How to Prune Small Fruits
J. G. Moore
(Circular 134, Extension Service College of Agriculture) Raspberry Pruning
Raspberry pruning consists in removing .the fruited canes, removing canes not needed for production, and heading-in the canes which are left. Growers do not entirely agree on the details of these operations, therefore pruning practice with the bramble fruits ^liffers somewhat with the particular grower.
Raspberry canes, other than those of the so-called ever-bearing varieties, fruit but once, therefore they shiuld be removed. Opinion differs as to whether this shojuld be done immediately following harvest or left until spring. Both times possess some advantages. In most cases removal immediately after harvest is preferable.
The removal of unneeded canes usually takes place in the spring. Although set out as individual plants the red raspberry tends to develop a matted row. It is a good plan in pruning to main-tairi the original plants more or les^ closely. In some cases the bushes are planted in check rows and the individuality of the plant is maintained rigidly. Home plantations are seldom handled in thi$ way, however.
't'here is not much uniformity in tihe number of canes left to each plant or hill. Four to nine marks the’ ordinary range. The usual number left is five or six with the black and purple cane varieties and six to eight with the reds. Some growers prefer only four or five with the reds.
Heading-in: The greatest variation in pruning practice with raspberries is in heading-in. With the reds it usually takes place in the spring and may consist in cutting off only the portion of the cane injured during the winter to cutting back the canes to about 5 feet. Occasionally growers prune back the canes to 3 to 4 feet. During the past two seasons the Wisconsin Experiment Station has carried on trials in heading-in the red raspberry using approximately these three practices. The data secured in 1919 showed little difference in the crop secured from the light and medium pruning but a marked reduction in the crop resulted from cutting back tb.e canes severely.' ’In 1920 the plants receiving medium headingin out-yielded those which were given only a light pruning. The differences in some cases were quite marked. As in 1919, the severe heading-in materially reduced the rop.
Either of two methods is used in heading-in the black raspberry. It may be pruned in the same way as the red, the heading-in, however, usually being more severe. As this method requires less attention it is the one usually followed in the home plantation. The yields received are ordinarily somewhat less than where the system of “summer pinching” is practiced.
The second method is commonly designated as “summer pruning” or “summer pinching.” When this method is employed the tips of the new shoots are pinched out when they are 18 to 24 inches high. To carry out this method properly it is necessary to go over the plantation two or three times during the first half of the growing season, as all the shoots will not reach the desired size at the same time.
This “pinching back” will cause side branches to develop on which the fruiting wood of the following season will appear. These side branches are cut back in the spring leaving them from 8 to 15 inches long. It may be advisable, also, when the number of new shoots is large to remove some of the weaker ones during the growing season.
Under Wisconsin conditions if summer pinching is to be practiced it should be done as early as possible. Late pinching will often result in heavy losses due to winter injury of the immature side branches. ' ■ '
Purple: canes: ‘The heading-in of purple cane varieties is much th?, same as for the black caps. With strong growing varieties, as Columbian, the summer pinching method is usually preferable. The treatment differs from that given the black varieties only in that the shoots are allowed to become 2% to 3 feet long before pinching takes place, and the side branches are left longer—12 to 18 inches— at the spring pruning.
The blackberry may be pruned in practically the same way as the red raspberry. The number of canes left to each plant is usually somewhat less—four or five. Strong growing canes may branch somewhat the first season. It is a good plan to leave some of these side branches, providing they have come through the winter in good condition. The tips of such branches should be cut back somewhat.
Some growers practice “summer pinching” with the blackberry the same as with the black raspberry. The pinching is usually done when the new growth is about 2 feet high. The shoot should not be allowed to grow 4 feet and then be cut back to 2 feet, as is sometimes done, because the effects secured will be very different from pinching at 2 feet. Some of the weaker growths may be thinned out during the growing season.
The lateral branches produced because of the summer pinching should be cut back in spring. The length of branch to be left will depend largely upon whether the variety is one which produces buds close or relatively far from the main cane. Usually 15 to 21 inches of shoot will be sufficient to produce a satisfactory crop.
The pruning of currants, like that of grapes, is likely to be neglected. With both fruits the difficulty of pruning is greatly increased by neglect. Systematic annual pruning from planting should be followed.
If the root system of the currant is extensive it may be reduced somewhat at planting to make the operation easier. All weak canes should be removed and the strong ones cut back to two to four buds.
The proper pruning of the currant is determined by the habit of fruit bearing. The finest currants are produced at the base of one-year old wood and on one-year spurs arising from older wood. Older spurs produce fruit but the amount and size of the fruit decrease rapidly with age. Canes have usually passed their best fruiting after the third crop. The chief item in currant pruning is to remove canes which have passed their best fruiting and to replace them with new canes.
A good plan is to remove a definite number of old canes each year and leave an equivalent number of new canes to replace them. When a three-year system is followed six or nine canes to a plant makes it easy to keep the balance. If a four-year system is practiced, eight canes are probably most convenient.
FIG. 1.—TERMS USED IN GRAPE PRUNING
The three-year plan can be operated as follows: At the beginning of the second season leave six strong canes. At the beginning of the third season remove two of the canes from the previous season and leave five strong, new canes. At the beginning of the fourth season, remove one 2-year cane, two 1-year canes and leave three new canes. Thereafter the three oldest canes, those in their fourth year, should be removed and three new canes left to take their place. This will give a plant composed of three 1-year, three 2-year and three 3-year old canes.
The canes which are left annually may or may not be cut back. Some growers do no heading-in while others cut back the new canes left each year, so as to cause them to branch nearer the ground. This is more commonly practiced if the canes are unusually long.
In removing superfluous new growths on spreading varieties, those canes which have a tendency to droop to the ground should be removed. Dense, upright plants should be opened up by cutting out the new canes at the center.
The gooseberry is pruned much like the currant as they have the same general fruiting habit. The common practice in well-cared-for plantations is to remove wood after it has fruited two or three years, replacing the branches removed with new shoots. The gooseberry is inclined to grow thicker than the currant and will need more thinning out. It is not so much a question as to what system is used for renewing the wood but rather that the old wood be removed and enough young wood be left to give good crops of large fruit.
J. G. Moore
Circular 134 Extension Service, College of Agriculture.
There are a number of ways of pruning grapes but the four cane Kniffin system seems to be best adapted to Wisconsin conditions in most cases.
The best advice which can be given the grower is to prune annually, regardless of the system used. The failure to prune a grape vine even one season often necessitates two or more years to get it into proper form again. When neglected for more than one season the simplest and usually the best method is to plan to start over again at the trunk or often even at the ground.
A knowledge of certain terms is necessary to an understanding of grape pruning. The parts of the vine (see Fig. 1) are usually referred to in the following terms:
Trunk. The main stem or body of the vine.
