OFFICIAL ORGAN OF WISCONSIN STATE HO RTICULTURAL SOCIETY
Volume XI Madison, Wisconsin, March, 1921 Number 7
Fight Oyster Shell Scale
(Circular 124, Extension Service, College of Agriculture)
Charles L. Fluke, Jr.
The oyster-shell scale, which probably occurs in every apple orchard in Wisconsin, can be easily cheeked if the proper spray is used at the right time.
It causes more injury to fruit trees than most farmers realize, many regarding it as a harmless insect which needs no special attention. The pest is. so easily checked that every orchard could be reasonably free from the scales without expenditure of much time or effort.
The oyster-shell scale has spread throughout the country until it can be found in the orchards of practically every state in the union, and in most fruit sections of Canada. It is especially harmful in the Great Lakes region, where it is often mistaken for the San Jose scale.
What the Oyster-Shell Scale Looks Like
The oyster-shell scale is readily distinguished from other scales attacking apples by its rather peculiar shape, that of an oyster shell, and by its color, which closely resembles the dark brown of the bark of apple trees. For this reason it is difficult to detect the pest when only a few scales are present.
The female scale is about one-eighth of an inch long and is larger than the scale covering the body of the male. The smaller end of the female scale consists of the moltings or east off skins of the growing insect while the larger end, which is finelly ribbed, is composed of a scaly material secreted from the body of the insect underneath. The male scale is very seldom seen on fruit trees. The old lifeless scales adhere to the bark for several years, and since new scales are yearly being formed the larger limbs and branches often become so encrusted that very little of the bark itself is visible.
THE EGGS OVER-WINTER UNDER THE DARK BROWN SCALES
.Scales the shape of an oyster shell are found on the bark of many trees. From September to Maj’ the eggs can be found by carefully turning over a few scales. This picture is considerably enlarged.
Important Things to Remember About the Oyster-Shell Scale
1. It is easily checked if proper materials are used and applied at the right time.
2. Use liquid lime sulfur, 1 gallon. to 12 gallons of water.
3. Apply spray while the trees are dormant.
4. Cover branches and limbs thoroughly, spraying from all sides.
5. Repeat every two or three years.
6. Control measures used against the oyster-shell scale are also sufficient to check the ravages of the San Jose scale.
Nature of the Shell Seale Injury
Scale insects belong to a group which secure their food by means of sucking mouth parts; thus the sap of the plant is slicked out, taking from the tree the necessary amount of nourishment to grow properly and produce good fruit. The oyster-shell scale seldom causes the death of the host in its entirety; however, in severe infestations complete limbs and twigs are often killed, which stunts and retards the growth and development of the tree to such an extent that it is a hin-derance rather than an asset to the orchard.
Also Feeds Upon Many Other Plants
Although usually found on apple, maple, horse-chestnut, poplar, willow, and lilac, the oystershell scale has a very wide range of food plants, having been recorded on more than 100 species of shrubs and trees. Besides the hosts mentioned above it occurs on the following more or less important plants: basswood, box elder, cherry, currants, grape, [tear, plum and rugosa rose.
How the Oyster-Shell Scale Lives
1. How the insect passes the winter. Any time during the dormant season (Spetember to the following May) if one will take a pin or knife and carefully turn over a few of the scales, formed the preceding summer, one will find underneath, at the smaller end, the old, dried-up female, and at the other end the small white glistening eggs (see figure). The insect passes the winter in this stage, the adults dying soon after eggs are produced in the fall.
2. Time of hatching of eggs. In 1917 the overwintering eggs began hatching at Madison June 8-12 and in 1918 from May 25-28. This variation in the time of hatching is caused by the earliness or lateness of the season. Southern Wisconsin will be 3 or 4 days earlier and the northern and lakeshore region a week to 10 days later. Soon after hatching the pale yellow young crawl from under the parent scales and seek a place on the bark, leaves, or fruit to insert their beaks which are long and thread-like. From this position, the females never move but continue to grow and secrete their scale-like covering. After the first molt they lose their legs and antennae, becoming small grub-like creatures. As soon as the males shed their skins the second time, they develop wings and emerge from under the scales to seek their mates. The females continue to feed and become full grown in August, after which time egg-laying begins. When this is completed, the adult dies.
llow to Fight the Oyster-Shell Scale
Material to use. Lime sulfur is the standard spray for the control of scales infesting apple trees. It should be used at the rate of 1 gallon of lime sulfur to 12 gallons of water.
Time and method of applying spray. The strength of lime sulfur as recommended above is for dormant trees only, to be applied late in the fall or early in the spring before the leaves appear. It is best applied just as the buds are swelling and before any foliage appears. The spray must actually come into contact with the scales to control them, therefore a thorough application is necessary. Any good pump ■which will give at least 100 pounds pressure to insure a fine misty spray will perform the work well enough for satisfactory results. If the work is well done it will be unnecessary to repeat this spray every year, every two or three years being sufficient to hold the scales in cheek.
The San Jose Scale is Controlled at the Same Time
Lime sulfur used at the rate given above and applied when the trees are dormant is the best control of the San Jose scale. Both insects are killed with the same spray.
Sparta Back in the Ranks
The annual meeting of the Sparta Produce Exchange was held in their own hall last Saturday with one hundred and fifty members present.
Manager Frank Kern submitted a complete itemized report for the year showing in detail the number of cases of each kind of fruit handled each day during the season, the average price for each day and the total. The Exchange handled a total of 23,-788 11/16 cases of strawberries for whieh they received $58,-948.40 or an average of $2.58 7/10 per crate. They handled 447 crates of red raspberries, receiving $1,914.67 or an average of $4.28 for 24 pints, 837 crates of black berries, receiving $3,429.12, an average of $4.09 for 24 pints and 245 crates of black raspberries, receiving $1,096.34 or an average of $4.47 1/3 and 16 crates of gooseberries averaged $3.24,. currants, eight cases at an average of $2.92. The average on strawberries this year was $2.58 7/10 compared with $1.04 for 1919, red raspberries $4.28 compared with $4.07 last year, blackberries $4.09 compared with $3.55 a year ago and black raspberries $4.47 1/3 compared with $3.90 a year ago.—Monroe County Democrat.
Keep the foliage of house plants clean. Wash off dust and mealy bugs every week or so.
According to the last census there are about 4,500 nurseries in the United States representing an investment of more than $52,000,-000.
A Well Deserved Honor
When rough spots in life’s journey are passed, when the heights have been reached, when the shadows begin to lengthen a little we may be given to introspection, wondering if it has all been worth while. Most of us must answer the question ourselves. Each year the Agricultural College takes note of three
REXSSt.AER JAY COE
or four whose lives have been spent in building up agriculture and building in a way that has made the pathway easier for others, whose works will live after them; upon these our college confers an honorary degree. Of four chosen this year our beloved fellow member R. J. Coe was one. In introduction Dean Russell said:
“Rensselaer .Jay Coe, widely-known fru’t grower and eminent nurseryman, has been concerned with upholding and upbuilding the dignity of the business and calling of horticulture ever since his residence in Wisconsin. One of the farm institute pioneers, his genial human kindness made him loved by everyone of his associates and won him hosts of friends in his audiences throughout the state. His hobby as well as his business has been fruit, flowers, and shrubbery.
