high prices to consumers and low prices to producers is due mainly to a lack of organization in the distribution of products. In many cases growers lack the necessary market information and as a result often ship their products to places where the price paid is less advantageous than to places where higher prices prevail. On the other hand, the means of distribution of products, that is the system of transfer of products from producer to consumer, is costly and cumbersome. It has been found that there is a needless duplication of the middlemen concerned in the marketing of products and that this duplication is due to the fact that there are more middlemen handling products than is necessary for an efficient marketing system. The superfluous middlemen entail an unnecessary expense which is charged to the consumer and the producer. And finally, an undesirable thing has been found to exist in the marketing of products in the shape of unfair methods of competition, such as manipulation and certain forms of speculation, which give the persons practicing them an undue advantage over their competitors and thus destroy the benefit of free competition. In this connection it must be borne in mind that anything that destroys free competition hinders the free play of the law of supply and demand and has a detrimental effect on the prices of products, and consequently on the cost of living and on the remuneration of producers and growers.

The marketing law contains provisions which give the Director of Markets the power to eliminate many of the undesirable features of the present system of distribution. All these provisions, however, apply in a different degree to the different trades and businesses in Wisconsin. The fruit and vegetable trade, which is of the most interest to the readers of this magazine, is little concerned with the provisions regarding unfair practices for two reasons: First, because of the comparatively infrequent occur-ences of such practices, and second, because of the fact that if those practices do make their appearance they usually occur on terminal markets which are located outside of the state and which, by virtue of the interstate trade in which they are concerned, are subject to the jurisdiction of the Interstate Commerce Commission.

Of the utmost importance to fruit growers of this state, however, are some of the other provisions of the new marketing law. Thus a great drawback to dealers and growers of fruit and vegetables is the lack of systematic market information. The new law gives the department the power to obtain and furnish information relating to prices and commercial movements of products; information relating to the selection of proper shipping routes and to the adoption of advisable shipping methods. As mentioned above, a great deal of loss is entailed by dealers and growers because of the lack of definite information as to where and when it is best to sell. The Department of Markets is maintaining a market news service for the benefit of all the persons concerned in the distribution of products and it hopes to be in a position to considerably enlarge its activities in this field.

Another important provision of the marketing law relates to the assistance which the department is empowered to give to cooperative organizations. Aside from the lack of definite information as to markets an important item of unnecessary expense in marketing is due to the duplication of services in the transfer of products from the producer to the consumer. It is a recognized fact that growers, by co-operating in the marketing of their products, are able to dispense with the services of certain superfluous middlemen, thus saving for themselves the profits which these unnecessary middlemen realize. The Department of Markets has been active in the organization of cooperative associations and it will be in a position to render more substantial services in this field to the growers of the state because of the facilities which the new co-operative law places at its disposal. This law has been sponsored by the Department of Markets and its provisions tend to remedy certain defects of the old co-operative law, which hindered the growth and development of co-operative farmers’ associations.

The question of standardization of farm products occupies considerable space in the new marketing law. There is a pretty general complaint of loss through failure on the part of the producer or original shipper to sort and grade his product properly. It is a recognized fact that much of the waste and unnecessary expense involved in the marketing of farm products can be eliminated if products were shipped on the basis of quality. This question has received a great deal of attention on the part of the Department of Markets. Some of the efforts of the department in this field were devoted to changing the law of 1917, which regulated the packing and grading of apples. Changes in the regulations were necessary in the general opinion of growers and dealers of the state as voiced at public hearings held by the Department of Markets at six cities in the state.

The new grades which were made the official ones of the state and which were modeled very closely after the grades for apples proposed by the U. S. Bureau of Markets and Crop Estimates, establish three grades for apples: (a) Wisconsin Fancy Grade, (b) Wisconsin “A” grade, and (c) Wisconsin “B’ grade. In addition ungraded apples are allowed to be packed and sold if they conform to certain regulations. It is provided that the Wisconsin Fancy grade shall consist of apples of one variety which are well formed, uniform in size, firm and mature and free from decay, dirt, disease, bruises, insect or mechanical injury and other blemishes or defects except those necessarily caused in proper packing. The Wisconsin “A” grade comprises apples of one variety which are firm and mature, free from decay and practically free from dirt, disease, bruises, insects or mechanical injury and other blemishes and defects, while the Wisconsin “B” grade apples shall be firm, mature, free from decay, worm holes and serious bruises and shall not be materially deformed or materially discolored.

The regulations governing the grading and packing of Wisconsin apples refer to the marking of containers. It is stipulated that every package containing apples produced in Wisconsin which is packed for sale, sold, or delivered must be marked to show the grade of apples, and in case of ungraded apples must bear the mark “ungraded”; it must give the true name of the variety and the minimum size of the fruit; it must bear the name and address of the person by whose authority the apples were packed. The facing of apples in a container has also received special attention under these regulations and a particular emphasis is laid on regulations governing the color. The rules provide that each apple shall have color to the extent of a certain percentage of its surface for its variety. The varieties, stipulated are: Solid red varieties, striped or partial red varieties, red cheeked or blushed varieties, and yellow or green varieties. The percentage of required color for these varieties is higher for the fancy grades than the “A” grade. There are no color requirements for the “B’ grade.

These apple grades, as well as the grades established by the department on potatoes and cabbage, aim at solving an important problem of the fruit and vegetable trade, namely: Selling on the basis of quality. But even if all his produce were shipped properly packed and graded, it would not solve the whole problem for the grower, for the lack of marketing information and the unnecessary expense involved in marketing would tend to check the benefits of selling on the basis of quality. The efforts of the growers should be concentrated at the same time along the three lines of standardization, selection of the right markets and organization of co-operative selling associations. It is expected that the new marketing and cooperative laws will give them considerable facilities to realize this three-fold ambition, thereby promoting a more efficient marketing system, reducing the price for the consumer and increasing the profits of the growers.—Wm. Kirsch, Wisconsin Department of Markets.