Arm. A portion more than one year old arising from the trunk.
Cane. A one year old growth arising from the trunk or arm.
Shoot. The unmatured growth of the season. The shoot bears the fruit. It becomes a cane at the end of the growing season.
Spur. A short growth one or more years old, left when cutting back the cane for one or more seasons.
Renewal. A cane arising from the arm, trunk, or base of the plant which is to replace (renew) an older portion of the plant. A high renewal comes from the upper part of the trunk or from an arm; a low renewal comes from the lower part of trunk or from the base of the plant.
A shoot becomes a cane. A cane cut back moderately and allowed to persist becomes an arm. If it is cut back to two or three buds it is considered a spur.
Grapes are usually one to two years old when planted in the vineyard and possess from one to three or four canes. The roots should usually be cut back somewhat in planting to make the operation easier but it is desirable to leave a relatively large amount.
FIG. 2.—PRUNING AT DIFFERENT AGES
Top pruning consists in cutting off all the canes except a strong one as near the surface of the ground as possible. The one left should be cut back leaving only two or three buds at the base. (See upper left, Fig 2.)
If grape vines are to be laid down for winter protection the pruning is done in the fall. Otherwise it may be done any time after the leaves fall until early spring. In this description it is assumed that pruning is done in the fall.
During the first season’s growth the buds left at pruning should have produced shoots of considerable length. If the grower is not satisfied with the development made, pruning in the fall may consist in cutting the plant back the same as when it tvas planted. This is frequently necessary with one-year old plants or weak two-year old plants. If the growth has been satisfactory, pruning will consist in removing all the shoots which have now become canes, except a strong one, preferably the one arising nearest the ground. This cane should be cut back so as to not quite reach the top trellis wire, which ordinarily should be about 4% to 5’» feet above the ground. (See upper right, Fig. 2.)
Several of the buds along the cane should produce strong growths during the second season. Pruning the second autumn will consist in cutting off all new growths except those desired for further developing the plant and in heading-in the canes thus selected.
In the four cane Kniffin system two canes are selected for each trellis wire. These canes are then cut back leaving from six to eight buds on the upper ones and four to six on the lower canes. (See lower left, Fig. 2.)
FIG. 3.—DIFFERENT SOURCES OF HIGH RENEWALS FOR CANE A
Most of the buds left will produce shoots during the third season. Pruning at the end of the season will consist in removing superfluous wood and heading-in the canes left. In saving the canes for the fourth year it is desirable to select those nearest the trunk if they are sufficiently strong. (See lower right, Fig
2.) In selecting the canes it is better to save those of medium growth rather than the very large ones. This is particularly true on plants making very heavy growth, as Concord or Worden. On vines of comparatively light growth, relatively stronger canes may be saved.
The canes left should be cut back. The number of buds to be left on each cane depends somewhat upon the variety and the vigor of the particular plant. Usually a few more buds are left than in the previous season. The usual number is from eight to ten on the top canes and six to eight on the bottom ones.
The pruning for succeeding years is the same as for the fourth year. Sooner or later the first shoot arising on the cane will be farther from the trunk than it is desirable to have the new cane. When this occurs it is necessary to take out a renewal. This may be a cane arising on the arm, on the trunk, or even on one of the other old canes. As vines get older there is a lessening tendency to produce strong growth near the head of the vine so that frequently renewal wood is secured with difficulty. It is often advantageous in providing renewal wood to leave each season a spur or two on the trunk so as to encourage the development of vigorous growth from the trunk which may be used for renewals if desired.
At times it becomes desirable to renew the entire top. This is done by taking out a renewal from the base of the plant. This renewal should be selected at least one year in advance of removing the old top; and if it is done two years in advance less time will be lost in getting a full crop of fruit. A young vine produces many shoots from its base
Winter Protection For Cuthbert Raspberries
A member submitted the following inquiry and it was submitted to twelve experienced growers in widely separated localities. The replies are given below :
Query: “I have one thousand Cuthbert red raspberries, set out this spring and would like to know whether any winter protection is necessary for them in this part of the state.” Dated Waukesha.
The Cuthbert raspberry should be hardy in Waukesha and winter protection will not be necessary though a mulch about the roots would be beneficial.
H. C. Christensen, Oshkosh.
In answer to the member will say I do not grow Cuthbert red raspberries but grow Kings and
I.atham or Minn. No. 4. I use no winter protection. A few Kings winter killed last winter, the Lathams come through in fine condition.
I don’t think the member would need winter protection as far south as Waukesha,
J. R. Williams, Montello.
Generally speaking the Cuthbert is considered hardy enough but as it grows older this tendency decreases and in some cases the plant refuses to develop shoots from the base. When the plant is young all of these shoots should be removed. Later on, however, it is advisable to remove all but one and cut that one back to a spur. This method continues the habit of growth from the base and makes it possible to secure low renewals if desired. to stand the winter in Waukesha county. If these plants were ours we would take a chance on them wintering alright without protection. This variety freezes back badly however, in real severe winters in southern Wisconsin.
W. J. Moyle, Racine Co.
Answering the above, it is my firm belief that no bush berries grown in Wisconsin are safe unless they are put down each fall, except up in the Bayfield district where they are usually buried with snow and no frost in the ground.
With the considerable expense connected with the planting, growing and bringing into bearing of red raspberries I should consider the grower taking a very great chance if he did not put the cane down each fall, even in the Waukesha district.
In this district it often happens that some fellow will plant a small patch and neglect to put them down in the fall and invariably the cane kills back sometimes clear to the ground. Putting down the cane is the only safe insurance against winter-kill.
F. Kern, Sparta.
I know of one patch of Cuthberts that has wintered successfully for five years here in Jack-son county, but it is in a very favorable location. To be safe I would lay down and cover lightly with straw or marsh hay. Laying down has its risks too, mice sometimes get in and damage the canes unless the bed is in a good clean place free from weeds and rubbish.
Hollis Sullivan, Taylor, Wis.
In reply to your inquiry about laying down Cuthbert raspberries, will say in our section they will winter kill about 3 winters out of 4 if not laid down and covered.
Cuthbert is a fine berry but more tender than some of the other kinds.
E. W. Sullivan, Alma Center.
We never have practiced laying down or protecting Cuthberts in any way and have had but very-little loss. Do not think it necessary- nor profitable.
N. A. Rasmussen, Oshkosh.
Lay them down—often kills back. J. F. Hauser,
I have raised this raspberry for a good many years and I don’t think covering is necessary in location the first year.
Wm. Nelson, Oshkosh.
