Evergreens for Protecting and Beautifying the Home
A. Hill, Dundee, Ill.
(Read at Annual Convention, January, 1921)
The purpose of this paper is to suggest the importance of improving our surroundings and to show how unattractive conditions may be made appealing through the planting of Evergreens as windbreaks, hedges and ornamental groups.
The need of beautifying the home appeals to us more strongly every day. The home is the foundation of the nation. In clean and attractive surroundings the children become strong, upright, honorable citizens. Anything that will make the home better will tend to improve citizenship.
The essentials of a good home are a man and woman resolved by their mutual efforts to make this world a better place in which tc live and a structure that will protect life and health from undue exposure to the elements. If the dwelling is to be really a home, it must be more than a place in which to eat and sleep. Inspiration to better living must be there, incentive to strive diligently for the highest ideals and to attain these ends. Not only must the physical needs of the family be supplied moderately well, but the home must be attractive.
The Evergreen is something nature has given man to typify eternal promise, the promise that Spring shall always come again In snowy winter, it gives the only note of comforting color in the bleak landscape. In summer it adds serenity to the riot of colors that the smiling sun coaxes forth from nature.
An Evergreen is like an old friend, the storms of years, the strife of a life only make richer his noble character. So is a home surrounded by Evergreens like a man with many true friends.
In the store house of nature are many things beyond your power to possess, but any lover of nature can surround his home with Evergreens. In their manner is grace, in their color is rest, in their presence is inspiration, their influence is perpetual. An Evergreen is truly a tree with a great and noble character.
For purposes of discussion, I will divide the planting of Evergreens into two divisions: Evergreens for the Farm.
Evergreens for the City and Town Home.
It is a source of great satisfaction to know that my father was a pioneer in preaching the gospel of Evergreen planting for our prairie farmers. His life work has been devoted to the development and growth of hardy Evergreens, to give the needed protection to wind-swept prairie homes. What could be a finer reward than the letters he receives each day, from the honest farmers who are enjoying to the fullest extent the beauty and protection of his friendly old Evergreen trees.
Evergreens planted by farmers are usually arranged in the form of a windbreak, screen or shelter-belt around buildings, orchards and fields, whereas Evergreens planted by the city or town dweller are selected and arranged for the artistic improvement of the landscape.
I will discuss fully the planting of Evergreen windbreaks on the farm and confine my remarks on the use of Evergreens for town and city planting merely to a list of varieties, such as can be recommended for ornamental use, under the soil and climatic conditions existing in Wisconsin.
The home owner who lives in town can take advantage of assistance from a Landscape Gardener or practical plantsman. in the selection of good varieties, and their proper arrangement to produce the right effect, while such service is not always available for the farmer.
In the discussion of windbreak planting for the farmer, my argument will be entirely from the practical point of view. Do not, however, get the impression that a fine well grown Evergreen windbreak is not a ‘'thing of beauty and a joy forever,” nothing could be more beautiful than the snow laden pines on a frosty winter’s morning. When vou know Evergreens, you feel in their presence the hush of the vast forest, you see the silent sentinels, Evergreens typifying permanency, defying time and the elements.
What Is a Windbreak?
What is a windbreak? For the benefit of those who may not be familiar with the term “windbreak,” I will explain that any body of trees which gives protection to buildings or crops may be called a windbreak. This paper, however, will deal only with Evergreen trees. Deciduous or leaf-bearing trees, are also used for windbreak purposes, but they are less effective in checking the force of the wind than a row of Evergreens. ,
How a Windbreak Protects The influence of a windbreak upon air currents is purely mechanical. Its effectiveness depends, therefore, upon how nearly impenetrable it is. The ordinary windbreak of willow, cottonwood or ash, does not provide much protection from the cold winter winds. A good Evergreen windbreak will provide almost an absolute barrier to the wind, some air may force its way between the branches and foliage of the Evergreen trees, but the movement of air on the leeward side is stopped completely or nearly so.
An Evergreen windbreak is any row or belt or body of trees which checks the force of winds passing over an area in the lee of it. By reducing the force of hot or cold winds, a windbreak may help to make the home more comfortable for man and stock within the zone of its influence. Less feed is required in winter to provide bodily warmth and nourishment to farm animals protected by it and they will be more comfortable in summer in its shade. Less fuel is needed to properly heat a home in the lee of a windbreak and the buildings themselves will deteriorate more slowly if not exposed to the full force of the elements.
What a Windbreak Will Do
A good Evergreen windbreak will shield an orchard from winds which might strike the trees when they are heavily laden with fruit, or protect the trees from cold winds which cause the winter killing of branches.
There is no part of the United States, except small areas in the Appalachian and Cascade mountains, which normally obtain more rain or snow than is needed for growing the best crops. The farmer usually plows, cultivates and mulches with the object of conserving every drop of water that may reach the soil during the year.
Anything which helps to conserve the moisture of the soil is of direct benefit to the farmer. An Evergreen windbreak has this effect in a marked degree. The drying power of the wind is reduced by the windbreak very nearly in the same proportion as its velocity. In the immediate lee of the most effective windbreaks, evaporation is reduced as much as 65 per cent. The amount of reduction depends a great deal upon the density of the windbreak.
Windbreaks are especially valuable, therefore, in the middle west, where the cold freezing winds of winter and the hot dry winds of summer are of frequent occurence throughout the year.
Effect on Temperature
The farmer who has cultivated crops on a hot summer day, need hardly be told that the warmest part of his field is the portion which is sheltered from the wind. In the lee of the windbreak, there is not only no breeze to cool the body, but the actual temperature of the air is raised. Tests with a thermometer have shown that the area which is protected by a windbreak may be several degrees warmer during the day and several degrees cooler during the night, than adjacent areas not protected.
Evergreen Windbreaks for Orchard Protection
Orchards may be affected both favorably and unfavorably by the increased temperatures due to windbreaks. The rapid ripening of the fruit and of the wood of the trees in late summer, is just about offset by the danger of accelerating the growth of buds and the blossoms in Spring; on the other hand, where warm Spring winds, like the Chinook are involved, the effect of the wind break will be beneficial in Spring by preventing this warm air from striking the trees.
Most fruit trees, especially at time of blossoming, are very susceptible to the least frost. A lowering of 4 or 5 degrees in the minimum temperature might mean the difference between a mere chilling of the tender fruit blossoms and actual freezing. Damage, how'ever, from slight dry freezing, is not apt to lead to a complete loss of the fruit crop, such as occurs when blossoming trees are subjected to a storm of rain, sleet, or snow accompanied by wind.