The Peony

Peonies do not require very-much in the way of culture. The best time to plant Peonies, of course, is in September. The sooner you can get them in after the first of September, the better it will be because they will have an opportunity to make a good root growth before winter. The tops of the Peonies should not be cut off until they are frozen, I would say, and a good manyPeony growers do not cut them off then, because the stems are hollow, and water will get down into the crown, and cause rot. So I just bend mine over and leave them there to catch the snow, and in the Spring I cut them off. The Peony has very few enemies. Once in a while you do have a little root rot. Sometimes that is traced to manure. They do not like to come in contact with manure. I would advise bone meal as a fertilizer, and a little nitrate of soda, perhaps, in the Spring, to encourage leaf growth, although you do not want to give them an overdose of that, because you do not want all tops. Nitrate of soda is pretty strong, and liable to burn them. In order to secure fine exhibition blooms most Peonies should be disbudded. Most Peonies send up a large bud in the center, surrounded by other buds, and they will all bloom if you give them a chance. The surrounding blooms will not be as large as the center one, so if you want the finest blooms, take off all the little buds around the center one, and leave just the center one, the same as florists do with the Chrysanthemums.

Now, as to varieties. Festiva Maxima is one of the aid standbys. It was originated in 1850, I believe, and in some respects it has not been beaten yet. It is a strong grower. It has a large flower, and is very fragrant. It is a pure white, with a few crimson marks in some of the center petals. I think if I had only one Peony, I would want Festiva Maxima. Madam de Verneville is another good white Peony, a strong grower, and very fragrant. Mons. Dupont is another fine white, large, flat flower, with a few center petals tipped carmine. Al Patrie, which is practically the same as Avalanche—some growers say they are identical—is a very fine white, with a few petals in the center having a little edge of carmine or ruby. It is a fine Peony. These last two are midseason varieties. The first ones that I mentioned are earlier

Now, in the late white, we have Baroness Schroeder, which is a flesh white, changing to white, and a very fine flower.

Coronne d’or is another old standard white which is very good. It has a collar of yellow stamens around a tuft of central petals, and these central petals are tipped carmine. This is an ivory white.

Then in the pale pinks we have some very lovely flowers. Among the early ones are Eugenie Ver-dier. This is a hydrangea pink, very delicate and very fine.

Now, all the Peonies I am naming for you are moderate priced Peonies. I do not think any one will cost over $1.50 or possibly $2, and some very much less. I will give you a list later on of the higher priced ones. But you do not have to pay a big price to get a good Peony, and the price does not always indicate whether a Peony is good or not. When you realize that it takes about seven years for a grower to know whether he has got a good Peony or not from seed, and it takes about ten years more for him to work up a respectable stock of it, you can understand that he has got to charge a high price for his roots when he puts them on the market. And when they are new, they are high priced because they are scarce. The law of supply and demand governs. But they may not be much better than some of the older varieties, of which there is a large stock, like Festiva Maxima, for instance. You can get that for 50 or 60 cents anywhere, for it has been on the market so long that there is a big stock.

Octavie Demay is a hydrangea pink striped with carmine. It is a very fine flower. Then in the midseason we have Eugene Ver-dier, which should not be confused with Eugenie Verdier. This is one of the pinks they measure the others by. It is a stand ard variety, a standard pink, and a very fine all-around flower. One grower considers it—at least, so he says—the best Peony there is, although I do not agree with him on that. But that shows you that it is a very high Peony.

Among the late varieties we have Albert Crousse, which is of distinctive form, like a big flesh pink Carnation. Among the deep pinks and the early varieties we have Mons Jules Elie. This is also a pink to measure the others by, one of the very best pinks that we have. It is a very large Peony, and has a silvery reflex, and is very sturdy, and also fragrant.

Madam Ducel is another distinctively shaped pink. It has a collar of wide petals, and the center of it is a large ball that looks like a big Chrysanthemum. The petals are narrow, and they are curved in like a big Chrysanthemum. This is a very good pink, of distinctive shape.

For midseason we have Madam Geissler, a violet rose, tipped silver, one of the largest of the Peonies. Clair Dubois is a light satin pink, which is also very fine.

Among the late pinks we have Livingstone, which has a beautiful soft pink center, and the petals are flecked carmine.

In the red, the earliest Peony that we have is Officianalis Rubra. That is the old red Peony of our grandmothers’ garden, but because it is a good red, a very good red, and very early, there is still a place for it. Augustin d’Or is a bright brownish red. Those last two are early. For midseason we have a very good red in Felix Crousse. This is a brilliant red flower, and one of the best. Souvenir d’Exposition Universal, is a violet rose, tipped purple, and a very good variety, very fragrant.

In the lates we have Delachei, which is a violet crimson, slightly tipped silver, growing on a long soft stem; it is a very good growing variety, although it is not as large as some of the others.

Then there is another group of Peonies which are called Japanese Peonies. They are really in the process of forming from a single to a double Peony. You know, the Peonies originally were single, but through cultivation they began to double, by the stamens widening out and forming petals. The Japanese Peony is just about midway between the single and the double. One of the best of these is the Mikado. It has a dark crimson center, edged and tipped gold, and is a very striking flower. There are also a number of other very good ones, which are new.

Now, these are all moderate priced Peonies, and I think they are some of the best of the moderate priced ones. I have here a short list of some of the newer Peonies, which I think are a little higher priced, but still not up too high ; around $25. You know they sell Peonies for $100, and some of the enthusiasts Would give more than that for a good yellow Peony.

Primevere is a large sulphur white flower, with a yellow center. It is one of the rare Peonies, and is a good Peony. Elizabeth Barrett Browning, which was originated by Mr. Brand, of Fairi-bault, Minnesota, is an enormous pure white, and the American Peony Society voted that the best Peony of American origin. And by the way, Mr. Brand advertised in his latest catalogue that he has a ruffled Peony. He does not advertise it for sale, but he merely makes the announcement that he has a ruffled Peony. You know what the ruffled Gladiolus is like, —a big improvement on the plain petaled one; and he claims that this ruffled Peony is just as great an improvement over the ordinary Peony

Jubilee, by Mrs. Pleas, an American grower, is one of the very finest Peonies, and won prizes at the American Peony show held this summer. Lady Alexandria Duff is a delicate flesh pink, which has been a high priced Peony, but the price is coming down within reach. It is a very fine Peony.

Le Cygne, another French variety, is a pure ivory white, and one of the best Peonies.

Martha Bulloch is another of the Brand Peonies, and one of the best pinks in cultivation; an enormous flower, some ten or twelve inches across. It is among the high priced ones, of course. Mary Brand is another Brand origination, which is one of the best reds. Solange is an orange salmon, which is very hard to describe. It is a very fine color, and a very fine flower. Therese is also a very fine pink Peony, one of the best. It is a fine flesh pink, and one of those Peonies that you want to possess as soon as you see it.