About one year out of three Cuthbert will kill back with us unless they are in a sheltered position where the snow drifts in and keeps the ground covered,
Yours truly, J. M. Roe,
Cuthbert will winter kill badly at Waukesha except when there is unusual depth of snow or unusually mild winter. Cuthbert raising will not be successful without winter covering.
G. H. Townsend, Madison.
All of which shows that fruit men like doctors disagree.
A Delightful Postscript
Dear Readers: There is an old saying, and I presume it’s true, that when a woman writes a letter she makes believe she has finished, signs her name, then adds a postscript—in which she tells all the things she intended to tell when she started the letter. Well I’m a woman—and as such claim all the rights and privileges of my sex. Here’s the postscript.
After I had sent the other letter to the Editor I thought real seriously of what I wanted to tell you this time, well there seemed to be something lacking, some things I hadn’t explained. I felt as though you would have to be just a little bit bettjr acquainted with the child Elizabeth before you would understand why she did some of the things she did when she grew older. You will understand I think when you have read this postscript why I am a firm believer in “As the twig is bent.’’ The two little incidents that I am about to relate are still very vivid to me. If I forget that I’m not ten but,—well, considerably older, I am sure you will forgive me.
As a child I was not very-strong and usually spent a considerable part of my vacations in the country, so when mother told me that I had been invited to spend several weeks at the home of some old friends whose two daughters were school mates of mine I was delighted. They had a beautiful home out in the country and I had often told my mother that these two girls must be very, very happy with such a beautiful house to live in. I could hardly wait for the great day to come when Mr. J.— would get me with the beautiful black horses and shining buggy. But the day came at last and then I was a little bit surprised that none of the children came to meet their father. They evidently were not watching for him. The house was very beautiful inside, I thought at once how small and shabby our house looks, but presently there seemed to be something lacking. Everybody was nice enough to me but I just felt as though I had to be a real nice good little girl every minute I was there. I sat decorously on the edge of the chairs. I ate my meals in silence because nobody told stories or said funny things. It seemed to me everybody acted as though they had been told to “behave.” Did any of you folks ever *go visiting and feel that way? If you have, you know just how uncomfortable I felt, long before the first week was over, my mind was made up. I was never going to be rich, for rich folks were not happy, they didn’t have homes, they just had houses. When Saturday came I insisted on going home. Didn’t a little grey house with the windows filled with flowering plants and mother standing in the doorway look good to one homesick little girl. When I told mother I thought our home much nicer than the big house in the country and that I was glad we were not rich, she just smiled. And I wondered. A few days after this, mother sent me on an errand that took me past the “big house” of our town. I always walked very slowly down this block, hoping to catch a glimpse of the “Pretty Lady” whom I admired very much. She was a very beautiful woman as I remember her and nearly always wore a white dress. She always smiled at me and child fashion I adored her, she seemed like a fairy princess to me. Today as I walked slowly past the house eagerly watching the windows for her smiling face she called to me in tones that matched her smile. “Little girl don’t you want to come and visit with me a little while. I’m lonely.” Why I fairly flew up the steps and into a most beautiful room. I remember telling my mother it was like the woods when the leaves began to fall. The Pretty Lady was sitting in a big chair and pointing to another one just opposite, said. “Now you sit in that chair and tell me what you have been doing this summer.” In a few moments we were chatting together just as though she was another little girl, or my mother, (You see my mother was like that). I wasn’t sitting on the edge of a chair but curled up sitting on my feet just as I did at home. Presently in came Mr. B. and sat down beside his wife smiling at her, she smiled back and then he held out his hand to me saying with the funi-est little smile in his eyes. “Why how do you do, little girl. I’m very glad to see you. Did you come prepared to stay? We’ve been looking for you quite a while.” They they both laughed and so did I (You see he was that kind too.) He gave me a big bunch of purple grapes when I said I must go home and help mother. Both said to come again and it sounded just as though they meant it. I ran part of the way home, then walked slowly. Now here was a puzzle, these folks were rich and they had a home, not just a house—now why? I was in time to set the table before we saw father coming. We ran to meet him and when we got to the door mother was there and she smiled at father and he smiled back and it wasn’t any puzzle at all any more. Mr. and Mrs. B. looked at each other just as father and mother did. Of course that was it and I almost forgot to eat my supper. I was thinking about the Indian legends father had been reading to us; all the different sorts of spirits that came to dwell with us, some of them were such queer funny ones but the best were the Spirit of Love and the Spirit of Understanding because if these two lived with you then the Spirit of Happiness came, and that’s what makes a home out of a house and it doesn’t make a bit of difference whether you are rich or poor. My but I was glad we had those three spirits in our house, and just then mother said, “you had better eat your supper because you know you have to wash the dishes.” Well, if you were ever ten and had to wash the dishes you know just how I felt then. I’ll stop now, this is positively the one and only postscript. Next time I’ll tell you of another visit and how I discovered the Spirit of Contentment, also found out I wasn’t the only person who played queer “games.”
Ask questions, we will answer them.
Leaves are apt to cause trouble when used as winter covering, by smothering the plants they are supposed to protect.
Aim to protect plants from winter sunshine rather than from winter cold.
Published Monthly by the
Wisconsin State Horticultural Society
16 N. Carroll St Offlcial organ of the Society.
FREDERIC CRAKEFIELD. Editor. Secretary W. 8. H. 8., Madieon, Wis.
Entered at the poetoffice at Madison, Wisconsin, as second-class matter. Acceptance for mailinc at special rate of popstage prorided for in Section 1103, Act of October 3, 1917, authorized July 15. 1918.
Advertising rates made known on application.
Wisconsin State Horticultural Society
Annual membership fee, one dollar, which includes fifty cents, subscription price to Wisconsin Horticulture. Send one dollar to Frederic Cranefleld. Editor, Madison, Wis.
Remit by Postal or Express Money Order. A dollar bill may be sent safely if wrapped or attached to a card. Personal checks accepted.
Postage stamps not accepted.
J. A. Hays........................President
H. C. Christensen, Oshkosh.......Vice-President
F. Cranefleld, Secretary-Treasurer.......Madison
J. A. Hays.......................Ex-Offido
H. C. Christensen..................Ex-Offido
F. Cranefleld .....................Ex-Officio
1st Diet., Wm. Longland........Lake Geneva
2nd Diet, R. J. Coe............Ft, Atkinson
3rd Diet., E. J. Frautschi...........Madison
4th Diet, A. Leidiger ............Milwaukee
5th Diet., James Livingstone........Milwaukee
«th Diet., J. W. Roe...............Oshkosh
7th Diet., C. A. Hofmann...........Baraboo
8th Diet, J. E. Leverich.............8parta
9th Dist, L. E. Birmingham.....Sturgeon Bay
10th Dist, Paul E. Grant..........Menomonie
11th Dist, Irving Smith.............Ashland
BOARD OF MANAGERS
J. A. Hays H. C. Christensen F. Cranefleld
THE ANNUAL CONVENTION
The convention this year will be held in Madison, as the constitution provides, Wednesday, Thursday and Friday, December 14th, 15th and 16th. It is set one day later in the week than usual so that we may not wholly conflict with Minnesota’s convention, Dec. 13-16.