“As a nurseryman, he has won an unimpeachable reputation ex-tend'ng over nearly half a century. His influence has helped to inspire confidence in reputable nurserymen everywhere. In the State Horticultural Society, he has served as president, treasurer, and vice-president, earning during the administration of each position the continual respect of his colleagues and the member-sh p. His quiet yet forceful nature has placed him among those men who stand not only for accomplishment, but for character and true, sane leadership in agriculture.
“In recognition of his influence as a nurseryman and of his unwavering service in the field of horticulture, the Faculty of the College of Agriculture has chosen to designate him. that he may receive from you, Mr. President, the testimonial of appreciation awarded by the Regents of the University of Wisconsin.’’
The Back Yard Orchard
Mr. G. who lives in Waukesha county wants just six fruit trees, one for shade as well as for fruit. There are hosts of amateurs in the state who want this sort of thing so his letter is published in full, followed by certain comments.
“A paragraph in the January issue of our paper, advised any one with a ‘square rod’ of ground to plant a certain variety of apple tree.
“Does the average apple tree require that amount of space ?
“I wish to set out perhaps four fruit trees in a ‘backyard’ orchard. One is to be as close to the house as possible, that we may have the advantage of shade as well as fruit. What particular apple would you recommend for that place?
“I realize, of course, that as a real honest-to-goodness shade tree, the apple couldn’t qualify, yet we used to sing about ‘The shade of the old apple tree,’ and there are a few specimens hereabout that we are able to sit beneath, and, in season, enjoy the fruit. What I wanted was a tree that had a good spreading top instead of the taller, rather skinny habit, if you know what I mean.
“I had in mind for the others a good crab, a russett; perhaps a Greening for cooking, and a Winesap for eating or Stark Delicious.
“Also please recommend a plum and a pear.”
David R. Gray.
Just a bit of very fine sentiment here, to sit in the shade of the old apple tree, and perhaps a wish for his children and his grandchildren also. Well, it can be done, if there are not too many other trees nearby. An apple tree on a lawn struggling with grass and shade trees would grow to he of “sitting under” size in just about time for the grandchildren.
If there is an open space, no large trees within two rods and a circle s’x feet in diameter i' kept cultivated, fertilizer and water supplied as needed, after twelve to fifteen years we may
dt in the shade and eat apples, i’lant Duchess or McIntosh.
In commercial orchards more han a square rod of land is aloft ed to each tree.
For the three back yard trees, L Transcendent crab, 1 Wealthy, L Northwestern.
Plant two plums of two varieties or none at all as few if any if the native plums will bear if Manted alone. Surprise and De soto will give satisfaction. The Flemish Beauty is an excellent [tear.
Constructive Suggestions About Convention
Remarks in the February paper concerning the Annual Convention prompted Mr. M. B. Goff to write as follows:
“I just received Wisconsin Horticulture today, and congratulate you on your analysis of the society's program problems. What I said at the convention was intended to be constructive rather than critical, but I do feel that it is positively necessary to take more into account the needs of the different elements in the society. After all with the commercial men, who have not come to look on the annual meetings as a sort of pleasure excursion for recreation chiefly, there is the feeling that unless a lot of pretty solid meat is offered, they cannot afford the expense of attending a meeting. Criticism of this attitude will not change their point of view, and I do not know of any better way of trying the tiling out than to give them what they ask for one or two years; namely, an opportunity for sectional meetings and conferences every day during the session. If after a couple of years they have not availed themselves of the plan sufficiently to warrant its continuance, the Society will at least have a good answer to the specialist who finds fault with the rather general nature of the discussions. The commercial and semi-commercial elements among the fruit growers of the state are larger than we realize provided we do something to stimulate their interest. Personally I am not in favor of a separate Fruit Growers Association at the present time. I would rather see the Horticultural society foster an auxiliary, within the society, holding part of its meetings in common with the other branches of horticulture, and part of its deliberations as purely commercial fruit growers affairs, in a separate room, but in connection with the regular convention.
Another thing is the location of the meeting. Madison offers many advantages in the winter time, but it is not at all equidistant from all parts of the state which are interested in fruit growing. When you realize that a Door County grower cannot attend for a cost less than $50.00 you see why it is difficult to stir up any general interest there without a pretty substantial program. Even then, I fully believe, that unless part of the annual meetings are brought nearer to an accessible part of the state in so far as our territory is concerned, it will be difficult to bring many of our growers out, regardless of the wealth of the program. It is not that they do not realize the many advantages to be gained, but the elements of time and money required overbalance considerable of the benefit to the average man. Such cities as Appleton, and Oshkosh are more accessible to most of the state than Madison, and I believe should be considered, at least every other year, of as much attraction as convention cities as Madison.”
Mr. Goff's letter is worthy of careful consideration and further discussion is invited. As at present written the Constitution provides that the annual meeting be held in Madison. “Other meetings shall be held at such time and place as the Executive Committee may direct.”
Put up a Sign, “Danger”
Here comes a beekeeper who wants to know if spraying will kill bees. Dr. Fraeker wrote all but the headline.
“Your letter to the State Horticultural Society has been referred to me for reply. Tn accordance with your request, we are enclosing a copy of a Supplement to “Wisconsin Horticulture,” March 1920, which describes methods of spraying.
“Lime-sulfur and arsenate of lead, if sprayed at the times described in the circular, are not injurious to bees. If the application is made while the trees are in full blossom the bees may visit the flowers and secure enough poison to kill them.”
Don’t forget the birds when we have sudden snowstorms and bad weather. A little suet tied to trees, a sheaf of grain, or breadcrumbs are appreciated and are worth supplying.
Oak Holler, Wis.
My Dear Friends—Once upon a time so the story goes, a man was told, that in crder to obtain absolution for his sins he must make the pilgrimage to a far mountain. He was to travel the road used by the people in their journeys to and from the different cities and he was not to speak one word—if he did, he would have to start all over again. At the end of each day for every smile bestowed upon him he would be set forward a mile—for every frown back he would go a mile.
Confidently he set out upon his journey. He was certain that people would smile upon a man who was willing to make this pilgrimage. But alas! the road was rough and narrow and lie jostled those whom he tried to pass. Many were the frowns he received. Even those whom he did not jostle thought him churlish because he did not return their greetings. Bravely he persevered, but after many months when he found he was no nearer his journey’s end than the day he started, he became very much discouraged. Finally he sat down in a quiet spot by the side of the road and thought earnestly how lie might avoid the frowns and win the smiles of his fellow travelers. As speech was denied him, there seemed nothing he could do.
Just then a traveler looking at him thought he was a beggar, so lie stopped and searched his garments for alms; finding nothing to give him, he smiled very kindly and said, “I am sorry my friend that I have nothing to give you but may Peace go with thee— and those that have plenty be kind to thee.” He passed on regretting his inability to help this poor man. But the kind words and smile had revived tile poor pilgrim's courage. He was one mile nearer and it was the first smile he had received for many a day. He decided there must be some way of letting people know that smiles instead of frowns -were what he needed. He finally made up his mind to hang a large placard about his neck on which was written, “Smile upon me oh my friends. Help me a mile on my way, for if thou dost frown, here must I stay. But thy smiles send me along swiftly —I pray thee my friends smile.” He also decided to be very careful and give every one he met the full half of the road so as not to jostle them.
The next morning he started out once more. The first person he met noticing the careful consideration of his rights, read the placard and smiled. The Pilgrim was overjoyed to think his plan was successful and smiled so happily at every person he met that they smiled in return, even tho they had not read the placard.
As the legend goes he soon reached the mountain where his sins were forgiven.