Now, there are others that I could name in. that list. Mrs. Harding is a new Peony. I believe that it is on the yellow order. It sells for $100. There are other new Peonies that are high priced, but it is perhaps just as well to see if they are going to stand up before paying such a high price for them.

Now, I think that is all I have to say. I want to invite you again to join these two societies,—or three, in fact: The Northwestern Peony and Iris Society, the American Iris Society, and the American Peony Society. I am sure you will get a great deal of inspiration and help out of your membership, if you should decide to join. I thank you very much for having had the honor and pleasure of speaking to you this morning.—T. A. Kenning, Minneapolis, Minn., at Summer Meeting, Racine, August, 1920. From Reporter’s Transcript.

Adventures With Hardy Perennials.

W. A. Toole, Baraboo

Read at’Summer Meeting, Oshkosh, Aug., 18, 1921.

This is to be a paper without any particular beginning but I assure it will have an end, or at least stop, somewhere. One of the puzzling things in considering hardy herbaceous perennials is the lack of some definite standards as to what constitutes hardiness in Wisconsin. Some kinds, as the Forget-me-not, are quite hardy in winter but find difficulty in withstanding our hot dry summers. Some things are perfectly hardy at Bayfield where the snow is sure and comes early before the ground freezes much, while at Baraboo, where the winters may be more severe, but nearly snow-le s, some plants may survive but die with the freezing and thawing of spring. Some are hardy on sand but winterkill on clay soil. Just for the sake of some standard 1 will consider as hardy, any kind that will survive an average winter at Baraboo, with moderate protection and sufficient surface drainage of water.

One of the pretty perennials that seems to be very hardy is the Great Sea Lavender or Statice latifolia. The delicate lavender flowers work in with other flowers when cut much as does the Baby’s Breath. With us it has survived all sorts of winters both with and without protection. Our greatest trouble has been in propagation as it seems almost impossible to buy seed that will grow. Every year a great many of the flower stalks turn brown and die just before or during flowering. I can see no signs of disease and the main part of the plants is not affected. I do not know of any remedy.

I have always wanted to grow the Bears Breach or Acanthus. Something about the name seems to attract me but it does not seem to be possessed of any degree of hardiness in this climate.

A couple of years ago we received some plants of Dianthus, Red Grenadin from Mr. Hauser of Bayfield. We have found this very hardy and desirable. The flowers are like a brilliant scarlet carnation, sweet scented, many are double if grown from seed. It flowers in July and vies with the scarlet Lychnis in intensity of color.

Some of our friends from Lake Geneva had told me of the beauty of Rudbeckia triloba, especially if planted in masses in waste places. I could not find it listed in any catalogs but one of the gardeners sent me seed two years ago and they are flowering now. The medium sized golden yellow flowers are borne in greatest profusion and it is very attractive. This plant is a biennial, but self sows readily and after it is once established takes care of itself.

Like pretty nearly everybody who is kind of “bugs” on growing plants, I do my most enthusiastic gardening in the winter time, and usually buy a lot of seed that never flowers up to description, or never grows at all. Fortunately for my happiness, hope is a hardy perennial with me and I never fail to read the catalogs with interest. One of the things that sounded attractive last winter was the Greek Love Plant or Catananche coerulea. The ancient Greek ladies were supposed to have found it useful in making love potions to attract some desirable male. I don’t know how the dope is made, but think there surely must be a little moonshine mixed in to be effective. If any of the ladies wish to try it out, our vice president would seem to be a good subject. You will find some of the attractive lavender blue flowers on exhibition. I am not sure about its hardiness, but rather doubt if it will live with us.

One of the very pretty spring perennials flowering in June is Heuchera sanguinea or Coral Bells. Among the different kinds we have tried, the one known as Walkers Variety pleases us the most. The brilliant though delicate stems of coral pink flowers are very attractive. We have found this variety hardier than others, as it seems to survive our winters with moderate protection if given a well drained place to grow.

Another attractive hardy plant not commonly known is the Leopards Bane or Doronicum. The flowers are yellow and daisy like in form. A few vigorous growing dandelions in full flower in your garden will spoil the effect of the Doronicums however. These (the Doronicums) also need a well drained soil to successfully carry over winter.

One of the new things hailed as something wonderful a few years ago was Meehan’s Mallow Marvels, a variety of Hibiscus. The immense flowers like single Hollyhocks are showy because of their size, but after the first view of them there seems little to keep up one’s interest. They seem to be hardy for a year or two and then after flowering they winter kill easily.

The above remarks remind me that the question of seed-bearing is important in considering hardiness. Many perennials do not survive if allowed to seed heavily-

The hardy candytuft or Iberis sempervirens is one of those plants that seems very hardy way up at Bayfield but will rarely winter over with us. The Iberis, Alyssum, Arabis and others of the cress family do not root very heavily and are not easy to transplant unless done quite early in the spring. Perhaps as easy a way to grow these as any is to sow the seeds where they are to grow to maturity.

One of the new things sent out not many years ago is Lychnis Arkwrightii, a hybrid between our scarlet Lychnis and Lychnis Haageana. At first I was disposed to be disappointed in it as it appeared no different to Haageana which has proved to be too tender with us and not very attractive. Arkwrightii seems perfectly hardy and flowers for a month or more if not too dry. In England it is recommended for an all summer bedding plant, but our summers are too hot for it to keep flowering all the summer.

During the war a new kind of hardy carnation was introduced in England, known as Dianthus Allwoodii. They are said to be a hybrid between the grass pink and the greenhouse carnation and over there they are creating much interest among flower lovers because of their continuous flowering qualities, as well as size and hardiness. We had high hopes of these and propagated them heavily but find they are lacking in hardiness and do not

(Continued on page 59.)

Wisconsin ‘horticulture

Published Monthly by the Wisconsin State Horticultural Society 18 N. Carroll St Official organ of the Society.

FREDERIC CRANEFIELD, Editor. Secretary W. S. H. S.. Madison, Wis.

Entered at the postoffice at Madison, Wisconsin, as second-class matter. Acceptance for mailing at special rate of popstage provided for in Section 1108, Act of October 3, 1917, authorized July 15, 1918.

Advertising rates made known on application.


Change in Headquarters

The PARK HOTEL, on The Capitol Square at Main and Carroll Sts., Will Be Headquarters for Officers, Members and Guests. Write for Reservations.

Wisconsin State Horticultural Society

Annual membership fee, one dollar, which includes fifty cents, subscription price to Wisconsin Horticulture. Send one dollar to Frederic Cranefield, Editor, Madison, Wis.