The Assembly Chamber has been promised and we hope that we will not be crowded out at the last minute as we were last year.
The fruit and vegetables will be shown in the Assembly parlor or in the first floor corridor.
There were twenty-five topics on the program last winter covering every phase of horticulture. There will be as many this year. If vour heart is in your work you cannot afford to miss the convention. It consists of two parts equally valuable; the sessions where the papers are read and discussed and the times between essions. It’s the getting acquainted, the interchange of ideas outside the convention hall that is of as much lasting benefit as the other.
Late October is not too late to divide and plant peonies and other herbaceous perennials.
THE AMERICAN ROSE SOCIETY
Altho the American Rose Society is not as old as our society its history is not unlike ours in one particular. Organized in 1899 in 1907 it had but 111 active members while now its membership is nearly 2300.
This does not necessarily mean that there has been a great revival in rose culture, for that has been constant and steady, but it means that a group of earnest and unselfish people have undertaken thru the Rose Society to bring roses to every home. Mr. II. H. Hume, a great rosarian and a one-time president of the society states their standard in this way: “We are approaching the problems from the standpoint of a rose for every American yard, a dozen for every garden.”
That surely is a worthy ambition. The Rose Society issues an annual of 200 pages. The 1921 annual contains many excellent articles of interest to amateurs and in addition descriptive lists of the new roses of all the world with name of originator and date of introduction. In addition an official list of American Roses, new roses registered in 1920-21, and other data valuable to rose experts. John C. Wister is secretary, 606 Finance Building. Philadelphia, Pa. The fee for an-naul membership is $3.00.
THE A. B. C. OF STRAWBERRY GROWING
A new member, attracted by one of our leaflets, containing lists of recommended varieties, asks :
“You advise planting Dunlap and W’arfield strawberries, which is best suited for canning?” The W’arfield.
“Will you name best varieties of everbearing strawberry.’’ Progressive and Superb. The Progressive is a better “plant maker” than the Superb and more prolific but the fruit of Superb is superior in size and quality. The Progressive is said to be a seedling of Pan American, the first of the fall bearing varieties, crossed with Dunlap.
“How many plants would you advise setting to provide fruit for an ordinary family?” One hundred and twenty-four; 50 War-field, 50 Dunlap, 12 Superb and 12 Progressive.
“When is the best time of the year to set out plants?” Early in pring.
“How far should the rows be apart and how far apart the plants?”
The plants 18 inches in the row and the rows three feet apart.
“Are there male and female strawberry plants?” The terms used do not convey the right meaning, neither are the terms “perfect” and “imperfect” used by dealers correct but without haggling over technical terms, the facts may be stated as follows:
Some varieties, the Warfield is one, produce flowers having only
pistils and will not bear fruit if planted alone, but must be in close company, a few feet, with a “perfect” flowered kind, one that bears both stamens and pistils, like the Dunlap. Nursery catalog's indicate which kinds are “imperfect.”
Increased Interest In Grape Growing
An unusual number of inquiries concerning grapes and grape growing have been received during the past year. It is safe to say that more questions of this kind have been asked in 1920 and to date in 1921 than during the 10 years preceding 1920.
Grape growing falls easily within the field of horticulture and it is our duty to give the fullest information possible. Well ripened Concord, Worden or Delaware grapes are delicious, while grape marmalades, jellies, etc., are scarcely less acceptable.
Grapes will not ripen more than two years out of five in the northern counties, and then only in favorable localities and situations. The term “northern counties” is indefinite as is in fact the grape belt. We might say with considerable confidence that grape growing north of an east and west line thru Appleton, or thereabouts, would be unsatisfactory from an amateur standpoint and wholly unprofitable commercially . Yet this would not be by any means correct for this society proved conclusively that grapes cannot be grown commercially at Sparta, while a few vineyards in Eau Claire county yield fairly well.
A few simple facts about grape growing follow:
The character of the soil is not a very important factor in grape growing, almost any fertile soil will produce a good crop.
Set plants four feet apart in the row and the rows six feet apart.
The plant as received from the nursery will have from one to 3 or more slender stems or “canes.” Cut off all but one and cut this back to 2 or three buds.
Cultivate as for other fruit or garden crops, cropping between the rows if desired the first year.
The main difference between raising a satisfactory crop of grapes and one of gooseberries or raspberries lies in the manner of pruning the vine the second and succeeding years of growth. There is nothing complicated, marvelous or mysterious in this process, as many seem to believe. Grape pruning has been simply and briefly described by Prof. J.
G. Moore in Circular 134. If possible we will print the circular in this issue. If you do not see it send for a copy to the College of Agriculture, Madison.
Save fruit and vegetables for the annual convention.
McKAY NURSERY COMPANY
Nursery Stock of Quality
for Particular Buyers
Have all the standard varieties as well as the newer sorts. Can supply you with everything in
Fruit Trees, Small Fruits, Vines and Ornamentals.
Let us suggest what to plant both in Orchard and in the decoration of your grounds.
Prices and our new Catalog sent promptly upon receipt of your list of wants.
Nurseries at Waterloo, Wise.
Fio. 1 JIO 2 Flo 3
Sturgeon Bay shipped 90 carloads of apples of which 40 carloads were Wealthy.
The annual convention of the American Pomological Society will be held in Toledo, Ohio, December 7th, 8th and 9th, 1921. Prof. R. B. Cruickshank, Ohio State University, is secretary.
Bend roses to the ground, lay the canes securely in place and cover with waterproof paper, building paper secured with cord wire and brickbats.
Crates, Bushel Boxes and Climax Baskets
As You Like Them
We manufacture the Ewald Patent Folding Berry Boxes of wood veneer that give satisfaction. Berry box and crate material in the K. D. in carload lots our specialty. We constantly carry in stock 16-quart crates all made up ready for use, either for strawberries or blueberries. No order too small or too large for us to handle. We can ship the folding boxes and crates in K. D. from Milwaukee. Promptness is essential in handling fruit, and we aim to do our part well. A large discount for early orders. A postal brings our price list.
Cumberland Fruit Package Company
Dept. D, Cumberland, Wis.
Mrs. C. E. Strong
Read at Summer meeting, Oshkosh, Aug. 18th, 1921.
From gardens that I have seen and my own experience, I will try and give you something about Standby Annuals. Standby in a flower means about the same as it does in a friend. They are dependable.