Upon returning to his home he was asked what good this Pilgrimage had done him. This was his answer, “I have learned to give my fellow travelers a good half of the road and to smile, and by so doing have gained many friends.”
Don’t just remember where I heard this story—probably in the same garden where I heard many others and learned in later years that there was a lesson in each one. Am wondering if we don’t all forget sometimes the lesson the Pilgrim learned, give a good half of the road and smile. Suppose the smile is thrown in for good measure. But it helps—for if the road you must travel be rough and narrow and you should jostle your neighbor, the smile is apt to make him better natured for usually the smile on your face is reflected in his.
Don’t believe it? Try this once; walk down the street some day and smile at every man. woman and child you meet. See them smile back at you. They just can’t help it for a smile is as contagious as the measles or whooping cough and a whole lot more agreeable. Almost believe you could take a little more than your share of the road if you smiled.
A smile will take the sting out of a reproof sometimes, and not lessen the effect either, because as I heard a speaker once say. “A smile is the lubricating oil in the machinery of life.” Most folks like to be smiled on—some don't even mind being smiled at—if it's done in the right way. There's a considerable difference it seems in the way you smile at folks. Once heard a woman say to a friend, “What in the world is wrong with my clothes or my hair. I just met Mrs. A. and she smiled so sweetly at me I just know there’s something wrong."
That was a new one on me— never had heard of that sort before. Anyway it wasn’t the kind of smile the pilgrim needed to help him on his journey, or that you and I need to help us in our
every day life. The kind of a smile that we like to see is the smile that shows affection, kindly interest, happy greeting, pleasure in our successes, approval of the course we have taken, in short, the real honest-to-goodness sort of a smile that comes from the heart.
I’m thinking if I don’t stop writing pretty soon I’ll know just exactly how that Pilgrim felt when he sat by the side of the road. Never have seen that Editor man frown yet—but—if any of you see me wearing a placard bearing this inscription “Frowns don’t help this world one bit
Never made with me a hit Help this Pilgrim on a mile Everybody on me smile.” you’ll know what happened to me.
Tree Planting for Small Towns
Ernest Meyer, Tree Planter, Minneapolis City Parks, in Minnesota Horticulturist
There is a great movement under way all over the country to plant trees in memory of our dead soldiers, and it should prove a good incentive to plant a tree on every spot intended for a tree. The trees should be specimens worthy of the cause they are intended for and not such as will decay and be gone inside of a generation.
Going through our small country towns one often wonders who plants all those ugly, crippled excuses for trees along the streets, and why it is that the planter does not select a straight tree or one that has at least a tendency to grow nice and straight, instead of one that already looks bad and keeps on getting worse as it gets older. The same is to be said about the kind of tree to plant. Why plant boxelders or cottonwoods? I would not even plant a soft maple, because all of these are shortlived and become dangerous with age.
A very truthful description of the box elder is given by an editorial writer in The Minneapolis Journal:
“An Arboreal Slattern. When the Park Board forbade the planting of box elders along the streets of this town, they did a good day’s work, well seasoned with clear foresight and' wise retrospect. The only flaw in the proceedings was the failure to limit the life period of every tree of that variety already on the street.
“The chief charge against this tree weed is that it has no fixed purpose in life, no wholesome pride of performance, no sense of its own unworthiness. It is cursed with a boorish forwardness, and a painful lack of that nice sense of dress common to trees of better breeding. A poor tramp among the matrons of the forest, it is endowed with a shocking fecundity and its offspring with a vulgar vitality.
“The pine, now, for instance, is a purposeful, dignified, and self-respecting tree. Its aim from infancy to age is to build its central shaft. Forgetting the things that are below, it presses upward. Nothing stops its terminal bud in its direct reach for the sky; and no lower limbs retard the building of the one well-determined bole. It is this quality that has made the pine and its kin the most useful trees on earth.
“The oak aims to endure; the maple to shape a noble head; but the weak-minded, ungainly, sprawling box elder has no commercial ambitions. It is content to squat and sprawl.
“The box elder leaf has no outstanding character. Men do not honor it. But the maple leaf has reached regimental honors in the United States army! and the oak leaf, a commander’s order in the navy. Art loves to twine these two leaves into its best ornamentations. But who ever saw even a Digger Indian adorn himself with the trifling foliage of the box elder?
“Autumn gets no responsive tint from this tree’s fading summer skirt. Drab, frayed, flabby, it waves no gay kerchief in farewell to the departing year. Nor does it lay its garments down with a will, as do the linden and the poplar; nor hold grimly on to them, as d’oes the red oak. Halfheartedly it strips itself of a part of its shriveled covering, leaving the raveled rags to flap in the winter wind, like the weather beaten remnants of a cornfield scarecrow.
“Yet this cheap tree persists. It rushes in where oak trees fear to root It immodestly offers to repopulate the forests where its betters have been slain for their wealth; for knowing nothing, it fears nothing. Verily, in the woods as in the rest of the world, ‘the poor ye have always with you.’ ”
The elm and the hackberry are the best trees for our locality. Others are the basswood, the ash, and the hard maple. The basswood makes a good tree where there is plenty of good soil available and if it is protected from sunscald for two years after planting, by wrapping building paper (not tar paper) around it. A few sticks should be placed so that there will be an air space between the paper and the trunk. The towns further south seem to be very successful with the hard maple, and if conditions are right and the same precaution is taken as I advised for the basswood, it surely is a pretty and very desirable tree.
The hackberry is a tree that hardly ever needs any attention when once well established. It is shaped much like a maple and is a rare, beautiful tree. In planting the elm one should be very careful not to plant the red or slippery elm, a very undesirable tree on account of its being ravaged by insects every season in such a way that it is rapidly dying off all over the country. About our stately white or American elm I will not say much except that why anyone should plant a box elder while we have this magnificent tree passeth understanding.
The ash is a good, hardy tree, but there are two drawbacks. One is the abundance of seed it bears, which at times become bothersome, and the other is that if it ever becomes necessary to trim it for one cause or another, (Continued on p. 130)
Published Monthly by the Wisconsin State Horticultural Society 12 N. CarroU 8L Official organ of the 8oclety.
FREDERIC CRANEFIELD, Editor. Secretary W. 8. H. S., Madison, Wis.
Entered at the post office at Madison, Wisconsin, as Sicond class matter. Acceptance for mailing at special rate of postage provided for in Section 1103, Act of Oct. 3, 1917, authorized July 15, 1918.
Advertising rates made known on application.
Annual membership fee, one dollar, which includes fifty cents, subscription price to Wisconsin Horticulture. Send one dollar to Frederic Cranefield, Editor, Madison, Wis.
Remit by Postal or Express Money Order. A dollar bill may be sent safely if wrapped or attached to a card. Personal checks accepted.
Postage stamps not accepted.
J. A. Hays..............................President
H. C. Christensen, Oshkosh......Vice President
F. Cranefleld, Secretary-Treasurer......Madison
J. A. Hays..............................Ex-Officio
H. C. Christensen......................Ex-Officio
F. Cranefleld ...........................Ex-Offlclo
1st Dist., Wm. Longland..........Lake Geneva
2nd Dist., R, J. Coe................Ft. Atkinson
Srd Dist., E. J. Frautschl..............Madison
4tb Diet., A. Leidiger ................Milwaukee
5tb Diet., Jas. Livingstone .........Milwaukee
6th Dist., J. W. Roe...................Oshkosh
7th Dist., O. A. Hofmann............Baraboo
8th Diet., J. E. Leverich.................Sparta
9tb Diet., L. E. Birmingham.....Sturgeon Bay
10th Diet., Paul E. Grant............Menomonie
11th Dist., Irving Smith ................Ashland
J. A. Hays H. O. Christensen F. Cranefleld
At the annual meeting of the Manitowoc County Horticultural Society, Saturday, Feb. 14, Edward S. Bedell was elected president, V. Wiegert, secretary and Bernard Nienaber, treasurer.