It is a well known fact that the same temperatures as registered by thermometers may very differently affect human comfort, owing to differences in the quality of the air, its humidity, or most of all its rate of circulation. Low temperatures which cause no discomfort when the air is calm, becomes unbearable when a wind springs up. This is so widely appreciated that windbreaks are. perhaps, chiefly valued for the protection they give against strong winter winds. That there is a considerable saving in fuel in heating a w'ell protected house, requires no proof. A good windbreak may reduce wind velocity as much as 80 or 90 per cent immediately to leeward. Evergreens are, of course, much superior to deciduous trees where winter protection is desired and even a narrow strip of spruce or pines, consisting of only a double row planted close together and 20 feet high, reduce the wind velocity at 100 feet to the leeward by four-fifths. In other words, if a 25-mile wind was blowing, the force in the shelter of such a windbreak would be only about 5 miles per hour. This reduction in wind velocity is equivalent to a reduction of 19 degrees F. in the cooling effect of the wind upon the skin. A French experimenter, Vincent, has calculated that the cooling effect of a wind upon the skin is about 1 degree F. for each mile per hour increase in the wind.
One. Two or Three Row Windbreak
The space to be devoted to the windbreak need not be large. One row of the right kind of Evergreens will give effective results. Two rows are better and three or four rows will make a windbreak which will be up to the standard which should be maintained on land that is worth from $300 to $500 per acre. Instead of considering the land occupied by a few rows of good Evergreens as waste, the farmer must realize that the space thus occupied, probably brings higher returns in money, comfort and attractiveness than any other equal area on the farm. For this reason the land which is occupied by the windbreak should not be given over too grudgingly for this purpose. The windbreak is a business proposition and is a financial asset.
The exact location of the windbreak with respect to the permanent improvement on the farm should be worked out with extreme care. Usually the windbreak is confined to the north and west sides of the farmstead, since in the central prairie states the severe winds are from the north and west.
Best Evergreens to Plant
After the location has been decided upon, the next important thing is the choice of the best variety of Evergreen to use. A fast growing conifer is always given a wide margin of preference. Hardiness also must be given attention. Only varieties that have proven their ability to withstand the extreme cold of the winter and the heat and drought of the summer, should be selected. There is also a question of beauty which should be given attention, since it usually is possible, from the list of hardy Evergreens, to select a pleasing tree, which also has the other necessary requisites. Since the windbreak trees are for the purpose of breaking the force of the wind, a tree of heavy foliage is to be desired, onr which branches to the ground and retains its branches even though the trees are crowded and shaded somewhat.
The Best Time to Plant
The best time to plant an Evergreen windbreak is in the Spring. After the spring rain and sunshine have removed the frost, the <<■:! is usually warm and mellow, which is just the condition re
(5) Best 5 trays of any of the following ............................................ 12.50 7.50 5.00 3.50 2.00
Wealthy, Tolman, Wolf Riv
er, Fameuse, Gano, Salome, McMahan, Seek-no-further, Windsor.
(6) Best 10 trays of any variety in
5 tray class...................................... 25.00 15.00 10.00 6.00 4.00
Separate samples must be
furnished for each entry.
(7) Any other standard variety, properly labeled with variety name.
Ten prizes of $2.00 each will be awarded under this prize number. Any exhibitor may enter a maximum of five plates under this prize number, but each must be of a different variety.
Trays shall be packed “diagonal pack.”
The following score card will be used in judging apples:
Trueness to type..........................................................10 points
Total .........................................................................100 points
Apples to be exhibited in trays 18 x 11J4 inches and 3 inches deep. Trays will be furnished.
Best collection, not less than 10 entries, 1st, $5.00; 2nd, $3.00; 3d, $2.00.
1st 2nd 3d
(Continued on page 38.)
quired for the planting of young Evergreen trees. There is nothing delicate about any of the hardy Evergreens, as they come from the nursery ready for planting in windbreaks, shelter-belts and hedges. If they get reasonable care in the planting, they are sure to live and thrive from the beginning. In spite of their natural toughness, it is important that every care is given in the planting and after care of the young Evergreen windbreak.
The very name, “Evergreen,” suggests moisture. It is only at the moist points of the earth that green things grow. Such Evergreens as I would recommend for planting in the northern states do not require an excessive amount of moisture, nor special cultivation, but the attention they do require should be given them without fail.
Do not use green stable manure for mulching, you may damage your Evergreens if you do. They do not ask for much plant food, merely for an opportunity to send their roots down and about in a soil that is moist and not packed too solid.
If the ground is very dry, it is best to water the trees. As the trees grow older, they will shade the surface more and more and so will cover it with needles and foliage. The shade and needles make the natural mulch. However, as most windbreaks are only two or three rows wide, the conditions of shade and litter are not nearly so good as in the thick natural forest, and you had better apply more leaves, straw or decayed litter every two or three years, under the trees. Pine needles, or forest leaves, are the very best mulch and should be
used if you can get them easily. Be careful about fire while the trees are small, the burning of the mulch will surely kill them.
Varieties for Windbreaks
We are here today to consider chiefly the best Evergreens to use for various purposes.
Of the many European species, we may discard a number that are not of any particular value. Generally speaking, I believe it is best to confine our prairie state plantings to as few varieties as possible, selecting only those which are suited to our conditions.
Evergreens are not particular as to soil. They prefer a light, sandy land, but will do well in any well drained soil.
For Windbreak Planting:
Black Hill Spruce.
White Pine Scotch Pine. Ponderosa Pine.
All of these pines and spruces are entirely hardy, rapid in growth and long lived, maturing into tall well formed specimens.
Hedge and Ornamental Evergreens
Evergreens for ornamental purposes must be selected with reference to the position they are to occupy, the purpose they are to serve and their relation to the place where they are to grow.
For hedges and medium growing windbreaks, the American Arbor Vitae is recommended as the best. As a hedge plant it can be sheared into any desired form and is always green and attractive. As a screen or windbreak for the flower garden, vegetable garden or lawn, it has many points
(Continued from page 37.)
Rules of Entry for All Exhibits
1. Exhibits must be arranged ready for judges by 1:00 P. M. Wednesday, December 14th. This will be strictly enforced.
2. Five apples constitute a plate, no more, no less.
3. Competition open to all residents of Wisconsin, but premiums paid only to members. Successful exhibitors, if not members, must forward fee for membership before receiving check for premium; fee for annual membership, One Dollar.