Remit by Postal or Express Money Order. A dollar bill may be sent safely if wrapped or attached to a card. Personal checks accepted.

Postage stamps not accepted.

„ „  _      OFFICERS

F Cranefield. Secretary-Treasurer.......Madison

H. C. Christensen, Oshkosh.......Vice-President



The PARK Hotel will be headquarters for members, delegates and guests.


J. A. HayB.......................Ex-Officio

H. C. Christensen..................Ex-Officio

F. Cranefleld .....................Ex-Officio

1st Dist, Wm. Longland........Lake Geneva

2nd Dist., R. J. Coe............Ft, Atkinson

8rd Dist., E. J. Frautschi...........Madison

4th Dist, A. Leidiger ............Milwaukee

fith Dist., James Livingstone........Milwaukee

6th Diet, J. W. Roe...............Oshkosh

7th Dist, C. A. Hofmann...........Baraboo

8th Dist, J. E. Leverich.............Sparta

9th Dist, L. E. Birmingham.....Sturgeon Bay

10th Dist., Paul E. Grant..........Menomonie

11th Dist, Irving Smith.............Ashland

J. A. Hays........................President


J. A. Hays H. C. Christensen F. Cranefleld

Last Call

We present here for your inspection the program for the Convention, December 14th, 15th and 16th, along with a few comments. We have tried thereby to create a desire on your part to attend this meeting. We especially invite young men to come. A tremendous field is opening in Wisconsin right now for horticultural development. We want young men who will till this field and young women too. If on reading this program you should feel that it does not include a sufficient number of topics of interest to you, that it will not therefore pay you to attend please consider the opinion so often expressed by many members who have attended these conventions for a quarter of a century or more. In effect it is this:


linois and Northern Illinois Societies.

Just Dahlias, nothing more.

A commonplace subject which will be treated in a new way.

Our program is a full one this year and in order to give ample time for discussion we must begin early. You cannot afford to miss these two interesting topics, therefore be on hand early. The meeting will be called to order at 10:00 o’clock sharp.


From 1:30 until 2:00 o’clock W. A. Toole will hold court. What’s on your mind: About the Society and its affairs; about the convention and the manner it’s conducted; about WISCONSIN HORTICULTURE, the paper? If you have criticism or suggestion be on hand at 1:30. Your time limit will be exactly two minutes.

2:00 o’clock.

Who in Wisconsin has a more intimate acquaintance with our native plants? None. This will be the fourth of a series presented by Mr. Toole on our native Flora.

There are some things that are a disgrace to a community. Usually the rural cemetery is one. Prof. Aust will not scold but will offer helpful suggestions.

....................................................................................Wm. Kennedy When you see beautiful roses at Christmas, or any time in winter, do you give a thought where and how these flowers axe grown? Mr. Kennedy has spent a lifetime “under glass.’*

Mr. Kunderd is known wherever the Gladiolus is grown as well in Europe as in America. A breeder and grower second to none.

It is doubtful if there is any garden flower that excels in popularity the Gladiolus. It is doubtful if there Is any one in America who can tell more about this flower than can Mr. Kunderd.

Whatever Mr. Moyle may have to say we don’t know, but we do know that it will be original and interesting.


Program by the Women’s Auxiliary of The State Horticultural Society.


9:00 o’clock

of Trial Orchard Committee, Delegates, Secretary and Election of Officers.

This is an open session and our guests are invited to attend. It will be short and snappy.

Agents and the Society....................................................

................................W. E. Spreiter, Co. Agent, La Crosse Co. There is a big field here for us. The county agents are in a position to know what the farmers need. Mr. Spreiter has always taken a keen interest in our work.

Mr. Gonzenbach has been busily engaged for many years in business affairs, bringing up boys, helping in bringing the German army to a stop, etc., but has found time to bring up an excellent home orchard.

Horticultural Department, College of Agriculture, Madison About a year ago the horticultural extension department of the College announced that Mr. Gifford was about to tackle the farm orchard problem. We said, editorially, at that time, “Go to it, Gifford.” He did.


1:30 to 2:00. Reports on Delicious and Golden Delicious Apples and Table Queen Squash.

................................................S. B. Fracker, State Entomologist Most of us would feel lonesome without the pests we have about us. Some have many legs, some only two and some are just bugs.

........................E. L. Chambers, Assistant State Entomologist

(Same as above)

In another manner of speaking we are seriously interested in any plan for eliminating flreblight or other pests and will seek to find a way to lend aid to Dr. Fracker and his department.

f3) The Development of Apple Culture in the United States ................................................................S. A. Beach, Horticulturist and Plant Breeder at the Agricultural College, Ames, Iowa Prof. Beach will tell us a delightful story about orchards from Pilgrim days to the present time. You will enjoy it.

4) The Farm Orchard Problem....................................................

....Prof. Laurenz Greene. Purdue University, Lafayette, Ind.

There are fallacies in this business and we ought to know what they are.

Pathologist, U. S. Forest Products Laboratory.

Not too technical but told in a way we can all understand. There will also be lantern slides.



Nursery Stock of Quality

for Particular Buyers

Have all the standard varieties as well as the newer sorts. Can supply you with everything in

Fruit Trees, Small Fruits, Vines and Ornamentals.

Let us suggest what to plant both in Orchard and in the decoration of your grounds.

Prices and our new Catalog sent promptly upon receipt of your list of wants.

Nurseries at Waterloo, Wise.

no. 1           Jia. 2

no 3

Berry Boxes

Crates, Bushel Boxes and Climax Baskets

As You Like Them

We manufacture the Ewald Patent Folding Berry Boxes of wood veneer that give satisfaction. Berry box and crate material in the K. D. in carload lots our specialty. We constantly carry in stock 16-quart crates all made up ready for use, either for strawberries or blueberries. No order too small or too large for us to handle. We can ship the folding boxes and crates in K. D. from Milwaukee. Promptness is essential in handling fruit, and we aim to do our part well. A large discount for early orders. A postal brings our price list.

Cumberland Fruit Package Company

Dept. D, Cumberland, Wis.


Informal Dinner.


9:30 o’clock.

Whatever interests Minnesota interests us. Mr. Bartlett is from Excelsior. Enough Baid.

........................J. W. Lloyd, Agricultural College, Urbana, Ill. It is not only that Prof. Lloyd knows about vegetables both from the scientific as well as the practical side but he can tell what he knows. You have heard him other years.