A few years ago I should have headed the list with the Aster—-queen of all annuals, but stemrot and yellows have taken this flower from its high position and while you may grow them beautifully—yet it is not a dependable flower.
So I will give the Larkspur first place instead, the old fashioned flower that grew in our grandmothers’ gardens and that you see today in nearly every garden of any size. Sometimes the same small purple, white and lavender pink blossoms, but more and more frequently, the improved varieties with their tall spikes emulating the Perennial Delphinium.
Growing beside it in almost every garden is the Pot-Marigold or Calendula that too has changed and the great golden or creamy disks are seen even in the florists windows side by side with their aristocratic cousins of the greenhouse.
Driving around Waukesha last summer I saw Four O’Clocks grown as a sort of filler for foundation planting. They were very effective both as to foliage and bloom. This year I saw rose and white Balsams used in the same manner. While Balsams have always been a favorite of mine I never realized their effective uses as a decorative plant before.
In my trips to the city during the summer I, as well as every other passenger, view with pleasure a hedge of pink Cosmos bordered and mingled with Euphorbia—or Snow on the Mountain. There were just a few scattering plants at first, now it is most lovely, tho grown from selfsown seed and with absolutely no care.
Not far from there, is another garden whose owner is evidently an Iris fiend, for there is not another plant or shrub in the yard. But when the Iris are thro blooming it becomes a mass of blue and pink Centaurea or Bachelor buttons, also self sown. The owner evidently tolerates them, much to the pleasure of the passerby. On a little side street a few years ago was a window box filled with Petunias, now the yard is a riot of color, every sort of Petunia grows there. Evidently that little woman has decided Petunias are a standby annual.
In my own garden the Nigella, or as we used to call it,— ragged lady—is a favorite, no other early flower appeals to me, as does this s'urdy blue one. It has decided that the vacant spots in the vegetable garden and the beet and carrot rows are improved by its presence.
Zinnias, not the old single biick red or muddy pinks and yellows we used to tolerate, but great dahlia like blossoms of glowing crimson, scarlet, rose yellow or bronze shades, delight us now—or, if you prefer, there aie midget blossoms in the same clear colors. Verbenas, Phlox D. in the separate colors, or mixed, they are a garden all alone, from early until late, continuous bloomers.
So are the annual Dianthus. they invite you to linger at their
Our new 48-page catalog (16 pages in colors) gives you an honest description of FRUITS, VINES, ORNAMENTALS, PER. ENNLALS, etc., for this climate.
If you are in doubt as to what is best to plant we will be glad to advise with you.
We do landscape work.
Fort Atkinson, Wis.
side. Salpiglossis and Calliopsis, graceful, fairy like blossoms, waving with every breeze an invitation; “come see us.” “No other flowers in the garden have our wonderful coloring.” Celosias with their odd combs, and the plumed varieties, especially the Vv'oolflowers, are always satisfactory. Godetias, as beautiful s Azaleas and much more easily grown. Still most people haven’t even a speaking acquaintance with them. For two years this flower exhibited at the State Fair by Mr. Hauser has caused more attraction than any other annual shown there. I.inaria with their dainty spikes of snapdragon like flowers in orchid colorings, will insist quite strongly on a place in your garden of standbys if you once grow them, as they self seed and you are not sorry, for they are especially
adapted for table decoration. Mignonette, we need her sweetness. You can suit your own taste as to whether you wish the small gray green blooms or the newer gigantic reddish sprays.
Those of you who have mourned over your failure in growing Hollyhocks, try the annuals, they never fail to bloom, and tho they lack a little of the stately beauty of the Perennial sorts, are very satisfactory.
Now, if I were to give you any more it would sound like a catalogue list. These I have chozen for freedom of bloom and freedom from insect pests and disease. Most of them are adapted both for show in the garden and for cutting. Most of them will grow in gardens, window and porch boxes, and are not very particular as to soil.
I saw nearly all of those I have named growing on a roof, in one of the dingiest, dirtiest parts of Milwaukee. If I have left out some of your particular favorites ; why please remember I am not pretending to be an authority. just a flower lover with favorites in the garden just like yourselves.
Nicotine Poisoning In Greenhouse.
The following news item from a Milwaukee paper of July 23rd will be of interest to florists:
One of the most unusual cases ever brought to the attention of Milwaukee physicians was treated at the Emergency hospital Friday night when Sigmond Gogo-lewski, 34 years old, 763 Ninth avenue, was brought to the institution near death from nicotine poisoning.
Gogolewski was said to have been spraying flowers with a solution of nicotine in the greenhouse of the Pollworth Floral company. He was overcome by the fumes within two minutes and when brought to the hospital was near death.
Physicians at the hospital stat ed that Gogolewski’s nostrils and throat had the appearance of a man who had smoked to a great extent for 50 years or more and declared that only immediate attention given him saved his life.
This seemed important, if true, as nicotine sulfate is as commonly used in greenhouses as in orchard and garden, and if danger is connected with its application we should all know about it. A letter to C. C. Pollworth brought the following reply: Dear Sir:
In reply to your letter in reference to the man poisoned by nicotine will say that this man was spraying with a solution of nicotine on an extremely hot day, and was overcome. We rushed him to the hospital, and they claimed it was due to nicotine poison.
However, we believe that the man was probably affected by the heat, which with the fumes of the nicotine made him pretty sick. However, he recovered very rapidly and left the hospital the following day, and he immediately went back on the job.
We think the heat had about as much to do with it as the effect of the nicotine, and the combination was very bad.
Very truly yours,
C. C. Pollworth.
Those who recall the terrific days of last July, and who can not, will agree with Mr. Pollworth that the temperature was more than a contributory cause especially when we consider that it was probably ten to fifteen degrees hotter in the greenhouse than outside.
are in a position to furnish high grade Nursery Stock °f dl kinds and varieties suitable to Wisconsin and other northern districts.
Will be glad to figure on your wants either in large or small quantities
Lake City, Minn.
A Complete Stock of Fruit, Shelter and Ornamental Stock in Hardy Varieties for Northern Planters.
OFFICERS OF THE WIS. STATE BEEKEEPERS’ ASSN.
Pres. L. C. Jorgensen, Green Bay. Treas. C. W. Aeppler, Oconomowoc. Vice-Pres. A. C. F. Bartz, Jim Falls. Secy. H. F. Wilson, Madison.
Annual Membership Fee $1.00.
Remit to H. F. Wilson, Secretary, Madison, Wis.