Members or others unable to attend the meeting may send fruit to the secretary, who will make entries and place fruit on exhibition. Transportation charges must be prepaid.
All final entries must be made on regular entry blanks which will be furnished by the secretary on application but exhibitors are urged to send lists in advance even if not all entries are filled at convention
F. Cranefield, Secretary W. S. H. S., Madison, Wisconsin.
to recommend its use, mainly the fact that it may be clipped along the sides and made to occupy as small a space as is necessary.
For grouping at entrances, near dwelling houses, and for massing in formal plantings, dwarf Evergreens are favorites. They are always cheerful, in evidence and wide awake the year round. Among the best for this purpose are:
Juniperus Canadensis. Juniperus Procumbens. Globe Arbor Vitae. Japanese Yews.
The list of Medium Large Growing Sorts is more extensive, seme of the most valuable being: Hemlocks.
Pyramidal Arbor Vitae Pfitzer’s Juniper. Concolor Fir.
Golden Arbor Vitae.
Some Tall Growing Sorts White Pine.
Douglas Fir. Austrian Pine.
Black Hill Spruce.
Colorado Blue Spruce.
Diseases of Evergreens
The diseases of Evergreens are comparatively few, and as a general rule, mostly confined to a few species, and restricted probably to certain conditions of atmosphere and soil
Trimming and Shearing of Evergreens
Many Evergreens are spoiled through a mistaken idea of beauty, by having their lower limbs cut off, and thus forming a long naked stem, considered very dis tasteful to the intelligent Evergreen planter.
The entire system of pruning an Evergreen depends very much upon the same principles that govern the trees of other classes.
Most of the upright Junipers. Arbor Vitae, Hemlock and Cedars are benefited by an annual pruning, either in early Spring or late Summer. Shorten the ends of all over luxuriant branchlets, thereby causing them to thicken and otherwise vastly improve in appearance.
When the leader or main stem of an Evergreen becomes broken or destroyed by accident or otherwise, a new one can be readily formed by tying up a side branch in as nearly an upright position as possible.
Two leaders should never be allowed to remain. The stronger should be selected and the other cut away as soon as noticed'.
As a general thing, don’t be afraid to trim and prune your Evergreens. Keep the knife on them constantly, proper and careful trimming will keep them to a well formed outline for years.
In closing, I wish to say to you and to many other home owners, the economical and permanent improving of your property is a big problem. No matter how you look at it, Evergreens will give your property an air of coziness and hospitality all the year round, which can be gained in no other way.
Who Are the Friends of Our Native Landscape?
John G. D. Mack, State Chief Engineer, at Summer Meeting, Racine. August 18, 1920.
It is a double pleasure for me to attend a meeting of the State Horticultural Society, first on account of having been assigned a subject in which I am so greatly interested, and second, because one of my early recollections is about such an association. My father was a lawyer, but had been a farmer until 26 years of age, and he never lost interest in agriculture and horticulture, never missing a meeting of the County Horticultural Society, so that I heard the subject discussed at home from the time I had but the most vague notion what it was all about except that it had something to do with apples.
I am going to discuss an idealistic subject, “The Friends of Our Native Landscape,” an organization of universal appeal.
The word “idealistic” is used with deliberation, for we are so filled with the idea that in education everything but the so-called “practical subject,” a greatly overworked term by the way, must be eliminated, rigidly excluding the theoretical and idealistic.
A disciple of the practical school is destined to meet many a rude shock as he finds case after case in which the despised “theoretical trash” turns out to be more practical than anything taught in the empirical school.
Scarcely an illustration comes to mind in which any one of the great basic inventions which make the comforts of present life what they are, but at some time past was the serious plaything of a man whom his neighbors were sure was not quite right and who was frittering away his time.
The future, even for a year, appears an interminable period, but a year in the past seems but a moment.
The future being so long distant we do not realize that it will soon be here and thus do not lav the proper plans.
We do not plan to broaden our streets, when it might be planned with small expense, except in rare cases, until we suddenly find the expense is prohibitive on account of development.
We have not protected nature's beauties. If we do not protect them, critics of the future will regard us, who destroy the charming vista, the choice bit of woodland, the marvelous rock formations, such as there are at Devil’s Lake and vicinity, as we regard the vandals who wrecked the architectural monuments of antiquity.
Fortunately an awakening is at hand and is getting more and more the force of law behind it.
Creative laws trail public sentiment, seldom if ever does the law go in advance.
One of the greatest stimulants has been “The Friends of Our Native Landscape,” organized in Chicago some ten years ago, under the militant spirit of that true friend of nature, Mr. Jens Jensen.
Wisconsin has its new County Rural Planning Law, an immeasurable step in our state in advance in the preservation of nature’s best works.
The Woman’s Clubs have some great things to their credit in the preservation of landmarks, as has the Wisconsin Archaeological Society.
I am a member of the Landmarks Committee of the State Historical Society. Under the leadership of the Hon. P. V. Law-son, this committee took for its first work the arousing of public sentiment in the preservation of Aztalan.
Many cities have done wonderful work in planning and securing parks, drives and playgrounds.
The Friends of Our Native (Concluded on page 48.)
Published Monthly by the Wisconsin State Horticultural Society IS N. Carroll St Official organ of the Society.
FREDERIC CRANEFIELD. Editor. Secretary W. 8. H. 8.. Madison. Wis.
Entered at the postofflce at Madison, Wisconsin, as second-class matter. Acceptance for mailing at special rate of popstage provided for in Section 1103, Act of October 8, 1817, authorized July 15. i»18.
Advertising rates made known on application.
Wisconsin State Horticultural Society
Annual membership fe eludes fifty cents, subscri Horticulture. Send one field. Editor, Madison, Wis.
Remit by Postal or Express Money Order. A dollar bill may be sent safely if wrapped or attached to a card. Personal checks accepted.
Postage stamps not accepted.
J. A Hays........................President
H. C. Christensen, Oshkosh.......Vice-President
F. Cranefleld, Secretary-Treasurer.......Madiann
J. A. Hays...............
H. C. Christensen..........
F. Cranefleld .............
1st Diet., Wm. Longland. . . 2nd Dist., R. J. Coe.......
3rd Dist., E. J. Frautschi..