We want to know more about the basket as a package for apples. Mr. Downing was formerly In charge of “Weights and Measures” in Wisconsin, later held a responsible position at Washington and is now general manager of the biggest basket manufacturing firm In the United States.

Every grower of berries, whether the back yard gardener or the big grower, wants to know if the considerable expense involved In the installation of an overhead system pays. We picked on Mr. Williams because he knows.


Mr. Moore will lead, you follow.

2:00 o’clock

Is Bound to Respect and vice versa..............................

............................................................Lloyd Stark, Louisiana, Mo. Mr. Stark is president of the American Association of Nurserymen and extensively engaged in fruit growing. He ought to know how relationships between these two closely connected lines of business may be bettered. He does.

......................................................Prof. S. A. Beach, Ames, Iowa

“Yes, the same Prof. Beach who spoke yesterday.”

It will not, we hope, be violating a confidence to quote from a recent letter written by Prof. Beach to the Secretary of this Society:

“I am confident that If the entire list of apples now propagated in our nurseries and grown in that part of the Upper Mississippi Valley north of the Jonathan and Grimes Golden belt, were to be wiped out of existence, we could replace them from our seedling collection at Ames with varieties as good and in some cases de* cidedly better than the old kinds.”

Fruit Growing; Its Decline, Its Future in the Middle West........................................................................Laurenz Greene


Or anything else he cares to talk about for whatever topic Prof. Greene chooses will be of Interest to all of us.

to Help the Fruit Grower................................................

........................B. B. Jones, Wisconsin Department of Markets The very things we want to know. Quite likely after Mr. Jones has finished we may think of ways in which we can help the Department.

Quality and a Square Deal


Our new 48-page catalog (16 pages in colors) gives you an honest description of FRUITS, VINES, ORNAMENTALS, PERENNIALS, etc., for this climate.

If you are in doubt as to what is best to plant we will be glad to advise with you.

We do landscape work.

The Coe, Converse Edwards Co.

Fort Atkinson, Wis.

Last Call

(Continued from page 56.) “Even if there was not a single topic on the program bearing directly on my work I could not afford to miss a convention. The association with my fellow workers is worth the price.” This thought has been expressed to the secretary many times by men who have been successful in life.

It applies to amateurs as well as to commercial gardeners and fruit growers. We make no further plea. Here is the best that months of careful thought and a liberal outlay of money can provide. It’s for you to decide.

More attention should be given to careful mulching of plants this year because of the dry condition of the soil. Evergreens should have been watered well to give them a better chance to come through the winter.

Change in Method of Electing Members of the Executive Committee

During the last minutes of the last hour of the last day of the last preceding Convention that portion of the Constitution providing for election of members of the Executive Committee was amended. This amendment had been considered for three or four years but its presentation had been delayed for various reasons.

The old method: The Committee consisted of the three officers and one member from each congressional district nominated (elected) by the local horticultural societies in the districts. If there was no local society in a congressional district the member from that district was elected by the members present at the convention.

The new method: Members of the Committee are to be elected by the members present at the convention without regard to any district lines and in the same manner that other officers are elected.

Those who have considered the matter carefully are convinced that the new method will be more satisfactory than the old. In some Congressional districts we have a strong membership but no local societies, in others a single, often weak, local society may control the election of a Committee member.

There are other eventualities ind possibilities that are set aside by the new method. If you have political ambitions get in the game. Fleas, a few, are said to be good for a dog. Politics, not too much, should also prove good for our Society. There is a weak spot in the new method that can readily be remedied by resolution or amendment if the members see fit. It should be so arranged that, following the first election, the terms of one-third of the Committee should expire in one year, one-third in two years, etc. In this way there is always a majority of “seasoned” members on the Committee. This is for the convention to decide.

Adventures With Perennials (Continued from page 55.) flower over the whole summer here. In reference to these flowers and their behavior with us, Mr. Kruhm of the Garden Magazine has the following to say: “I was very much interested in what you say. You but corroborate the impression which we have received in many instances. Things that do well in Europe will do well on the Pacific coast but will not do so well east of the Rockies. Our soil and climatic conditions east of the Rockies are very much different from those found in Europe and in California. This is a big story and some day it might be interesting to check up the same experience with other plants of European origin.”

This brings us around to this fact; that many of the most satisfactory of our hardy perennials are but developments of plants that are native to this country. Many of the best are to be found growing wild in our own Wisconsin woods and fields and swamps. If you love to go adventuring, hitch up your auto of a Sunday afternoon and go out seeking what you may find. Get off the main trunk highways and look for spots that have not been pastured heavily. If you see a pretty plant, dig it up with plenty of

The Hawks Nursery Company are in a position to furnish high grade Nursery Stock of all kinds and Varieties suitable to Wisconsin and other northern districts.

Will be glad to figure on your wants either in large or small quantities

Wauwatosa . . . Wis.

The Jewell Nursery Company

Lake City, Minn.

Established 1868

Fifty-three years continuous service

A Complete Stock of Fruit, Shelter and Ornamental Stock in Hardy Varieties for Northern Planters.


of the

Thirty-Eighth Convention of the

American Pomological Society

We hereby proclaim that the American Pomological Society is to hold its thirty-eighth convention in the city of Toledo, Ohio, on the days and evenings of December 7th, 8th and 9th, being Wednesday, Thursday and Friday, in connection with the National Farmers’ Exposition. In pursuance of the time-honored declaration of the constitution, the conclave is called for “the advancement of the science of pomology.” To this end we cordially invite all friends of fruit-growing to attend the convention and to take part in the discussions, and request that horticultural societies, organizations and firms send delegates.

We solicit specimens of good fruits, fresh and preserved, for the exhibition tables, as also manufactured fruit products, machines, devices, apparatus, materials, nursery stock, and whatever else may contribute to the attractiveness and educational value of the general display. It is the desire to make the convention, both in its speaking program and its exhibition, a worthy expression of the best development of pomology in the United States and Canada.

It is expected that the program will outline the large forward movements in organization, transportation, marketing, governmental oversight, and the prospects of the fruit industry, as well as to consider problems of production and the valuable knowledge of species and varieties. It is purposed not to duplicate the work of state and provincial horticultural societies, but to give the meetings a national and international character. The convention should be a clearinghouse for the problems of both the commercial grower and the amateur.

The student fruit-judging contests and the participation of collegiate members from the colleges of agriculture should be attractive features.