Up to November 1st we have received only 18 votes asking that the meeting be held in Madison as against 125 voting that the meeting be held at Milwaukee. The officials of the State Association have voted to hold the convention in Milwaukee and the next annual convention of the Wisconsin State Beekeepers’ Association is therefore called to be held in the City Auditorium, Milwaukee. December 8th and 9th. The Board of Managers will meet at 2 o’clock Wednesday afternoon, December 7th. The place of meeting will be given in a letter to the Board of Managers later.
Thursday, December 8 Morning 9:00 A. M.
Social meeting. Paying dues. 9:30 A. M.
Call to order.
Reading of minutes of last convention.
Report of Board of Managers. Secretary’s report.
Appointment of Committees for Convention.
11:00 A. M.
President’s Address—L. C. Jorgensen, Green Bay.
Afternoon—1:30 P. M. From Neglected Bees to Profit......
Choosing a Location in Wisconsin............................H. L. McMurry.
................Wm. Brenner, Green Bay.
......E. W. Atkins, G. B. Lewis Co.
Bee Yard Experiences......................
..........................H. H. Moe, Monroe.
Treating Diseased Bees out of Season............ A. C. Allen. Portage.
........B. B. Jones, Div. of Markets.
Evening—7:30 Beekeeping Movie.
Friday, December 9 Morning—9 A. M.
The Next Step in Marketing Our Honey....................................C. D.
Adams, State Div. of Markets.
................W. T. Sherman, Elkhorn.
Sweet Clover, Its Value to Agriculture and the Beekeeper......
........H. E. Rosenow, Oconomowoc.
..................L. T. Bishop, Sheboygan.
Advertising............Jas. Gwin, Gotham.
Plans for 1922 Extension Work.... ............L. P. Whitehead, Madison.
Relation of Queens to Season Management..........................G. H.
Cale, Dadant Co., Hamilton, Ill.
Comb vs. Extracted Honey..........
....Dr. Robert Siebecker, Madison.
The Influence of Weather on Beekeeping Practice..................
......................H. F. Wilson, Madison.
Afternoon—1:30 P. M.
Bee-Tight Honey Houses and Other Popular Fallacies..........
..S. B. Fracker, State Entomologist.
Open Discussion on How to Make our Associations More Valuable to Its Members.
Report of Committees. Old Business.
Election of Officers.
Appointment of Standing Committees.
Are You Selling Or Holding Your Honey? of the state where no honey is being sold because the local beekeepers do not have a crop. If we had an organized cooperative association, honey could be sent In to these sections and the entire crop disposed of without difficulty. Think this matter over and COME TO THE CONVENTION PREPARED TO HELP BOOST THE COOPERATIVE ASSOCIATION.
If worms are small fill combs with water and worms will drown in three minutes. If combs are webbed and cocoons formed, melt combs to save wax. If hive bodies fit together good, the combs can be spaced in bodies and fumigated either with sulfur or carbon bisulphide. Combs direct from strong colonies in good supers, a moth ball in each super and paper between the supers when piled up in bee house or tarred building paper between the supers, no moths will bother. I have had supers of extracting combs in attic of my bee houses for two years not in use and have had no moths. Pollen in combs easily removed after soaking in water.
N. E. France
Winter Care Of Bees
Winter care of bees involves three distinct periods. The first period extends from about the first of September to the 20th of November and should be considered as the periol of preparation. The second period extends from November 20 to March 21, this is the period during which the bees may be expected to remain in confinement and should not be disturbed except for special reasons and under extreme conditions.
The third period extends from March 20th or the time when the bees are set out until about the middle of May. This is the period for rebuilding the decrease in colony strength occasioned by winter conditions
With suitable protection bees can be removed from the cellar on or about March 21st and the beekeeper may plan to examine the bees between March 20th and April 1 if it seems at all necessary. Bees packed out of doors will not need to be disturbed un til May if properly prepared in the fall. Cellar wintered bees should be packed as soon as they are placed outside and on the day of the first flight may be looked into to determine their condition.
How Bees Are Affected By Winter Conditions
The relation of temperature to the honey bee cluster in winter has been well demonstrated by Phillips and Demuth. and w’hile temperature has a great deal to do with successful wintering of bees, winter stores and the age of the bees are equally important. Under the very best of tem
perature conditions bees cannot winter over under long periods of confinement if the stores are not* easily digestible.
The fact that bees are only able to assimilate the sugars from their stores and that all indigestible materials are held as feces in the hind part of the alimentary tract until the bees are able to free themselves in flight, is evidence that successful wintering depends to a very large extent on the quality of the Btores. Winter conditions may be said to start as early as September in Wisconsin because brood rearing is decreased at that time and may be completely stopped. Normally no eggs are found after October 1, although egg laying in a few colonies may continue until the first of November. The conditions which bring this about are not definitely known although the lack of a nectar flow combined with cold nights is probably the reason. If this is true, it is still more difficult to explain why the bees did not continue late brood rearing in the fall of 1920 when the temperature continued about 15 degrees above normal until the 20th of October and some colonies stored as high as forty pounds of surplus from aster. Out of some seventy colonies observed on October 1, only two contained eggs, four more had some unsealed brood and 11 had sealed brood. These same colonies were examined October 20th, and only two contained brood.
Bees are less active in the fall than in the spring and frequently when the temperatures are fairly high some colonies will have very few bees flying while others are quite active. Low temperatures at night followed by slowly rising temperatures on the following day have a tendency to check the flight of the field bees even when the temperature rises to 70°F during the day. At that temperature or slightly below young bees will freely engage in their play flights. We have observed when the temperature was as low as 35°F., but it was quite evident that the bees were suffering badly from dysentery and only a few managed to get back to the hives. Bees commonly fly when the temperature is as low as 48° F. But perhaps only to free themselves of feces, as individual bees fly out and after a short circle immediately enter the hive again. When the temperature goes as low as 50° F on the outside of the hive the temperature in the hive is about 60°F and the bees are found moving around freely inside the hive. With temperatures of 45°F to 55° outside the hive, the bees form a loose cluster in which the bees remain more or less together but move about freely and single bees may be seen moving about by themselves. The temperature at the edge of the cluster being 58° to 60°F. At these temperatures the bees do not form a definite shaped cluster but arrange themselves more according to distribution of the stores and if no combs are completely filled with honey, the cluster may extend clear across the broad chamber including 8 to 10 frames, or if the outside frames are well filled with honey, the cluster may extend nearly the entire length of the hive and covering three or four frames.
Below 40°F outside the hive, the cluster becomes more compact and rounded, provided the clustering space will permit.