4th Diet., A. Leidiger .....
6th Dist., James Livingstone, fith Diet, J. W. Roe......
7th Diet., C. A. Hofmann. .
8th Diet., J. E. Leverich. . .
9th Diet., L. E. Birmingham 10th Dist, Paul E. Grant. . . 11th Dist, Irving Smith . . . .
... Ex-Qfficio ... Ex-Officio ... Ex-Officio Lake Geneva . Ft Atkinson .....Madison . . .Milwaukee .. . Milwaukee .....Oshkosh .....Baraboo ......Sparta Sturgeon Bay , . . Menomonie .....Ashland
BOARD OF MANAGERS
J. A. Hays H. C. Christensen F. Cranefleld
The Annual Convention
Our Convention will be held in the State Capitol building, December 14th, 15th and 16th, one month earlier than last year and one day later in the week than usual. The board of managers were of the opinion that most of the members prefer December to January and were also influenced in fixing the date by the dates of horticultural conventions in other states.
It is unfortunate that the program cannot be printed in this issue but it is planned to get the December number to you by December 1st.
Those who have made a practice of attending conventions know that there will be two and one-half days of papers and discussions that no up-to-date horticulturist can afford to miss.
For those in doubt about attending we give a general outline of the program.
Call to order 10 o'clock: Assembly Chamber. Greetings by Governor Blaine or other State officer.
Introduction of delegates from other state societies, usually Minnesota, Illinois, Iowa and Indiana.
The forenoon of the first day provides an opportunity to get acquainted and time for the exhibitors to display their fruit and vegetables, so that they will have no excuse for staying away from the afternoon session.
Amateur Gardens and Gardening.
There will be four or five short papers by carefully picked men and women, those who have been successful in some line, with ample time for questions and discussion.
Program by The Women’s Auxiliary.
This is a new feature and is certain to be the best one. In other years the W. A. have met in separate session with a separate program. This was satisfactory, in a way, but the women missed the regular program and the men missed the women, very much. Now we can all be together all the time and the Editor has no doubt that a program that will make us all sit up and take notice will be provided.
Topics, five or more, concerning public welfare, community parks, cemetery planting, roadside trees, memorial trees, defin ing the duty we as horticultural-ists owe to the world about us. Thursday Afternoon and Friday Two sessions each day; 9 to 12 and 2 to 5. No definite announcements can be made at this time further than to say that about twenty subjects will be presented covering every aspect of horticulture. While many of the subjects will be presented by commercial growers of fruits, flowers and vegetables and by men from the Agricultural College, everything will be of interest to the amateur. It has been noticeable in the past that the most keenly interested listeners to papers on pruning, spraying, etc., by experts have been amateurs who owned but a tree or two. There is nothing remarkable about that. Where else can the amateur go for better help than to the professional? We promise a full and satisfactory program for these four sessions.
Our annual dinner. This is wholly informal and a part of the convention that old timers look forward to with pleasure. No invitations are issued but attendance is limited to membership We just get together by ourselves, enjoy a good meal, a few jokes, some good music and leave happy. Several prominent members were called out by telegrams last year and it is not unlikely that something worse (or better) may happen this year. There is always something happening to drive dull care away.
The annual convention is the biggest horticultural event of the year. The best proof of the value of it is in the never ending demand from other states for copies of the annual report containing the papers presented.
The questions and discussions are worth more than the papers and the contact with the men and women who are making horticulture in Wisconsin is worth more than all the rest. You can’t get that from reading a book. Better fix it up now so you can attend.
The Convention Exhibits
We may not have as many apples on show as at the State l'air or as many as Indiana or Illinois show at their annual conventions, but we have them all beat on two counts,—quality of fruit and a Venetian marble back ground.
There is no other fruit growers’ association in the world that has a million dollar setting for its exhibits. The rotunda, first floor, of the Capitol building is just exactly that; then, after looking at the fruit, if you lift your eyes to the dome you see another million dollars, please don’t think of that, one of the architectural masterpieces of the world in marble and canvas.
With all this our apples seem to emphasize the beauty, to add a finishing touch. Can you paint the lily? Or gild the rose?
Educational Exhibit at the Convention
The exhibit which will be staged by Dr. Fracker, state entomologist, consisting of specimens of injurious insects, remedies used for their control, etc., will be worth the price of railroad fare at least.
Other educational exhibits of equal interest and value will be staged.
An article in the September number of this paper, page 11, under above heading was printed without proper credit. It was clipped from a Washburn paper, according to our best recollection, the Washburn News, and should have been credited to the proper source. A further error was in the head which was the Editor’s own and should have read BAY-FIELD COUNTY STRAWBERRIES. The higgest mistake of all was in printing figures on yield and prices. It is the established policy of this paper to refrain from publishing figures on bumper crops. These are often misleading and often induce people without experience, common sense or capital to rush into fruit growing greatly to the detriment of the business. One of our best growers of small fruits insists that “bumper” returns, as this year, must be spread over three years in order to give the facts.
A reader, who lives far from Bayfield, but who knows Bayfield, says that Mr. Ed. Carlson lives just outside the city of Bayfield and not at Washburn. This is not a matter of great interest to most of our readers, but it would be only natural if Bayfield local pride should resent the theft of Mr. Carlson from their community in order to shed glory on Washburn. Such things led to bloody wars in ancient times.
This is the chrysanthemum season again. Visit the nearest greenhouse. It is worth while. Many of the pompon and some of the larger varieties can be grown in the house to advantage
for Particular Buyers
Have all the standard varieties as well as the newer sorts. Can supply you with everything In
Fruit Trees, Small Fruits, Vines and Ornamentals.
Let us suggest what to plant both in Orchard and in the decoration of your grounds.
Prices and our new Catalog Bent promptly upon receipt of your list At wants.
/ JiO- 2 Flo 3
Crates, Bushel Boxes and Climax Baskets
We manufacture the Ewald Patent Folding Berry Boxes of wood veneer that give satisfaction. Berry box and crate material in the K. D. in carload lots our specialty. We constantly carry in stock 16-quart crates all made up ready for use, either for strawberries or blueberries. No order too small or too large for us to handle. We can ship the folding boxes and crates in K. D. from Milwaukee. Promptness is essential in handling fruit, and we aim to do our part well. A large discount for early orders. A postal brings our price list.
Cumberland Fruit Package
Dept. D, Cumberland, Wis.