The American Pomological Society stands for an educational policy and program, and we ask the cordial cooperation of the fruitloving public as a renewal of fellowship and a contribution to the public good.

L. H. BAILEY, President. R. B. CRUICKSHANK, Secretary-Treasurer.

October 25, 1921.

Mulch the strawberry beds with clean straw or hay put on from four to six inches deep.

Protect young fruit trees from mice. Wire screens about the trees are good. Tramp the snow

well about each tree. This will often discourage the mice working around it. They like to burrow in grass and other refuse near the tree under the snow and eat the bark.

dirt and carry it back home. Give it careful culture and you will be surprised to find the improvement in size of flowers and vigor of growth. No matter on what kind of soil or exposure you find them, most of our native plants will respond to careful culture in good garden soil. Among the desirable native perennials are two kinds of Phloxes, Shooting Star, Hare Bell, Aquilegia, several Hardy Asters, Cardinal Flower, Hepatica, Heliopsis, Helenium, Euphorbia, Butterfly Weed, two kinds of Eupatorium, Physoste-gia, Polemonium, Tradescantia and many others.

Probably some imaginative nature lover will get off some sentimental bunk protesting against devastating the beauties of our native landscape by digging our wild plants. This may be perfectly good criticism near our large cities but through a large part of our state, there are thousands of acres of beautiful native landscape where the flowers will be forever doomed “to blush, unseen and waste their sweetness on the desert air”. Sooner or later most of these spots will be pastured and that will be the end of the flowers. I think it far better to transplant some of this beauty to some place where it can be enjoyed. I am however strongly in favor of preserving unmolested as many beauty spots as is really practical.

Like many other interesting subjects, there is much more that might be said. I hope that these remarks will suggest something to your mind to add, or criticise, as it has always seemed to me that the discussion is the most valuable part of most papers.

AMONG WISCONSIN BEE KEEPERS Devoted to the Interests of The Wisconsin State Beekeepers’ Association H. F. Wilson, Editor


Pres. L. C. Jorgensen, Green Bay. Treas. C. W. Aeppler, Oconomowoc. Vice-Pres. A. C. F. Bartz, Jim Falls. Secy. H. F. Wilson, Madison.

Annual Membership Fee $1.00.

Remit to H. F. Wilson, Secretary, Madison, Wis.


Annual Convention Meeting of Wisconsin State Beekeepers' Association December 8 and 9 Room A, City Auditorium, Milwaukee

Changing the meeting place of the State Association Is establishing a new precedent and no doubt some of our members will feel that this is not the best thing to do. However, the secretary was requested to place the matter before the members of the Association by the Executive Committee of the Wisconsin Markets Exposition and only seventeen votes were cast against changing the meeting to Milwaukee, so that the officers felt duty bound to make the change.

In general our newspapers are giving the exposition their full support and a great deal of publicity both inside and outside the state is being developed.

This exposition is not a fair but is being conducted to advertise Wisconsin farm products and to acquaint buyers with the farm resources of our state. Every producer of farm crops should avail himself of the opportunity to visit this show.

During the week of December 5 to 10 many of our Farm Crops Organizations will hold their annual meetings in the Milwaukee Auditorium and practically every farmers’ society will have a booth for the display of their wares.

The Wisconsin Honey Producers’ Association has arranged for a booth and sample jars of 8 ounce size will be sold under the Association label. Orders for honey will be referred to a number of retail stores where arrangements are being made to have honey on sale. The big question now is to get the honey to sell.

State Beekeepers' Convention December 8 and 9, 1921.

Meeting of Board of Managers, Wednesday afternoon December 7, 2 P. M. Milwaukee Auditorium, Milwaukee. Committee Room “A”.

9:30 A. M. Call to order

Reading minutes of last convention Report of Board of Managers Secretary’s Report

Appointment of committees for Convention.

11:00 A. M. President’s address, L C. Jorgensen, Green Bay.


1:30 P. M. From Neglected Bees to Profit, A. A. Brown, Juneau.

Worth Remembering, N. E. France, Platteville

Choosing a Location in Wisconsin, H. L. McMurry, Madison

Experience in Pasturing for Buckwheat Honey, Conrad Kruse, Loganville

HUBAM Clover, Wm. Brenner, Green Bay

Beekeeping, E. W. Atkins, G. B. Lewis Co.

Bee Yard Experiences, H. H. Moe, Monroe

Treating Diseased Bees Out of Season, A. C. Allen, Portage

The Association, Wm Sass, Jr., Fond du Lac

Cooperative Marketing, Representative, Div. of Markets.


7:30 P. M. Beekeeping Movie. Friday, December 9


9:00 A. M. The Next Step in Marketing our Honey, C. D. Adams Div. of Markets

Better Marketing, W. T. Sherman, Elkhorn

Sweet Clover, Its Value to Agriculture and the Beekeeper, H. E. Rosenow, Oconomowoc

Out-Door Wintering, L. T. Bishop, Sheboygan

Advertising, Jas. Gwin, Gotham

Plans for 1922 Extension Work, L. P. Whitehead, Madison

Relation of Queens to Seasonal Management, G. H. Cale, Dadant Company

Comb vs. Extracted Honey, Dr. Robt. Slebecker, Madison

The Influence of Weather on Beekeeping Practice, H. F. Wilson, Madison.

Open Discussion on How to Make Our Association More Valuable to its Members.

Business Session

Report of Committees Old Business New Business Election of Officers Appointment of Standing Committees.


Many of our beekeepers have complained regarding the crop reporting system and say that such reports are not reliable. It is only fair to those who are attempting to secure such data to say that if the reports are unreliable, it is not always their fault but rather the fault of the beekeepers. While it is well known that reports on crops are not always authentic, yet the averages secured are of sufficient value to make the system valuable to both the producer and the dealer. The big difficulty is that the producer does not always take advantage of these reports.

During the season of 1921, the Department of Entomology attempted to secure a report of the average production for the state of Wisconsin. This report is made on a basis of figures furnished us by the beekeepers themselves and without making a special visit to such beekeepers, a more reliable report could not be secured.

The Extension Committee of the State Beekeepers’ Association in cooperation with the Division of Markets proposes to try and work out a satisfactory plan for getting reports on the honey crop each year for Wisconsin. The only way in which this can be done is to secure the cooperation of every beekeeper throughout the state and each beekeeper who is willing to send in reports will be included in the crop reporting organization.