—From Manitowoc Herald.
A local has been organized at Fish Creek with 22 members: Ernest G. Hansen, president, Harry M. Schuyler, secretary, and Ed. Lorber, treasurer.
La Crosse County is on the way with another local, the North Ridge Society, 14 members and more coming: Henry Rundahl, president, J. T. Johnson, secretary-treasurer.
May we hope to hear from Green Bay, Richland Center, Eau Claire and various other points too numerous to mention.
Amateur Flowers at State Fair
For the benefit of amateurs who expect to exhibit at the State Fair, and who are now making up seed and plant lists, the 1921 premium list, as revised by a committee appointed by the president, is here given. In order to save space the classes only are given the amounts to be awarded in premiums being omitted. Nos. 20 to 26 as given in the 1920 premium book have not been changed.
Artistically arranged basket of flowers for table
Artistically arranged vase of flowers for table
Collection of wild flowers, correctly named not less than 10 kinds
Artistically arranged bouquet of wild flowers
Display of cut flowers, annual; 12 kinds
Display of cut flowers, hardy perennials; 12 kinds
Display of Pansies
Display of Hardy Phlox, 5 vases. 1 variety in vase, 5 spikes each Display of Gladiolus
25 spikes of Gladiolus
Display Dahlias, 5 vases, 1 variety in vase, 6 blooms each
Display of Celosia
Display of Celosia, Plumed varieties 10 vases of Asters, 10 blooms in a vase
Vase of Asters, any color
Basket of Everlastings, both grasses and flowers artistically arranged 10 spikes of Perrenial Delphiniums 5 vases of Snapdragon. 1 variety to a vase
5 vases of Calendulas
5 vases of French and African Marigold
Vase of Scabiosa
5 vases of Zinnias, 10 blooms to each
1 color in vase
Vase Centauria, Corn Flower
5 vases Nasturtiums, 15 blooms each Dining room table decoration, for amateurs only
Monday and Tuesday: 8 covers without china or silver. .$15, $1". S:’
Here We Have Action
Mr. F. R. Gifford who is “extension’’ worker in the Department of Horticulture, Agricultural College, is hot on the trail of the neglected farm orchard. For example: During the two weeks, Feb. 14th to 26th, twelve meetings were held in Dodie county where, as the announcement read, “ every phase of fruit growing upon the farm will be discussed and you will be afforded an opportunity to ask ques tions.” Good work ! Good hunting! We hope Brother Gifford will tell us about these meetings.
No Tablets, Please, Liquid Only
All sorts of patent sure-kill. short cuts to success in sprayins are advertised among them spray “tablets.” Here is what Fracker says about them, at least all that can be printed.
“While some of the spray tablets you mention have merit, the mixing of spray material is now so simple that there is no need to use the more expensive materials of this kind. Ordinary fruit tree sprays consist only of arsenate of lead and lime-sulfur. The arsenate of lead is purchased as powder and the lime-sulfur as a liquid. By mixing one and one-half pounds of the powdered arsenate of lead, and one and one-half gallons of the lime-sulfur solution in fifty gallons of
This package delivers your apple shipments in first class condition. It is a U. S. Standard Bushel. Best DISPLAY package. Make it your standard shipping package this year.
Prompt and Efficient Service Assured Shipments Made from Nearest Factory
Factories located in: New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Missouri, Iowa, Arkansas and Texas.
SEND 25c (COIN OR STAMPS) FOR SAMPLE
210 UNION TRUST BLDG.
cold water you have the most effective and cheapest spray material for fruit trees on the market. This combination is satisfactory for all the applications to fruit trees except when the bark is covered with scale insects or„aphids are present, when special preparations are necessary as outlined in the circular.”
Wants to Know About Pyrox
A member asks if Pyrox, which is advertised as combined insecticide, is reliable. Dr. S. B. Fraeker, state entomologist, says:
‘‘Pyrox is a satisfactory combined insecticide and fungicide which may be used by those who do not care to mix their own arsenate of lead and lime-sulfur. Tt is somewhat more expensive than the ordinary combination spray used and very little less trouble. The results are about the same.
‘‘You will find enclosed a supplement to ‘‘Wisconsin Horticulture,” March 1920, which gives the ordinary spraying calendar for apples. The Pyrox may be substituted, if you prefer, for the combined arsenate of lead and lime-sulfur spray recommended on page 7 of the supplement.
‘‘The dormant lime-sulfur spray w-hich you mention is only needed in Wisconsin when scale insects are common enough in the orchard to be injurious. If oyster shell scale is attacking your trees, it would be desirable to spray one or two years with this strong dormant solution in early spring.”
Prickly ash berries picked when ripe and placed in clothing boxes give off a pleasant odor.
Soil for seeding early plants should be fine and fibrous. Clay that packs easily is not good soil in which to grow seeds. Add sand or leaf mold to lighten it.
Hot beds can be started late in February or early ?n March. Be sure the manure is heating well before it is put in the frame. Lettuce, radishes and early onions may be easily started.
We hear much these days about planting shubbery and flowers and establishing good fruit and vegetable gardens on the farm. They all pay in money value as well as added comfort.
It is about time to begin planning for the spring offensive against insect pests. How about the old spray pump—is it in working order; if not now is the time to make repairs or send for needed parts. Don’t put it off until the last minute; you might find that you needed a new valve, a piece of hose, or some other part. The use of good spray machinery is one of the first and a very important consideration in the control of insects. It might be well also to lay in the necessary amount of spray materials such as lead arsenate or calcium arsenate and lime sulphur. Some times there is a shortage of these insecticides and the man with an eye to the needs of the summer is not the man to be without what is needed when the time comes.
Clover Seed Crop Often Reduced By The Presence of The Cloves Seed Midge.
Do you always get a full crop of red-clover seed? If you do not, perhaps your trouble is due to the clover flower midge, a small mosquito-like insect which lays its eggs in young clover heads and the tiny maggots which hatch from these eggs eat into the flowers destroying the parts which produce seed. The maggots which do the damage are tiny reddish worms, when full grown, which any careful observer may find if he examines infp«t«»d clover heads.
White or alsike clover are seldom attacked, the insect confining its work almost entirely to, red clover.
The winter is passed as maggots in frail cocoons which are found on the surface of the soil or slightly beneath. In the spring they change to pupae and the adults begin to emerge about the first of May and continue to appear until after the first of June. By this time the young clover heads are formed and the adult female lays her eggs in them. Each female may lay as many as 100 eggs and often there are more eggs than individual florets to each clover head. In such eases very little if any seed is formed. Infested heads are easily noticed the imperfect blossoming giving them an irregular appearance. When the maggots become full grown they wait until a rain comes to moisten the clover heads and the soil and then they drop to the ground making their way a short distance into the soil. After a period and about the time for the second crop of clover to head the adults of a second brood appear and are ready to infest the young heads and thus reduce the yield of seed.
Now the midge doesn’t injure clover which is wanted for forage purposes; it reduces only the yield of seed. This however may be almost entirely eliminated by the following practices:
First— PASTURING— Spring pasturing kills the midge, either directly by the destruction of the clover heads containing eggs or young larvae, or indirectly by preventing heads from forming when the adults of the spring brood are laying eggs.