Phillips and Demuth have shown that the temperature around the edge of the cluster is not allowed to go below 57°F and that lower outside temperatures cause higher temperatures inside the cluster. The temperature within the cluster is developed by the bees through muscular action such as fanning the wings, moving the legs and other body movements. The upper edge of the cluster will be found just above the lower edge of the h°nev until the top bar is reached; then the cluster moves sidewise towand the rear of the hive unless for some reason the cluster was first formed at that point. If the temperature surrounding the cluster is not too low, the bees will shift the cluster according to the location of the stores, but it is not uncommon in the spring to find all the bees dead within the form of the cluster and with plenty of etores but a few inches from the cluster. This is somewhat of a common occurence during a severe winter in Wisconsin when bees are left out of doors and unpacked. Apparently the bees will not break the cluster when the temperature around them is below a certain point and starvation occurs. In such clusters the bees are found packed tightly together with a bee in each cell, head inward.
Unless disturbed by some outside influence or abnormal condition within the hive the cluster is never broken as long as the temperature around it is below 57°F. Observat.ons at the entrance of the hive while bees are in the cellar show that the cluster is effected by slight changes in the cellar temperature. While making observations during the winter of 1917-1918, it was noticed that wherever the cellar temperatures were below about 45°F nothing couid be seen of the bottom of the cluster, but when the temperature was above 50UF, the lower edge of the cluster would ox-tend below the frames to the bottom board and bees could be seen mov.ng about more or less free y. if the cellar temperature rises to 60°F or abjve the bees may be driven uO cluster out side the hive.
The Bee Ce'lar
During the course of ou’ investigation we have visited miny places used for winter storage some of which had been specially built for wintering bees. One of two conditions nearly always existed, either the storage places were so situated that they failed to give adequate protection and the temperature on inside was only slightly above that on the outside or else there was a more or less constant temperature wh.ch was not allowed to go below 40 °F. Without exceptions the cold cellars were always unsatisfactory and much greater losses occurred than In the warmer cellars. Some few of the warmer cellars had not proven satisfactory but the main trouble was caused by light entering the cellars and this condition always caused the bees to be more or less active if the temperature is high in the cellar.
IF BEES ARE KEPT IN ABSOLUTE DARKNESS AND THE TEMPERATURE IS KEPT AT A CONSTANT RANGE OF FROM 45°F TO 55°F. IT MAKES LITTLE DIFFERENCE AS TO THE SIZE. SHAPE, OR LOCATION OF THE CELLAR.
Bees stored in basements with a furnace in variably winter better than bees in outside cellars where no artificial heat is provided.
Cedars in which no artificial heat or special insulation is provided should be completely below ground and the ceiling should be bel^w the frost line. At the same time the top of the cellar should be well insulated from penetration of cold from ab /ve.
The entrance to the cellar should be through a vestibule and both the .nside and outside doorB should be padded and fitted so that the cold cannot penetrate through into the cellar.
it is a good plan to build the workhouse over the cellar and to fill in between the floor and the ceiling of the cellar with shavings or sawdust. A complete layer of a good grade roofing paper under the packing material will help protect the ceiling .f made of wood. The packing material should be absolutely dry when put in piace.
The size of the cellar will depend entirely upon the number of colonies which it is expected to hold. Fo e campie, .f ten frame Langstroth hives are used, a space 18 by <&4 snou.d be allowed for each tier of hives and a distance of three feet between rows. A cellar 8 X 10 and seven feet high will very nicely aecomouave iifty io sUty hives without crowding. A cellar 14 by 16 and seven feet high will hold 150 cJonies without senous crowding and 2vu .n case of necessity.
Permanent benches or hive stands ten inches high and strong e.iougn u held tie s of four or five colonies should bs provided in the cellar.
Ventilation Of The Bee Cellar
Do bees need fresh air in the bee cellar? If so, how much and why? With out a full understanding of all the factors which influence the behavior of bees during the winter wre have for a long time tried to regulate the health of bees in confinement by fresh air. Perhaps this is due to the fact that fresh air is so generally considered necessary for higher animals. The oxygen requirements for insects and warm blooded animals cannot however be adequately compared because of the great differences in body structure and the method of securing oxygen from the air. Bees should only be compared with other insects and since it has many times been demonstrated that insects may live indefinitely in air tight containe/s there is little chance for comparison. Even when the actual oxygen requirements of bees became known there is no probability that it wi’l be of practical importance to the beekeeper. Furthermore, it is not likely that there is a bee cellar existing that does not have air currents passing through it sufficient for all the needs of th3 bees.
It is a mistake to believe that bees need special ventliation in the bee cellar to give them air. In fact, most systems of ventilation provided are more harmful than otherwise, because they lower the temperature of the bee cellar. It has been quite noticeable among the bee cellars visited during our investigations that in every cellar where extreme ventilation was given the winter losses were always heavy and in cellars where no ventilation whatever was provided the bee.s wintered well nearly every year. In years when the bees did not do so well the beekeepers all agreed that it was due to the poor quality of stores.
Mr. A. N. Hargraves of Hillsboro, Wisconsin has two cellars, one in which he has no ventilation and the other arranged so that ventilation can be given in the spring should the bees become restless before putting them on the summer stands. He gives the bees no extra ventilation during the winter and finds that bees winter equally well in each of these cellars. He reports that his winter losses are very small except for the winter 1919-1920 when he lost thirty colonies out out of 140 by starvation. He has wintered successfully 180 colonies in a cellar 12 feet by 16 feet and 8 feet high.
Mr. Martin Kreuger of Reedsville, Wisconsin, winters his bees under his dwelling house and there is one window in the outside wall. Mr. Kreuger covers this up with packing and does not open it until spring.
This cellar was visited on March 6, 1919, and the thermometer reading was 48°F. The bees were in excellent condition at that time and showed no signs of being restless and were not suffering from dysentery. This does not mean that bee cellars should be built without some means of ventilation, for it may be necessary to have ventilation in order to cool the cellar in case the temperature gets too high. It may also be found advisable to have some means of lowering the temperature near the end of the season to prevent bees that are suffering from dysentery coming out in the cellar. The beekeeper should remember that this is not a cure but a possible holding of the bees in the hive an extra week or two until they can be set out of doors. Bees that show dysentery early in the winter cannot be saved by lowering the temperature and presence of these bees in the hive causes a serious disturbance among those that may be in better condition. The effect of the lower temperature is to cause the consumption of more stores and greater activity which only increases the trouble.
IN PLACE OF VENTILATION, GIVE THE BEES GOOD STORES, KEEP THEM IN A WrARM CELLAR. AND PUT THEM AWAY ABOUT NOVEMBER TWENTIETH.
Moisture running out of the hives is due to low temperatures and excess consumption of stores, and ventilation will not help unless the cellar temperature can be held at 45°F to 50°F.