Blasted Narcissus Buds
An experienced grower of narcissus complains that many buds fail to develop. Submission of the question to five different growers brought but slight comfort. All agreed that the thing happened but only two offered a suggestion: C. C. Pollworth of Milwaukee, says: “There are a number of reasons. When we force these bulbs too hard they often dry off at the end of the stem just about when the bud is forming. We always find that when bulbs are not well rooted they are inclined to throw blighted buds. Again it may, in some cases, be caused by disease as from our own experience we find that from an original case of bulbs, some come perfect while others will blight under similar treatment, but we find on examination that the latter usually have a poor root development.
Mr. C. S. Hean, an expert amateur writes:
Your letter does not indicate whether your correspondent is attempting to grow these Narcissi out of doors, or to force them in the house. In either case the problem does not appear to be one of cover, inasmuch as all possible variations of covering have been tried without affecting the result. It would seem therefore, that the most likely cause for the blasted buds might be due to insufficient root development. This should be induced by plenty of moisture and very cool growing conditions during the fall. There must, of course, be good drainage, as the bulbs will rot if they are standing in stagnant water, but with good drainage they can stand large quantities of water. This applies to double varieties in particular. If the flowers are being grown out of doors, they should have no cover whatsoever until after the ground is frozen to a depth of about two inches. The cover should be left on rather late in the spring to prevent the flowers coming too early, and getting caught by severe late frosts. These will, of course, blight the bulbs.
For growing indoors, Kirby’s book on Daffodils, Narcissus and How to Grow Them, gives the following directions:
1. Early planting. Procure the bulbs as early as possible and pot up at once.
2. Plenty of time to root thoroughly out of doors. Allow about twelve weeks for hardy varieties and six weeks for tender Tazetta varieties.
3. Slow growth when first brought into the house, giving ventilation and keeping the room or house cool: 50° until budded, then 60 and 65 for flowering.
4. Plenty of water when the buds are developing and when in flower.
If your correspondent is growing his bulbs indoors, it would seem likely that he has either failed to get good roots or has brought the flowers into too warm a temperature in the house. Caution him that the nourishment in the bulb must go toward root development and the roots will then see to it that the flower develops properly. If conditions are such that both root and top are developing at the same time, the bud will almost certainly fail to develop properly.
C. S. Hean.
Our new 48-page catalog (16 pages in colors) gives you an honest description of FRUITS, VINES, ORNAMENTALS, PERENNIALS, etc., for this climate.
If you are in doubt as to what is best to plant we will be glad to advise with you.
We do landscape work.
Fort Atkinson, Wis.
Premature Blossoming of Fruit Trees
City dailies as well as countryweeklies are blossoming these days with flowery tales of, “Apple Trees In Bloom,” “Spring Advanced Six Months” and other exciting stories of like nature. It seems to be a never ending source of wonder to most people when a few blossoms appear on fruit trees out of season and to many it is a source of superstition. It happens every year to some extent and the numerous cases th’s fall could easily have been pre ■ dieted by any experienced grower.
The crop of blossoms which would normally appear in May. 1922, began their growth as early' as June of this year and wer-" carefully packed away iv what the specialist calls “fruit buds” or “blossom buds” distinguished
from other buds on the tree, which produce only leaves, chiefly by their size. This year a dormant, (dry), period was followed by a season of heavy rains followed in turn by warm weather. On the trees having buds fully matured and on branches of other trees, usually diseased, the “fruit” buds developed and we have a situation which every fruit grower expected and regrets for it means fewer apples next year.
I noticed an elm tree (planted by me several years ago) was not doing well. An examination today revealed that the bark for four or five feet is loose from the tree and crumbles off easily; that there are larvae and ants, etc., under the bark. It is possible to scrape it and cut down all deep affected places and treat it with some solution and it could perhaps be bridged although the withes would have to be five feet long. Have you an idea what the matter is and can anything be done? It is one of a row of street shade trees along a garden lot. Is it liable to spread to the other trees? The leaves were not even to start with.
Is there anything to do with the corn tassel worm that is riddling our green corn but swearing? The fall worms are certainly fierce. They are chewing the head lettuce and Chinese cabbage. Would pyrethrum powder do any good ? I presume you have enough troubles of your own aside from this?
IDr. Fracker, state entomologist answers:
Elm trees are rarely attacked by borers unless they are infected with some disease or are suffering from some harmful conditions. In most cases in Wisconsin they are first attacked by a fungus canker known as Sphaeropsis ul-micola.
No control measure for this disease has been worked out as the fungus which caused it was not discovered until about a year ago. Dr. Humphrey of the Forest Products Laboratory, who has carried on most of the work with the fungus, suggests that it would be highly desirable to cut down and burn infected trees to prevent the disease from spreading to the neighboring ones. Bridge grafting under the circumstances would hardly pay.
The corn ear worm is controlled in Illinois, Iowa, and Kansas, where its damage is serious every year, by dusting the silk with powdered lead arsenate. This is done, of course, before the worms enter the ear and should be repeated a few times shortly after the corn silks out in the summer.
I suppose you would prefer not to use arsenate of lead on head lettuce and Chinese cabbage for fear it would not be washed off by the rain before the vegetables were used. Either pyrethrum powder or hellebore is satisfactory under such conditions, hele-bore is more common for leaf-eating insects. It should be purchased fresh from the drug store as it rapidly loses its strength. There is no danger whatever in employing it, as it is not poisonous to higher animals or man.
Keep house plants clean and free from dust. Water thoroughly when the plants need water rather than a little every day.
are in a position to furnish high grade Nursery Stock °f <dl kinds and varieties suitable to Wisconsin and other northern districts.
Will be glad to figure on your wants either in large or small quantities
Lake City, Minn.
A Complete Stock of Fruit, Shelter and Ornamental Stock in Hardy Varieties for Northern Planters.
The New Freesias
It is rarely in these modern days that a brand new flower is introduced, but in the new colored freesias developed in the last few seasons and which have taken the florists’ world by storm, we have something new. Freesias are easily grown pot plants for the winter and can be bloomed in the window of the average city apartment without great difficulty. The earliness with which they are planted determines the time of their bloom.
Resembling in growth a miniature gladiolus they now come in a bewildering series of lavenders, roses, mauves, orange, bronzes and yellows, and the hybridizers have only started on their work. The old white and yellow varieties were fine but the introduction of the colored kinds makes an entire new race of plants.