Second—EARLY CUTTING— If the clover is cut about June first the maggots which are then in the heads are killed and this gives the clover a chance to mature its second crop with seed without the presence of the flower midge.
During most seasons clover may be cut a little later than June first which will enable the farmer who is willing to assume risk of unfavorable weather to obtain a greater amount of forage than if he cut earlier.
The best rule to follow then is to cut the hay crop early in June and this allows the second crop to mature early enough to escape the midge and thus give a good crop of seed.
L. C. F.
Tree Planting In Small Cities
(Continued from p. 127 it takes sueh a long time to get back into shape again.
If the soft maple is planted, care should be taken to have it grow into a well-shaped tree by proper pruning, so that it may withstand the heavy winds.
Just as essential as the proper raising of the trees is the proper spacing, to give them a chance to grow into fine specimens, instead of getting their tops pinched out of shape and the root system overcrowded. Another bad feature of too close planting is that it stops the free circulation of air through the streets, hindering the drying out of the roadways and making the street dark and gloomy and the houses damp. Looking down the street one gets the impression of too much timber compared with the amount of foliage. In many instances they are planted close together with the intention of cutting out every other one as soon as they begin to interfere, but it usually remains simply a good intention, or is done after the trees are already out of shape.
The average town or city lots are about forty feet wide, and where they are not wider than sixty feet, they should by no means accommodate more than one street tree, and the property owner should be careful not to plant trees on his lot that will eventually interfere with this tree. He should take pride in the tree and take good care of it, and if he is absent, and his neighbor sees his tree suffer from lack of water, he should give it a drink. All trees should be regarded as common property and anyone who either wilfully or through neglect injures them should be punished.
In many instances the driveway proper of each street is far too wide, there may not be even enough traffic to keep down the weeds, or if the street is oiled it is a waste of money and material considering the amount of traffic benefited. Instead of having these wide driveways it would be better to widen out the boulevard space between sidewalk and curb. It would give each property owner additional depth to his lot and he would willingly take care of the additional space and help beautify the whole street.
As soon as a street is improved by paving or oiling, sidewalks and driveways, etc., the trees are sure to suffer from lack of moisture and nourishment unless well supplied artificially, if the boulevard has only the ordinary width of six feet, or even less. Could the streets be paved first and the trees planted afterwards, they would adjust themselves to existing conditions and not be any the worse for it except for a noticeably slower growth that could be accelerated by artificial means to a certain extent. But even as conditions are now, to insure rapid growth it is necessary to give the tree a good start at planting time, by giving it an abundant supply of good soil, and if some manure can be put into the bottom of the hole away from the roots, so much the better; if it is well rotted manure it may be mixed with the soil without injury to the roots.
If conditions for planting are good, that is, if the good dirt has not been altogether removed in grading the street, a hole at least four feet across and two feet deep should be dug; if the original dirt is all gone, the hole should be as large as possible before planting the tree. A smooth cut facing down should be made at the end of its roots and all broken parts cut off. The soil should be packed firmly around the roots, preferably by watering.
On a nursery grown tree or one that is well shaped and well rooted, the top has to be cut back at least one-half, but not just chopped off. When the tree is trimmed it should still have the appearance of a tree, not a clothes pole or bean pole or maybe a scarecrow with the arms rotted off. The crown should be given a pryamidal shape, leaving the leader longer than the side branches. Crotches too low down should be avoided as they are likely to split in later years.
It would be well to invest someone with authority to look after the street trees, to give the location where trees may be planted or possibly bring about the planting of whole streets at the same time with the same size and kind of trees. Money could be saved if at the time the street is graded the tree holes were staked out, dug, and filled with good top soil, and a plat of their location filed so they may be located when the trees are to be planted. This would be quite an improvement over the system in Minneapolis where a property owner pays first to have the good loam hauled away or covered up and then, when tree planting time comes, pays again for hauling often an insufficient amount back from somewhere else.
Many mistakes have been made by old towns and cities in the planting and care of street trees, and before going ahead with any extensive work of this kind in new localities, whoever is in charge should get the benefit of the lessons these mistakes have taught and get all the information possible from wherever organized tree work is done. I can speak here for our department that we will be only too glad to help the great cause in any way we can.
Large beets furnish excellent greens for chickens. They seem to like the red fleshed ones best.
The flower bill of the country is about $45,000,000. At that it is $5,000,000 less than the amount spent for chewing gum.
Large consignments of Japanese oranges are appearing on the Canadian market in competition to California sorts.
There seems to be a shortage of ornamental shrubs of all sorts this year. Some of the new varieties of plums and other fruits are hard to get.
Never allow a house plant to stand very long in a jardinier or saucer of water. Plants cannot live with wet feet any more than you can.
Warm days now may be used to advantage in pruning the apple and shade trees.
Gruss aun Teplitz is a good garden rose. A few roses in a sunny place add much to the garden.
Prune early flowering shrubs after they have flowered. Fall blooming shrubs may be pruned early in spring.
No matter whether you are engaged in gardening on an extensive commercial scale or simply grow small fruits and vegetables for your own use, you will find Gilson Guaranteed Garden Tools a big help. They are built for practical gardening conditions — with features of construction ideally suiting them for the work for which each is made.
Order seeds as soon as possible. When they are received it is a good plan to put them in a covered tin or other receptacle so that mice do not get at them.
Makes every stroke count. The “flexible” rocker blade penetrates the soil going and coming, gets beneath the surface without any appreciable effort, cuts off weeds, chops and pulverizes and leaves the soil in perfect condition. Side fenders prevent too close approach of plants. The teeth on back of hoe may be utilized as a rake. Made in four different sizes: 3% in., $1.15; 6 in., $1.35; 8 in., $1.45. Wheel outfit, $3.70.
Now is a good time to clear fences, trees and buildings of advertisements and candidates’ pictures. When they are off, why not keep others from going up.
Plants need moisture in the air as much as human beings. For their good, if you won't do it for yourself, keep moisture in the air by open pans or some other means.
Definite amounts are set aside by business firms for advertising. It pays. People read the papers and a well written advert’sement sells horticultural products as well as merchandise.
takes the grief out of gardening and makes thorough cultivation a joyous pastime. " ’ ” 1 -----1 v rntfincr
teeth get the .
grow as they ought, up to 14 inches—r..L for straddling rows, ors—5 tooth, $1.15; 7
Specially designed V-shaped cutting veeds and loosen the soil so that the plants can Easily adjustable to rows ■middle teeth can be removed Price of Hand Cultivat-tooth, $1.45; 9 tooth,
$1.70. Wheel cultivator, 7 tooth, $3.90 and $4.15 for 9 tooth.
LOCK NUT-WEEDER BLADE IN POSITION
FOR SALE: Bailey's Cyclopedia of Horticulture, 1st edition. Excellent condition. $20.00. Carriage prepaid.
FRANK M. EDWARDS Ft. Atkinson, Wis.
Three tools in one—a combination of the Gilson Weeder, the nine tooth Liberty Cultivator and a strong plow, all on one easily moved and adjusted pivot axle. Change from one tool to the other is made in a jiffy. You have a complete gardening outfit absolutely efficient for plowing, tilling and weeding. Price $8.95.
Ask your dealer for Gilson Garden Tools — if he can’t supply them, order from this advertisement or send for free illustrated catalogue.