Putting The Bees In The Cellar
Beekeepers in general differ a great deal regarding the proper time for putting bees in the cellar but usually they wish to wait until after the bees have their last flight which keeps them out until after Thanksgiving or longer. As a rule this is a very bad practice, for too often the last flight never comes and if we are to take full advantage of the bee cellar the bees should not have to remain out of doors for two or three wreeks of very severe weather at the beginning of the period of confinement. Our observations show that bees may safely take a flight on a sunny day when the temperature is 48°F in the shade. They do not normally fly on cloudy days, at much higher temperatures. Bees in the shade will not normally fly at 48°F. We find in comparing the weather records for the past ten years that on this basis bees had suitable weather conditions for a flight only three years of the ten after the first of December, the latest dates being December 4, in 1913, and December 13th in 1920. During the sam? period the bees might have had a flight only four times after the 20th of November and three of these years were the same as for the December flights. In 1915 a suitable day for a flight did not occur after November 13. able for a flight near December 1. But if there is a heavy snowfall in October of about the first of November there is likely to be no opportunity for the bees to fly after November 20th. It is quite evident then that bees have only a slight chance for a cleansing flight in December and less than half a chance after November 20th. For this reason the beekeeper should plan to put the bees in the cellar not later than November 20th except in seasons where little or no snow has fallen previous to that date. Following that period the bees should be put in the cellar with the first snow storm.
The season of 1920 was far from normal and bees might have been left out of doors until December 20th. However, bees in the cellar previous to that time were in no need of a flight and bees in outdoor cases did not fly to any great extent.
BEES W’ELL PROTECTED BEHIND A WINDBREAK AND WITH TIGHT OUTSIDE COVERS LINED WITH FELT OR PAPER MAY BE LEFT OUT OF DOORS UNTIL AFTER THE FIRST OF DECEMBER.
Putting the Bees Out in the Spring
The time when bees should be set out in the spring is generally based upon the blooming of the willows and the majority of our beekeepers plan to remove the bees between April 1 and April 15. A few beekeepers remove the bees as soon as the snow disappears.
We believe that if the bees are given no outside protection the time of removal from the cellar should be governed by the condition of the bees. If they are not restless or suffering from dysentery they should be kept in the cellar until the tenth of April unless the w’eather is warm enough for the bees to fly.
If bees are protected by a windbreak and outside covers they may well be taken out the latter part of March.
Here again the weather records of the past ten years give us an indication of how early the bees may be removed to advantage.
Bees should not be taken out while the ground is covered with snow. During the eight of the last ten years the temperature was high enough at Madison so that the bees could not have had a cleansing flight between the 10th and 15th of March if the snow was melted away. However, the snow does not usually disappear before the fifteenth of March and after that time a suitable day for a flight is not likely to occur before the twenty-third. Practically every year a warm spell occurs between the twenty-second and the twenty-sixth of March, so that if the bees need a flight they may be set out on the twentieth or sooner, with the assurance that they will be able to fly within a few days. In one year out of ten they may be able to fly before
March 10. During the same period there was one year when a flight was not possible until March 26.
If bees are known to be short of stores they should be set out during the warm spell in March and given an abundance of sugar syrup to carry them over until the time when they can gather nectar in the field.
Spring Preparation for the Honey Flow
Very few beekeepers realize the factor of success involved in just the right care of bees from March to June. They feel that if the bees come through the winter successfully, they have done their best and that success or failure depends upon the season to follow. But what of the one or two beekeepers in the neighborhood who secure a part of a crop although all others failed. Did the successful ones give the bees the needed care in the spring?
It is so easy to do and the results are so well known among practical beekeepers that it is sometimes hard to understand why ninety per cent of our beekeepers simply set the bees out of doors in the spring and leave them without protection and without sufficient stores, to build up as best they can. It is our belief that protection and a superabundance of stores Is fully as important in the spring as during the winter and perhaps more so.
During the winter the temperature surrounding the cluster will be held at 57°F., as long as the bees have stores and energy to live, regardless of the cold outside. During that time the temperature may go below the zero point for a short period at a time, but it will range mostly from 20° F. or higher. The bees are then only required to develop an approximate average of fifty heat units. In addition, they are not at that time required to use energy in the production of wax and food for the young.
As soon as brood rearing starts in the spring the temperature inside the cluster and around the young brood is increased to 93 to 95° F. At the same time the temperature will in the Northern States run about 30° F., with fluctuations during March and April up to 65° F. Under those conditions the bees are forced to produce energy which will keep the temperature up to that of brood rearing, a difference of thirty to sixty heat unitB. During that time an excess of energy is also being used in producing larval food and possibly other products.
(To be continued.) beekeepers were associate or auxiliary members of the Horticultural Society, entitled to Wisconsin horticulture but not entitled to the Annual Report. Since January, 1921, beekeepers are full fledged members of the Horticultural Society and each will receive a copy of the 1921 Annual Report,—if the printers ever get thru with it and give us a chance to mail it.
For Postage Only
We have about two hundred surplus copies of the 1920 Report on hand and these will be sent free to members of the State Beekeepers association as long as they last, first come, first served, on receipt of postage. The parcel post rate is five cents up to 150 miles from Madison and six cents 150 to 300 miles, seven cents 300 to 600 miles.
The Report is a cloth bound volume of 150 pages containing several pages of very carefully complied lists of recomended fruits, flowers, ornamental trees and plants and other material of like nature. In addition it contains twenty-one articles by well informed horticulturists, covering almost every branch of horticulture. It is cheap at the price offered. Compute your postage rate and forward stamp.
Frederic Cranefield, Secretary W. S. H. S.
Rosa rugosa needs no winter protection.
If you fail to have at least a few tulips, hyacinths and narcissus next spring it will be your own fault. The bulbs are again reasonable in price, may be had at 10 cent stores and may be planted any time before the ground freezes.
Wanted : At once: One hundred young men to engage in growing small fruit in Wisconsin. Unlimited opportunities.
Wisconsin may not be the leading fruit state but we lead in the excellence of our product.
Should send for our booklet on the new MODIFIED DADANT HIVE. The hive with a brood chamber sufficient for prolific queens. OUR CATALOG IS FREE.
According to the 1920 agreement between the officials of the State Horticultural Society and the State Beekeepers association,
Italian Bees and Queens for Sale
MARSHFIELD - WIS.
FOR SALE—Hardy northern bred Italian queens, each and every queen warranted satisfactory. Prices: One, $1.50; 12, $15.
THEO. GENTZ, SHAWANO, WIS.
The State Horticultural Society is for all the people of the state. It is not necessary that you should be a member to enjoy the benefits of the Convention. Everybody is welcome.
It is helpful to read a printed report of the proceedings, but it is more helpful to meet and talk to the persons who wrote the papers and to be able to participate in the discussions. The convention furnishes this opportunity. Even if you are well informed there is still a chance to learn; there are new things every day.
Attend the Convention and Learn