They will grow in any good soil with good drainage and given enough water so that they do not dry out. If the temperature is too hot, a fault often found in city apartments, the buds may blast after appearing, but if placed in a sunny window at some distance from the steam coil and given an occasional syringing or spraying in the bathroom or sink, they will respond nobly.
They have a delicious fragrance which adds to their charm.
They have in two seasons become one of the most popular cut flowers in the florist trade, and the bewildering array of colors has proved a constant delight. Hybridists both in the United States and Europe are developing new shades and strains each year, and in addition to the great variety of color they have greatly increased the size of the bloom and the freedom of production of flowers.—Exchange.
Woodpeckers, Sap-suckers and Apple Trees
A member complains that “woodpeckers” are attacking his apple trees causing serious injury. The following by Dr. S.
B. Fracker, state entomologist, throws much light on the subject :
The black and white woodpeckers which are attacking your apple trees are undoubtedly the species known as sap-suckers (Sphy-rapicus varius varius). They may be distinguished from other woodpeckers by the velvet black chest band contrasting with the pale yellow of the lower breast, and by the scarlet spot on the forehead and front part of the crown.
This is the only member of the woodpecker family which is injurious. The ornithologists report that it punctures the bark of orchard and forest trees primarily to suck the sap of the trees and to eat the soft cambium layer of the wood. They also feed on the insects which are thus attracted to the flowing sap, about one-third of their stomach contents consisting of ants.
The only way to prevent their depredations is to kill the birds, which are unfortunately protected by the game laws. However, if you will write Mr. W. E. Barber, Conservation Commission. State Capitol. Madison, describing your trouble and letting him know that you can tell sap-suckers from other woodpeckers he tells me that he is empowered to grant you a special license which will enable you to shoot these injurious birds.
By Prof. LeRoy Cady, Minn.
There is still time to plant bulbs in pots for spring flowers. Use hyacinths, daffodils or tulips. Tulips may still be planted out doors to advantage.
Almost any one can have grapes if they will be satisfied with Beta or Janeville varieties. Some better varieties may be grown in favorable places.
Hyacinths, daffodils and other bulbs should be set in a cool place until the roots are well formed when they may be brought into heat and forced as needed.
Greenhouse sanitation is becoming more and more important. We cannot be too careful not to allow the numerous insects and fungous diseases a chance to gain any foothold.
Better put a little good rich garden soil in the cellar or where it will not freeze. It will come in handy to start those early vegetables and flower seed in next spring.
Straight garden or orchard rows give the field a better ap pearance and are easier to cultivate.
Hoe all grass and weeds away from the trunk of the tree. This destroys a winter home for mice.
Prune the grape vines as soon as the leaves drop. They should be laid down before the ground freezes.
Don’t try to grow house plants in a very warm room with a dry atmosphere for it can’t be done.
OFFICERS OF THE WIS. STATE BEEKEEPERS’ ASSN.
Pres. L. C. Jorgensen, Green Bay. Treas. C. W. Aeppler, Oconomowoc.
Vice-Pres. A. C. F. Bartz, Jim Falls. Secy. H. F. Wilson, Madison.
Annual Membership Fee $1.00.
Remit to H. F. Wilson, Secretary, Madison, Wis.
Beekeeping In The Far North
Very little is known regarding beekeeping in the far north, but a recent newspaper clipping tells of several beekeepers who are securing large crops and Mr. J. C. Dodds of Bowsman River, Manitoba, is cited as having sold $1500 worth of honey from 33 hives. The writer of this article says that Manitoba is a natural bee country, that the prairies are covered with a profusion of wild flowers and the blossoms of alfalfa and clover are widespread.
Dr. Miller Memorial Fund
The following beekeepers have subscribed but have not yet paid:
DON’T DELAY! PAY UP YOUR SUBSCRIPTION TODAY.
American Honey Producers’ League Notes
Mr. H. B. Parks, secretary, American Honey Producers’ League, San Antonio, Texas, reports that the league signs offering a reward for the arrest and conviction of anyone disturbing an apiary at which one of these notices have been placed are ♦ready foil distribution^ Every beekeeper in our state who has paid in his dues to the American Honey Producers’ League Section of the State Association is entitled to the right to use these notices and they can be secured from Mr. Parks on request at a minimum cost for printing.
Members of the League in Wisconsin who have not already done so should look up the honey advertisements in the September number of Good Housekeeping. The advertisement will be found on page 14. The secretary reports that he is receiving large numbers of requests from every part of the United States asking for the recipe booklet. It is the plan of the League to use additional methods in connection with these advertisements by sending circulars of information to the wholesale grocers of the United States.
Bee Diseases in 1921
As if the beekeeper did not have enough troubles this year between failing honey prices and a poor crop, he has also been compelled to fight American foulbrood harder than ever. In fact, in the counties where no control measures are being applied infections with this disease were disastrous and resulted in widespread infection.
The fall of 1920 and the spring of 1921 offered ideal conditions for extensive robbing. Long periods of mild weather gave the bees a chance to fly every day for weeks when no honey could be secured “honestly.” Particularly in the spring, the very early flow followed by a three weeks’ complete dearth of supplies maddened the bees until robbing would be started on the least excuse. As a result every exposed comb, partially cleaned honey container and sweet stuff of every kind was found and taken up at once.
The result of this condition may be Illustrated by an occurrence in the western part of the state. An extensive beekeeper in a district infected with American foulbrood but who had not had previous experience with the disease himself, discovered a year ago that a few of his colonies were bringing in a fine quality of basswood honey after the main flow was over. He realized that his bees has discovered the supply somewhere and considered it a good joke on some unknown neighbor. The quality of honey was good and after being taken off was retained for feeding in the spring.
As might be expected, the feeding resulted disastrously to the entire yard. By the time it was examined in July, 87 of the 115 colonies showed typical symptoms of American foulbrood, a condition serious enough to discourage the most hardened and experienced victim of bee diseases.
The marketing situation for the past two years had also added to Wisconsin’s difficulties. A larger proportion of the honey crop is being marketed locally than ever before and this means that owners of infected yards are providing more and more consumers with honey containing the spores of Bacillus larvae, the bacterium which causes American foulbrood. In the city of Madison this has been especially serious for it has increased the number of former honey containers to which the ever-searching bees had access.