It kills quick, sticks longer and has maximum suspension
LIME SULPHUR BORDEAUX PASTE
SULPHUR (DUSTING) CALCIUM ARSENATE
SODIUM NITRATE SHAFTS FERTILIZER
770-778 Kinnickinnic Ave.
are in a position to furnish high grade Nursery Stock of all kinds and varieties suitable to Wisconsin and other northern districts.
Will be glad to figure on your wants either in large or small quantities.
Keep house plants clean. If you would have them grow at their best, wash them off or slip them in soapy water once a week or so and then wash them with clean water.
Concerning Highway Trees and Other Matters
A society known as The Friends of Our Native Landscape, aided and abetted by others of good intent, appear to favor the enactment of a law compelling the owners of lands on state trunk highways to plant and maintain roadside trees, also to have set aside one hundred thousand dollars of the automobile license fund to be used in the purchase of county park sites.
The State Horticultural Society is ready at all times to support any rational plan of rural improvement whether in the beautification of highways or the establishment of county parks but cannot support either of these plans. We are in favor of preserving the native growth, both trees and shrubs, where it can be done without undue interference with highway construction or traffic. The rights and safety of the people who travel on the highways must be the first consideration. If a dangerous
77o.1 TlO 2
Crates, Bushel Boxes and Climax Baskets
We manufacture the Ewald Patent Folding Berry Boxes of wood veneer that give satisfaction. Berry box and crate material In the K. D. in earload lots our specialty. We constantly carry In stock 16 quart crates all made up ready for use, either for strawberries or blueberries. No order too small or too large for us to handle. We ean ship the folding boxes and crates in K. D. from Milwaukee. Promptness Is essential In handling fruit, and we aim to do our part well. A large discount for early orders. A postal brings our price list.
Dept. D, Cumberland, Wis.
curve can be eliminated only by cutting a noble oak or even a group of oaks, what shall the highway engineer do? If he
should ask the advice of the editor he would answer without hesitation, sacrifice the trees.
That there has been much reckless, deliberate and unnecessary cutting of trees and shrubs by road builders we do not doubt but to restrain by law the road builder from cutting trees is unwise. Let’s get him in a corner and educate him; tell him that hazel, sumac, wdld rose and elder are not always “brush” but may sometimes be “native shrubs.”
Bailey in one of his books says that a burdock which grew beneath his study -window annoyed his gardener wrho insisted on cutting it. On being told by Bailey that far from being merely a weed tile plant was in fact a fine specimen of Lappa major the gardener was so impressed that he treated it with respect. So if we can show Mr. Road Maker that he is destroying Rhus glabra, Rosa blanda or Sambucus canadensis and furthermore that these and other wild plants are really very beautiful, the source of great pleasure to many people, b<> will certainly help us preserve them when leaving them unharmed does not endanger life or limb by obstructing the view of trains or fellow motorists.
If we must have our heads in the clouds let’s be sure that our legs are long enongh to reach solid ground.
Also and again, there are certain substantial and convincing reasons why the planting of rows of trees along highways is neither wise nor desirable. This subject will be discussed in a later number.
Likewise there are good reasons why it is not wise nor desirable for the state to furnish
An application of quickly available nitrogen to the orchard, three to four weeks before blossom time, will stimulate the tree to vigorous twig and fruit spur growth, promote fruit bud formation, increase the amount of fruit set, and enable the trees to carry a full crop of fine fruit to maturity.
ARCADIAN Sulphate of Ammonia
Arcadian is the ideal nitrogenous fertilizer for the peach and the apple orchard. It is all soluble, quickly available and non-leach-ing. Arcadian is fine and dry. 25% units of ammonia are guaran
From Bag to Fertilizer Distributor
Write Desk No. 17 for free bulletin No. 8, “The Fertilization of Peaches” and bulletin No. 85 “Fertilizing the Apple Orchard.”
New York Baltimore
have acquired somewhat of a reputation wherever grown, At no time has there been such an interest in dahlias as now. Trial collection (list price $2.40) mailed anywhere in U. S. with cultural instructions on receipt of $2.00.
Oregon Beauty, Dec. large oriental red
Rone, Show, dark ro«e Floradora, Cactua, dark blood red
Cecelia, Peony-flowered, lemon yellow
Queen Wilhelmina, Peony-flowered, pure white
John Green, Peony-flowered, yellow center, acarlet tip
All grown in Wisconsin and not subject to any F. H. B. quarantine.
J. T. FITCHETT Janesville, Wis.
money to purchase park sites for counties. County parks are needed and will be had all in good time, but will be acquired and maintained by the people of the counties or communities. If acquired in any other way than thru the desire of the people themselves the movement will be a failure.
Our duty is to create a sentiment, a desire on the part of the people for these things then they will attend to the matters of purchase and maintenance.
We are growers of Senator Dunlop and Warfield exclusively and through many years of careful selection we have a superior strain.
We also have Everbearing Strawberries, Raspberries and all other bush fruits, shrubs and trees.
We have but one quality,— the best, and can supply any quantity.
Catalogue on request.
basswood are apt to be injured by sunscald during the winter. Shade on the southwest side of the tree will prevent this. Wire, boards or cornfodder may be used.
Now is a good time to put a rew roots g( rhubarb in the cellar for forcing. They may be covered with soil, sand or cinders.
Plan now for the Orchard
you will put out next spring. Also the shrubs and ornamental plants around the home. We have a complete assortment of all the leading sorts to select from. Circular showing many of the leaders in colors “free for the asking.”
THE COE, CONVERSE & EDWARDS CO.
Fort Atkinson, Wis.
The Jewell Nursery Company Lake City, Minn.
A Complete Stock of Fruit, Shelter and Ornamental Stock i n Hardy Varieties for Northern Plant-ers.
experience is, therefore, the title of the latest edition of the book of this genius. Only, he, who is well conversant and harnessed in theory, and can look backward to a long and extensive experience of his practice, can make an honorable demand for the title of a bee-master.”
Pres. L. C. Jorgensen Green Bay. Treas. C. W. Aeppler, Oconomowoc.
Vice-Pros. A. C. F. Bartz, Jim Falls. Secy. H. F. Wilson, Madison.
Annual Membership Fee $1.00.
Remit to H. F. Wilson, fierretary, Madison, Wis.
Have you made every possible effort to sell your crop locally?
Do your neighbors and friends know that you have honey for sale?
A large number of beekeepers have joined the cooperative association but more members are needed.
The cooperative association is now in position to buy supplies and cans in large orders so that they can be sold to our members at a very much reduced price. If you have not sent in your subscription, please do so at once.
A cooperative summer meeting between the State Beekeeprs’ Association and the University of Wisconsin will be held at Chippewa Falls, August 15 to 20, 1921. Dr. E. F. Phillips, Mr. E. R. Root, Mr. C. P. Dadant and other men noted in beekeeping will be on the program. Every beekeeper in the state should plan his vacation for that period and meet with us at that time. A camping ground will be available to all who desire to camp out.
From present indications it is quite likely that the price of honey will not again rise above 20c in wholesale lots and any beekeeper who can at the present time get 15c or better per pound will do well to dispose of his crop. Next year’s price is of course still questionable but we must expect to receive prices somewhat similar to those of pre-war times.