We submit the following data as representative of the average report. We would appreciate having our beekeepers examine this carefully and would ask for their cooperation and suggestions. We would like to have the name of every beekeeper who is willing to cooperate with us In securing an authentic report on conditions in this state.

County. Adams ...........

No. Reports ......... 1

Total No. Colonies



Production Colony 50

Ashland .......

......... 2




......... 1



Bayfield .......

......... 4



Brown ...........

......... 9



Calumet .......

......... 11



Chippewa .....

......... 3



Clark .............

......... 9



Columbia .....

......... 6



Crawford .....

......... 1



Dane .............

......... 17



Dodge ...........

......... 11



Door .............

......... 4




Dunn ................

No. Report ...... 1

Total No.

8 Colonies



Productloi Colony


Eau Claire .......

...... 5



Florence ..........

...... 1



Fond du Lac ...

...... 5



Forest ...............

...... 1



Grant .................

...... 9



Green ...............

...... 8



Green Lake .....

...... 2



Iowa .................

...... 3



Jackson ............

...... 2



Jefferson .........

...... 8



Juneau ...............

...... 5



Kenosha ...........

...... 3



Kewaunee ......

...... 1



La Crosse .......

...... 2



La Fayette.......

......  4



Langlade .........

...... 3



Lincoln .............

...... 1



Manitowoc .....

...... 7



Marathon .........

...... 7



Marinette .......

...... 2



Milwaukee .......

...... 23



Monroe .............

......  9



Outagamie .......

...... 8



Ozaukee ...........

...... 6




...... 1



Pierce ...............

......  7




......  3




...... 1



Price .................

..... 5




......  3




...... 6



Rock .................

..... 1



Rusk .................

...... 1



St. Croix...........

...... 6



Sauk .................

..... 11




..... 6



Sheboygan .......

..... 14




..... 3



Trempealeau .

...... 8



Vernon .............

...... 8




..... 6



Washburn .......

...... 1



Washington .....

...... 6



Waukesha .......

..... 14



Waupaca .........

...... 8



Waushara .......

...... 3



Winnebago .....

...... 8




..... 5





37% lb!

The average per colony secured from this report, 37% lbs. per colony, is practically the same as the average secured by the Government Crop Reporting Service. Their Report gave 37 lbs. per colony as the average for the state.

Business Is Good

The honey market is rapidly getting better and honey is getting scarce. Many of our producers have sold out and are buying from their neighbors. From present indications there will be very little honey on hand by spring.

Some of our beekeepers have sold out early at a low price, but the market has held firm and prices are improving all the time.

The Wisconsin Honey Producers* Association

Now is the time to lend your aid in building for the future. At the time of the last convention an organization was started for getting better distribution for Wisconsin Honey. The Association started with a capital of 11,000.00. This year it is hoped that the capitalization can be increased to $10,000.00 and that a state bottling plant can be started. Such a plant can be made a success if the majority of our beekeepers will help in the building. Every single one of us can save on our cans and supplies. Furthermore, we can secure a better retail and wholesale price for our honey.

The following clipping from the monthly news letter of the Texas Honey Producers’ Association well illustrates the value of better cooperation.

“The Price Cutter”

"We said a good deal last month about the price pirate. We find that a great deal of the fault lies with the beekeepers themselves. Some will persist in selling a few cases at a time to retailers at the wholesale price or even less, and this always has a tendency to demoralize the regular channels of trade.

We want to quote a case in point. A man wrote from Afton, Tennessee as follows:

"Have you any bulk comb honey for sale? I want to buy 1,000 lb in 10 pound pails. I recently bought a big lot of Mr.--at Clint, Texas,

for 15c per pound f. o. b. my station. It was nice honey in 10 lb pails.

We have looked up the freight rate and find that our member at Clint got about 11 cents basis for his honey and had to furnish 10 pound pails to pack it in. At the same time that the Association was praying for permission to sell the honey for him at 13% cents in the same size can f. o. b. his station.’’

This association reports sales of $8,000.00 more for the month of October 1921 than in 1920 and $5,000.00 more than for October 1919.

Why not do this for Wisconsin? Michigan beekeepers have organized a selling organization and have hired a full time manager. Minnesota is doing the same. If we do not get into the game, we will soon be far behind?

The Beekeepers’ Section of Wisconsin Horticulture

Is this section of value to Wisconsin beekeepers? It is hard to tell for we never receive any comments good or bad. Furthermore, most of our beekeepers do not seem to realize that the paper needs help from each and every beekeeper to keep it going. Although we have nearly 800 members, in the Association only a very few of them ever contribute material for publication and we have to beg for that. Send in notes so that we may know something about conditions in your neighborhood. Tell us about the condition of the bees and the honey plants. Make it a point to send in one little paper each season.

Stamping and Labeling Honey

By C. D. Adams

There has been considerable complaint of the ink used on stamp pads fading when exposed to the light. In many cases we find labels have been stamped with the grading stamp but so badly faded that it requires close inspection to find it.

We took this matter up with G. B. Volger Manufacturing Company, one of the largest manufacturers of stamp pads, and they admit that it is very hard to make a satisfactory ink that is to be exposed to strong light. They Bay that their Black Stamping Ink No. 211 will be satisfactory when stamping wood or paper that does not come in direct contact with the honey but probably could not be used for stamping sections on account of its odor. For sections they recommend their Black Excelsior Stamp Pad and Black Rubber Stamp Ink.

None of the purple ink commonly used seems satisfactory. It is intended to be used in letters and books not continuously exposed to the light.

But why use the rubber stamp at all? The Marketing Department has for some time been urging the printing of the desired information in the body of the label and dozens of our beekeepers have been doing this. It is not even necessary to have a rub-her stamp. Some do not have. They simply wrote to the Department requesting that they be given a "Packer’s Number.” There are no charges for this. Then they went to their local printer and asked him to print them an attractive label giving their name and address and some information about granulated honey. At the top of the label are the words "Wisconsin No. 1 Honey.” Let the word "Honey” be the outstanding feature of the label. If any red ink is used here is the place for it. In some other part of the label, usually at the bottom, is found color......... net

weight......, and Packer’s No........

The Packer’s number should b e printed in. The color and weight may be left blank and filled in with ink.

Of course it is better to have the labels printed by some of the firms making a business of such work. Up to the present time there has been little space left on the lithographed labels for extra printing and when the rubber stamp was used it marred the otherwise attractive label and often was not legible.

This matter has been taken up with some of the leading firms and we hope now to have colored labels designed especially for Wisconsin honey.