Under these conditions the beekeepers In many localities have been able only to hold the disease to its former proportions. A policy of more drastic potion than ever before was adopted for this season and it was badly need-el, for certain beekeepers in some
counties had succeeded in retaining American foulbrood on their premises throughout a five year campaign in spite of treatment being applied every year.
Since the area clean-up method of foulbrood control was begun in 1918, campaigns have been undertaken in the entire belt of counties extending from Madison and Milwaukee north to the north boundary of the state, and reaching from Lake Michigan to a width of sixty or eighty miles west. The only counties in their entire belt in which no work has yet been attempted are Washington and Ozaukee, but large areas of Dodge and Waukesha also still remain untouched. In six or eight of the counties north of Green Bay, only general scouting trips have been undertaken and these have shown Marinette, Oconto and Kewaunee counties apparently free from disease. Isolated outbreaks have been discovered in one location in each of Door, and Forest counties and these were immediately cleared up. The amount of infection has been reduced to such an extent that American foulbrood is no longer a cause of serious loss in Langlade, Shawano and Calumet, and th? disease is so scarce in Outagamie and Sheboygan that these areas, begun this year, will apparently offer little difficulty.
In the group of counties from Oshkosh to Madison and Milwaukee, the Inspectors have been working under serious difficulties, and at times have been greatly discouraged. Jefferson county took four years to reduce the disease to an infection of twenty per cent of the apiaries, but the number of diseased colonies has gone down until at the time of writing practically no disease is known in the county except in the extreme northwestern corner. In other parts of the area the results of selling infected honey in the immediate neighborhood of the yards to be cleaned up has offered especially serious difficulties around the larger cities such as Milwaukee, Oshkosh, and Madison, and has delayed results.
The brighter side of the picture Is the fact that there is no area in which clean up surveys have been carried on for even one year in which the amount of infection has not been reduced to less than 20 per cent of the total number of apiaries and less than 8 per cent of the total number of colonies. When it Is remembered that in several counties from one-half to two-thirds of the total number of yards showed disease when the work was begun and that in a number of these counties American foulbrood is no longer a cause of serious loss, the amount of progress In the state can be seen.
In the older counties, which have known and suffered from American foulbrood for from ten to forty years, the problem has reduced itself to that of handling the larger yards and keeping the up-to-date commercial beekeepers from perpetuating the disease on their own premises. The two-colony “back lotter" is now supporting foulbrood clean-up work and is offering little difficulty. Everywhere he is suffering loss from his neighbor who is producing honey on a commercial scale and who is treating and shaking and shaking and treating until he has become so used to the idea of having disease in his yard that he would be lonesome without it.
Not all the results of the present season's work have been tabulated and a complete report of the results to date will be made at the meeting of the state beekeepers’ association in December. The general statement can be made that all infected yards located by inspectors in the entire belt covering the eastern third of the state, and Richland county in addition, were cleaned up by the close of the inspection season, except in Dodge and Fond du Lac counties, where the survey was begun only this year and the owners of Infected yards have not all had time to become familiar with and apply treatment.
3. B. Fracker.
Are We Overlooking Some Of The Sources Of Nectar?
The season of 1921 developed some new wrinkles, so far as honey production is concerned. An unusually early spring enabled the bees to be ready for the clover flow which came at least two weeks before schedule time. A dry fall in 1920, followed by a large portion of the state being bare of snow during most of the winter was responsible for the freezing of the c'over n the northern half of the state.
5000 Pounds of Fireweed Honey Secured After July 15, 1921
For some unknown reason, the basswood failed to yield, except in a small section in the extreme western part of the state and a small section in the extreme eastern part. There was a light yield of clover in the southern and eastern sections. In the northern section there was practically no honey gathered until about the first of July. Quite a severe drought affected the whole state during June and July. Late summer rains and favorable weather gave an unusually early development to the fall flow. Many of our northern people secured a splendid crop of honey after the 15th of July. The accompanying picture shows one of the yards of the Clover Land Apiary Company, which was moved from near Wausau to a fire weed section thirty miles away on the twentieth to the twenty-seventh of July. The picture was taken on the 15th day of August, at that time it was found that each colony had from two to four ten-frame hive bodies well filled with honey from willow-herb.
Many of our beekeepers turned failure into success this year by a little wise migration.
A small yard of mine at Shawano county, Wisconsin, secured an average of fifty pounds from “wild buckwheat.' The honey is almost as dark as buckwheat honey, but has an entirely different flavor. It is not so strong and many people are very fond cf it. The wild buckwheat is a vine which comes up in the grain fields after harvest, has leaves similar to sweet potatoes and the flowers are small. It gets the name from its resemblance of the seed to that of buckwheat seed.
Summing up the honey situation 1 should judge that we have about thirty or forty per cent of a crop of white honey, while we have perhaps
a very large surplus of the various fall honeys.
H. L. McMurry.
Experiments carried on in the Department of Beekeeping at the University with sugar syrup indicate that there is a great deal to be learned by weighing bees before and after feeding to determine the loss in weight occasioned while the syrup is being taken down and ripened by the bees. Five pounds of sugar syrup fed to a fairly strong colony of bees is almost a waste as the increase in weight per colony is only about two pounds. Tests in which 40 pounds of sugar syrup were fed to colonies without stores showed that the total amount of syrup was reduced by from 10 to 12 pounds. In other words, 40 pounds of sugar syrup will produce only about from 25 to 30 pounds of actual stores. Considerable difference was noticed in feeding sugar syrup of various strengths. Sugar syrup made with one pound of sugar to one pound of water was considerably more reduced than 2 pounds of sugar to one pound water and syrup made with 3 pounds sugar and one pound water was much less reduced than either of the others. Tartaric acid was found to be necessary in making the best syrup.
The department recommends the use of sugar syrup two pounds sugar to one pound of water for early fall feeding, and three poiinds of sugar to one pound of water for late fall feeding. In making the syrup mix the water and sugar, place on the Are and allow to come to boil or until the sugar Is all dissolved and the liquid is clear. Then add a teaspoonful of tartaric acid to each five gallons of syrup stir well and remove from fire. With out the tartaric acid, the sugar syrup made on the basis of 3 to 1 cannot be kept in solution, the sugar crystal-izing out in a few days time. When the tartaric acid is used, no sugar crystals are formed for many days and bees have been found to winter well on sugar syrup of 3 to 1 strength without any signs of crystallzed stores in the spring.