The American Honey Producers’ League has started out. on a definite campaign to advertise honey, $6,000 has already been subscribed and arrangements made to carry on a national advertising campaign in one of the National Magazines. It is too bad that the fund is not greater so that an extensive campaign couid be carried on in several magazines at the same time. Every beekeeper in the United States should send in $1 for the purpose of advertising honey. Every cent of the money received for this purpose will be used for advertising. The amount of honey produced in the United States is increasing rapidly and the market must be more fully developed to take care of the crop. Send in your dollar at once.
Contributions to Advertising Campaign of American Honey
Wisconsin Honey Producers’
Cooperative Assn........ $100.00
Wisconsin State Beekeepers’
Association ............. 50.00
Who will be next?
Mr. C. W. Aeppler, Oconomowoc, Wisconsin, has just donated to the Beekeeping Department of the University a nicely framed letter with translation written by Dr. Dzierson. at Lowkowitz. July 13. 1898.
This is a very generous act on the part of Mr. Aeppler and places at the disposal of our beekeepers something of. real value.
The letter as translated by Mr. Aeppler is as follows:
”V. Berlepsch says in a certain often cited place in his book: “ ’Learn theory, otherwise you will be practicing bunglers all your life.’ ” Indisputable is also the proposition: experience is the best. teacher. Theory and experience must go hand in hand completely and correctly if perfection in anything is to be* attained. The keeping of bees according to the principles of theory and
The annual meeting of the American Honey Producers’ League was held at the Claypool Hotel at Indianapolis, February 15. 16 and 17. 1921. This was perhaps the most important meeting of representatives of the beekeeping industry ever held, because it showed the power of accomplishment of the allied beekeeping interests when a properly represented and well regulated organization is formed. In any meeting where people are willing to give up money to the extent of $6,000 there must be some incentive and the people concerned must realize that they are going to receive an adequate return for such an expenditure. Then-\s no question but that the American Honey Producers’ League can Inmade a grand success if petty jealousies and personal dislikes of individuals do not wreck it during the next few years. If the present administration has the foresight and temperament to smooth down the ruffled feelings of the enemies of the League and will give all the interested people a chance to cooperate in the work and administration of the League, they will not only receive the favorable opinion of all beekeepers but will provide for the early success of the organization.
Some criticism has been expressed regarding the manner in which the affairs of the league were conducted and the steam roller was well in evidence at Indianapolis, but in all fairness to those who arc in charge it should be stated that they have been greatly handicapped in their work by those who have not supported this movement.
It is also easily conceivable that any change or interference in the plans of the founders of the league at this time might prevent as rapid a development as is desired by all.
A fund of $6,000 was subscribed at Indianapolis for the purpose of carrying on a national advertising campaign and it is understood that every cent of this money will be used for this purpose. If the league in its present early stage of development can have so much influence, then it certainly deserves a fair trial and the individual support of every beekeeper and allied interest.
For the first time in the history of beekeeping both beekeepers and the dealer are allied together for building up the beekeeping industry.
Each and every party interested must pay for the service to be rendered and the greater the investment the greater the return. One individual beekeeper subscribed $50.00 to the National Advertising Campaign. Should we be willing to let this man pay our way or will we help?
At the league meeting the supply dealers and honey bottlers seemed to be afraid each would give more than the other and the subscriptions ran trom $100.00 to $1,000.00.
Acting as the representative of the Wisconsin Beekeepers. the writer pledged $200.00 to the National Advertising Campaign and every bee-keeper must help make this promise good.
By A. Swalin. Ellsworth, Wis.
Once more I have had the honor to be calk'd upon for a paper on some branch of the honey industry, and I sincerely hope my efforts will produce a little good. In the past I have been unable to meet with you in person owing to the lack of experienced help in my drug store. Now I assure you that I appreciate this opportunity of meeting you all.
The title I have selected for my paper “The Beekeepers Folly” may I fear act as a boomerang and in your estimation be considered my own folly. However I am a beekeeper like yourselves and have included myself in all the criticisms I will make.
To begin with every beekeeper should paste this motto in his hat — SYSTEMATIZE, STANDARDIZE. ORGANIZE and ADVERTISE. He should then exert himself to the limit to carry out every’ branch of his motto. As my paper will touch mainly the last two branches I will only mention the first two briefly.
We should systematize all the work in both the Apiary and the Extracting house so as to eliminate a great deal of the usual labor in caring for our bees and honey. By so doing it will be possible to either keep more h«‘rs or have more time for something else. We should standardize because it will also pay us well to do so. This branch of our industry is now well under way in Wisconsin as we have a standard of grades, and now it is only necessary for us to adopt a standard package and label. This will be taken up again later.
Now comes the main branch of our motto—ORGANIZE. It will be but waste of time to organize unless we mean business and fully decide to co-operate with our fellow beekeepers in the fullest sense of the word. I do not think it possible for anyone in any business or profession to reach the highest pinnacle of success without co-operation with others in one way or another. If we wish to progress we must both give and take advice. No man can live right and live for himself alone. By helping others he will in return help himself. It is the Beekeepers folly to think he can hide himself under a bushel and play the game of success alone and ever hope to reach the highest goal. We must have confidence in each other, we must feel that others are honest too, and that by co-operating with them we will better our own conditions.
In the honey industry we should have two separate and distinct cooperative organizations. One for the producing end and one for the marketing end of the business. The producing end is fairly well organize d now and is making good progress. but the marketing end is still in the hospital, and to effect a permanent cure we must subject it to some drastic treatments. First we must put it under the X-ray and locate the real cause for its ailment, and then employ a corps of capable physicians to treat the case until it is able to stand on its own legs. These two organizations should be entirely separate for the reason that the men who are experts on production may be very deficient on marketing to advantage. It takes a beekeeper to produce maximum crops of honey with minimum expense and labor, and it takes a business man to sell that crop to the best advantage. Each is a business by itself. We may have some who would be efficient on both ends of the business, but we have hundreds who would not.
The Beekeepers Folly shows Itself again whes we encourage greater production under the present very sickly selling methods. The more we produce the more anxious we are to sell, and the more we fear that we may not be able to sell the entire crop at the prices we had dreamed of getting. The outcome is that we may sell to the first bidder at prices way below what we had expected, or could have gotten had. we but waited a little lenger. or would have received if we had boon organized and had some one who would have looked after our interests and who knew what the market conditions really were. Therefore I say let us ease up a little on production and exert ourselves on organizing and marketing conditions. When that is done and we are getting what our honey is worth and fool certain that we can sell all wo can produce at those figures, then let t:s go to it and produce our limit.
We should not encourage more beekeepers or poor beekeepers who will not adopt modern methods. We should encourage our good beekeepers to produce more honey by keeping more bees or by producing more honey per colony. We should select our very best practical men to head the producing or educational end and they should confine themselves to that branch only. We should select our very best business material to take full charge of the selling organization and give them both our moral and financial backing, and in a short time we will be climbing the ladder of efficiency and be nearing the 100 per cent mark.
This is an age where ancient methods are passe. This is an age where brains count more than brawn and muscle, this is an age where we must step lively or side step for those who can. It is the Beekeepers Folly to think that the commission men are holding down prices and beating them out of their just profits. The beekeepers themselves are almost entirely to blame for the present low wholesale prices. It is our folly also to believe that sugar should regulate the price of honey. That should not be. as honey is not generally used as a substitute for sugar. The Beekeepers Greatest Folly is to enter into competition with his very best customer. If he was a fair and honest competitor it would not be so bad, but he is not. He is a price cutter. and a price cutter without a comeback. When a business man puts out a leader at a cut price he does it with the expectation of getting more and new customers into his place of business who might be induced to buy other goods at full prices which would absorb the lost profit on his leaders. When a beekeeper sells his honey at a low price he has no come back as he has nothing else to sell to absorb his loss, and all he can expect is more customers at the same low price. The more lest Us the harder it will be for him to get a better price should he ever see fit to ask it.