As yet we have found only one comb honey producer using a printed label for each section but we believe it is a good idea. We must not forget that people buying food pay too little attention to flavor. They are attracted by that which pleases the eye and what is so unattractive as a leaky, travel-stained, propolis-covered section of honey? On the other hand, few foods are more alluring than clean, uniform, beautiful comb honey nicely displayed under glass, with an attractive label on each section. The cartons often used are sanitary and the very fact that the producer uses them indicates that the contents are above the average but they do not catch the eye of the housewife who is probably thinking of buying something else.

So let us use more and better honey labels and thereby help create a demand for one of nature’s best foods.

C. D. Adams,

Wisconsin Department of Markets


In traveling over the state we find most sections short of comb honey. Of course there is always a shortage of fancy comb honey, but If you have Wisconsin No. 1 the Secretary of the cooperative association can quickly put you in touch with some grocer who is just as anxious to buy as you are to sell. If they do not find you they will be buying the western honey with high freight charges added to the cost.

We are finding beekeepers in several sections of the state who report that bees harvested a good crop of alfalfa honey this year for the first time. Let us not be deceived—this does not happen often. The unusual weather conditions made it possible.

The big crop of honey gathered by the bees in Milwaukee County this year came as usual largely from sweet clover. Only one or two farmers as yet are sowing it for pasture and hay but they are enthusiastic about it

Notwithstanding the good crop in the eastern part of the state many of the beekeepers are diligently searching for good honey to finish supplying their trade. In moBt cases they insist it must be quite similar to their own honey. Some overlook this and in so doing lose a few good customers. People as a rule like the honey they are accustomed to and suspect adulteration in other honey. siderable trade of this kind but had never received a mail order. This year he had some attractive labels printed including the grading requirements and to his surprise he soon began receiving mail orders from friends of the tourists he had sold to. They probably never knew his correct address before. ‘‘It pays to advertise.”

Honey bottlers complain that nearly all the last year’s crop of honey they bought this year is souring. Mr. H. L. McMurray says it is another result of the unusual season this year, that during the hot, dry weather, honey in sealed cans gave off some of its moisture which collected at the top of the can where it condensed when the metal cooled. Later this started fermentation. His remedy is to remove the cover in the future and tie over cheese cloth which will allow the moisture to escape.

Origin and History of the Grimes Golden Apple

Most of the popular and valuable varieties now in cultivation were children of chance and Indiana’s greatest apple, the Grimes, is no exception. The exact date of its birth or the circumstances surrounding it are not definitely known but the mountains of West Virginia near the town of Wellsburg was the home of the original tree. Like many other pioneers it lived many years before its true merits were recognized by the world. I am not able to fix the exact date of its discovery from the data at my command, but it was evidently about the year 1789. The following extracts from an account written by Thomas Grimes, Jr., in 1874 fixes the date of its origin approximately at this time, which would make the variety 132 years old.

“The original tree is on my farm, bought by my father sixtyseven years ago, and, from our best information, it is not less than eighty years old; my father sold fruit from it to the New Orleans traders as long ago as 1804. From my earliest recollection, this tree has never been known to fail producing a good crop, excepting in 1834, when a partial failure was occasioned by severe late frost in spring. Our belief is, that it has not failed to produce fruit each year for the past three quarters of a century.

The tree has not been pruned for the past forty years, and has had no sort of cultivation for the past twenty years; yet it is quite healthy, making fair growth, and bearing an average crop of fruit every season.

From a grafted tree of this variety, planted eighteen years ago, I picked, last season, ten barrels of fine fruit. If I could only plant one variety of apple, I would choose this in preference to all others, for the following reasons: The fruit is beautiful, and unsur-


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Hamilton, Illinois

passed in flavor; the tree is without a rival in hardiness, productiveness, longevity, and symmetry of growth; the fruit is fit for cooking in September; and for eating from December till April, thus combining the good qualities of many in one.”

Its popularity continued to be local for many years. There seems to have been no concerted effort to introduce it into elite apple society, but as the pioneers drifted westward from this section into Ohio and Indiana some of them brought scions of this, their favorite fruit and grafted into the seedlings they found growing in their new home, some of which undoubtedly were planted by that historic character, the pioneer apple booster, John Chapman.

The farm, where this original tree grew, descended from father to son, Thomas, Jr., the writer of the above account sold the place at about this time.

In 1896 Professors L. C. Corbett and A. S. Hopkins of the West Virginia University visited the tree and reported it to be on the decline and something like ten years later it was reported by the owner of the farm, David Councilman, to be lying prone upon the ground, the cause of its death is not given, but it was probably old age with complications. There seems to be no direct evidence that its untimely end was caused by that dread disease collar rot, which has laid low so many of its descendants.

The first general distribution of this variety of which I find record was on the Ohio side of the river from the nursery of Nathan L. Woods in the town of Smithfield near Mt. Pleasant, Ohio, not later than 1860, seventy years after its discovery. It was about this time that the variety was givien its name which was originally Grimes Golden Pippin, this was later reduced to Grimes Golden and even that proved too long for the present age, and it is now most commonly known as Grimes. When you hear the name Grimes it makes your mouth water just the same as if you added Golden Pippin.

Like many other varieties it has proven more popular in the states of its adoption—Ohio and Indiana—than it ever did on its native hills. The public was slow to recognize its splendid quality and superior merit as a commercial variety, even yet there are sections of the country where they are not fully appreciated, but Hoosiers who have once learned to eat Grimes prefer them to all others, and in most Indiana markets it heads the list. Some of the northern markets do not take kindly to this apple on account of its color, but color like beauty is only skin deep, and the Grimes is gradually making- its place more secure in the markets each year, and will continue .to hold its own until we find a red apple which has all its good qualities and none of its faults.

A Practical School of Horticulture

The Annual Convention MADISON

December 14-15-16

It is Free. Come and bring your friends

The excellent quality, and its adaptability to so great a variety of conditions places the Grimes among apples in the same position as that held by the Bartlett among pears, and the Concord among grapes.—Hoosier Horticulture, April 1921.

Get under cover now all hot' beds, lawn seats and other garden furniture not needed outside. Winter weather wears them fast.

Have you a few plants of rhubarb in the cellar for spring forcing. Put in a few if they can be dug now.

Japanese barberry, wahoo, high-bush cranberry and Rosa Rugosa were among shrubs the fruit of which was still ornamental Nov. 1.1