While carrying on these feeding experiments four colonies with foulbrood were shaken onto clean empty combs and allowed to starve for twenty-four hours. At the end of that time each one of these colonies were examined and no honey could be found in the cel’s. Sugar syrup was then fed in 10 pound lots until the bees had taken down 40 pounds. In each case a few too many eggs were found In the 2 or 3 center frames. Later examinations showed that brood was being reared and from 10 to 20 square inches of sealed brood was found In two of the treated colonies.
When examined on October 27, practically no eggs were to be found and it appears that brood rearing has been discontinued. Only about half of the stores have been sealed but the remaining syrup seems to be well thickened. More and more our beekeepers are realizing that sugar syrup makes good stores for winter and as it is easy to give to the bees, there is no excuse for any colony of bees going into winter quarters short of stores.
H. F. Wilson.
Spring Preparation for the Honey Flow (Continued from October number.)
A practical illustration of how temperature influences the development of brood in the spring may be demonstrated by watching these colonies, of minimum, medium, and maximum strength. By May the weak colony will have only a small circle of brood indicating the inside space covered by the cluster. This will also be more or less true of the medium colony, but the area of the brood nest will extend beyond the ordinary winter clustering space. In the strong colony the brood nest will be several times longer than the winter clustering space and several frames may be filled from end to end. It is, of course, a recognized fact that strong colonies in the spring are able to build up strong for the honey flow, but how many beekeepers have ever carried on trials with protected and unprotected colonies with extra brooding space and with more stores than seemed necessary. When a demonstration of this nature is carried on the results are truly remarkable and I believe this is the principle reason why beekeepers who have tried packing the bees out of doors have reached the conclusion that out door packing is better than cellar wintering. However, the cellar wintering was not at fault, but the fact that the bees had wintered out of doors had spring protection made it appear so. In the Northern states the bees are often removed from the cellar and placed in exposed locations where the north and west winds sweep over them, causing a loss of temperature which can only be made up by extra work on the part of the bees and a consequent loss of energy which should be conserved for a greater expansion of the brood nest. Whenever a cold VTet spring occurs the bees have great difficulty In building up and always reach the honey flow in poor condition unless protected.
The month of April is always cold and the night temperatures frequently drop to near the freezing point. Perhaps there are only a few days when the bees can fly and in that case we say that bees were unable to gather pollen and nectar and could not build up. This condition may be true, but would not be if the beekeeper would only provide abundant stores. In truth the bees do not need to fly, but three or four times during the latter part of March and April and conditions without the hive have little or no effect on the development of the brood if conditions are right within.
There is also considerable evidence to show that too much packing in the spring is detrimental as in heavy winter packing. If the packing is too heavy, the heat of the sun does not penetrate to the hive and the bees do not come out and fly during the few days that are warm enough for a flight.
Our recommendations for spring are that, First, the beekeeper arrange to set the bees in location where they will positively be protected from the direct influence of the wind. Provide some kind of windbreak. 8econd, if the largest possible colonies are desired at the beginning of the honey flow, prepare to provide every colony with some outside covering or packing as soon as the bees are put on their summer stands. Third, see that every colony has more stores than you think it can use during April and May. If you do not have combs of honey, feed sugar syrup and give forty to fifty pounds because as a rule ten to twenty pounds is about half enough. The strong colony will need from 75 to 100 pounds of stores to build up during the spring and if they cannot get it in the field, the beekeeper must supply
Should send for our booklet on the new MODIFIED DADANT HIVE. The hive with a brood chamber sufficient for prolific queens. OUR CATALOG IS FREE.
it. Fourth, the bees must have brooding room and the beekeeper who has swarms in May should not be proud of the fact, for it is a sure sign of neglect in one way or another.
Some of the beekeepers in Wisconsin who have been content with one hive body full of bees at the honey flow, have, during the past two years been amazed to find that they could, by following the above recommendations get two ten frames hive bodies full of bees and from twelve to seventeen frames with brood at the beginning of the honey flow. Two beekeepers in late May, 1920, actually had most of the colonies two ten frame bodies with more bees than they could get into the hive. We do not put two hive bodies on when the bees are first set out, but wait until six or eight frames contain brood and then the second hive body is placed on top. As soon as the queen lacks space below, she goes up, if the upper body is packed and warm. In spite of evidence to the contrary, she will go down again when everything-is filled above.
THE FUNDAMENTALS OF SPRING CARE TO GET LARGE COLONIES AT THE TIME OF THE HONEY FLOW ARE BEES TO BEGIN WITH: PROTECTION DURING APRIL AND MAY: SUPERABUNDANCE O F STORES; NOT LESS THAN TWO HIVE BODIES FOR SPRING BROOD REARING.
Who Are the Friends of Our Native Landscape?
(Continued from page 39.) Landscape, however, is the all including organization where all the specialists may get together and by mass action arouse public sentiment before it is too late and the damage done beyond repair.
I have tried to think of a group who would not be interested in the work of the Friends, but with no success.
One large group, the children, will all be with us, for most of them would rather live outdoors than indoors. The native landscape appeals to them for their imagination is still unimpaired, and they regard the finest of manmade parks with some disdain, in comparison with the woodland, lakes and streams as left by nature.
Then we might consider the persons who like to hunt, camp, fish, drive or walk, in addition to other outdoor diversions. All will be with us. Also the farmer, who has quite as much, if not more, appreciation of these things than has the city dweller.
Why do so many persons choose for their vacation place the wildest spots they can reach? It is to get away for a time from the artificial places, back to places like th6* Haunts of their distant ancestors, some authorities hold. These ancestral traits are in all of us in some form.
For those who can not go to the distant places the Friends propose to bring the distant places nearer home, that all may have opportunity to enjoy them, and thus add to the happiness of those here and those to come.
Is it idealistic? Possibly, but at the same time, it is so intensely practical that it should delight the narrowest exponent of the purely utilitarian.
My topic is, “Who Are the Friends of Our Native Landscape?” It will be easier to reverse the question and tell who are the enemies, for when the purpose of the Friends are understood, there are no enemies.—
Bitter-sweet makes a fairly good hedge when carefully trained over a fence or wall. Its orange-colored fruit adds greatly to its attractiveness in autumn.
Remember the winter meeting of the Horticultural Society in December. If you are interested in trees, fruits, flowers or vegetables it will pay you to attend.
Did you notice the high coloring of the Virginia Creeper this season? It is a splendid thing for autumn color or a brick or stone wall or when grown over an old tree or stump.