Let us put this into figures and make it a little more plain. Foi example we will sell our extracted honey to the commission man foi 20c. This commission man does not as a rule sell direct to the consumer. He either bottles it, or reships it to the retailers we will say for 25c. The retailers must also make a profit so they sell it for possibly 30c where only a little more handling is necessary as in the larger packages. If it is bottled a considerably higher price must be asked from the consumer. Now
what happens if we beekeepers sell direct to the consumers for 25c, as many have done and are doing right now? This places us in direct competition with the retailer with cut prices as we are offering it to the consumer at what it costs the retailer. We are therefore cutting our own throats as it were.
If we think 25c is the right price for our honey then for Heaven’s sake do not sell it to the consumer at that price and at the same time expect the commission man to pay us more than 20c or even that much. You have discouraged the commission man’s very best customer and forced him to either quit handling honey altogether or to meet your price and sell at cost. We should do either one of three things, sell to the retailer at a price which will enable him to make a living profit, or sell our entire crop to the commission men, or sell our entire crop to the consumer at retail prices and then quit kicking become some one else wants to make a profit too. If we are expecting the commission man to pay us higher prices we must in turn arrange to make higher prices possible all along the line.
Many is the time I have heard beekeepers say “Look at the money the middle man makes on our honey. He pays us a measly 20c per pound, and then we see it sold in the cities for as high as 50c.’’ This does look like highway robbery doesn’t It? Let us figure a little and see if it is. Remember that in the first place these fancy prices are only for the fancy bottles of a pound or less. As before shown the commission man paid the beekeeper 20c for the honey. He then pays at least 7c for a fancy pound bottle. The labor, label ad-verising, etc., to get this on the market costs at the very lowest estimate lc per pound making 28c per pound so far. I do not think he can buy a shipping case holding 24 pound bottles for less than 48c adding 2c more to the cost or in all 30c and still no profit. This will be sold to a retailer who must make a profit of at least 15c per pound or he will not bother with it. As 5c per pound is certainly not too much for the commission man to make he w’ill sell it to the retailer for 35c. Now where does the robbery come in?
To show you again that the commission man is not the one who is holding down the price I will again submit some figures for your consideration. I have already shown that when we sold him for 20c he in turn sold it to the retailer for 25c in the larger packages thereby making a profit of 5c per pound or 20 per cent on the selling price. 1,000 pounds at 25c will make $2 50.00—20 per cent of this amount is $50.00 profit. If this same commission man had paid the beekeeper 25c and sold to the retailer for 30c he would for the same amount have received $300.00 or at 20 per cent would have made a net profit of $60.00 or just $10.00 more than at the 20c price. His overhead expense would have been no more, the cans, labels, d raying, advertising, labor, etc. would have been no more, so he makes a clean net profit of $10.00 more. Does that look as if he prefers to hold dow’n prices?
Even if we organize and co-operate in the best possible way we can never hope to eliminate more than one of the two middle men who are between the producer and consumer—viz., the commission man. The retailer is a necessary evil and we cannot very well get along without him. However with the right kind of co-operation and organization we can save for ourselves the profit the commission man now makes from the retailer.
Unless we all get together and appoint a sales manager and let him set our prices and manage the entire selling campaign for us we will always be like a balky team. One will pull and the other will hold back and thereby never get anywhere. Even with a seemingly perfect selling organization we must have patience and not expect too much the first year. All new organizations must learn some things by experience and sometimes that costs money. I do not believe in small local organizations because it will cost a great deal more in proportion to sell in a small way than it will on a larger scale. A small organization cannot always meet the prices offered by the big commission men and will be very much like a dog’s tail trying to wag the dog. We must place ourselves on an equal footing with the big ones to get the best results. Before suggesting a possible or nucleus plan for an organization I will touch briefly on the last branch of our motto, Advertising.
In order to put Wisconsin honey on the market as it should be, we should all adopt a standard package and label. The label should be neat and attractive and should bear a Wisconsin trade mark, and should show the grade, color, number of the producer, etc. It should not show the name of the producer, but should read—produced for the Wisconsin Marketing Association (or what ever name we call our organization). We should advertise as much as we can afford until we gain recognition and create a demand equal to the supply.
Advertising is a science, and not much can be said on that subject in the small space allotted to it in this paper. I will say however that even the very best advertising does not always produce the desired result immediately. In order to get the desired results we must keep everlastingly at it, and not get discouraged. A certain amount of money must be provided every year to carry on our advertising campaign, and then invest that money to the best advantage and patiently wait for results. Good advertising does not consist merely of letting the public know that John Brown sells his honey cheaper than anyone else. That kind of advertising might do John Brown more harm than good. It means that we should talk Wisconsin quality first, last and all the time. If we ca nmake the public think of Wisconsin quality when they think of honey, the battle is won. and the price will be a secondary consideration. The public is always ready and willing to pay’ a good price for good quality in an attractive package. The very best quality will be lowered m the estimation of a prospective customer if it is put up in an unsightly package, or even in a good package but with a poorly gotten up label. Everything should harmonize and savor of the highest quality, and if the right impression is given that quality will be remembered long after the price is forgotten. Advertising does not consist of merely buying space in our county’ papers or of sending out circulars. De should advertize as much as possible by word of mouth. We should all think Wisconsin quality. talk Wisconsin quality’ .and get all our friends to think and talk Wisconsin quality.
There are two plans under which yve could organize. One is to estimate the total expense tor salaries, advertising, traveling, and office expenses. and then tax each member enough per colony to cover this amount. This plan was submitted in my last paper read at this place and was published in Wisconsin Horticulture. Possibly’ some of you retd it, or heard it read. Since writing that paper I have considered this matter very thoroughly’ and believe it would be hard to get enough beekeepers to join an experimental organization of this kind and put up the cash in advance to cover the expenses during the experimental stage. After it was a proven success they would fall over each other to get in. We should all be willing to take a little chance. I will now suggest another possible plan wherein the officers might be willing to take most of the chances. We might organize and pay’ the officers on a commission basis of a certain amount per pound sold, and if no sales were made no money’ would be paid. By this plan if it could be worked out the beekeepers would only have to guarantee in advance an amount sufficient to cover office stationery, advertising and necessary traveling expenses, which would be very nominal. The officers would thereby have to make good or make nothing. It is not the object of this paper to lay out any definite plan as that should be thrashed out by the officers elected.
We should elect officers and start the wheels going at this very meeting. It is too late now to do anything for the 1920 crop, but it is exactly the right time to get in line for the 1921 crop. An '"•tllne rf nhin now in my miri3 is to get together and elect the regular officers consisting of a President, Vice President. Secretary and Treasurer and a board of either five or seven directors. This body should have the power to select a sales manager either from among themselves or from the outside. They should make plans and arrangements to be submitted at a future meeting. I would favor a central state body with branch representatives in every county. These branch representatives should act as assistants to the state secretary, and in counties having County Agents. I would advise that they co-operate with this agent, and thereby making it possible to get a great deal of assistance and a great deal of advertising at the expense of the county. The county secretaries should list all the honey available in his county and report same to the state secretary. He should together with the County Agent, solicit every retailer in the county and try to induce him to handle Wisconsin honey exclusively. We should be able to dispose of all our honey inside the state.
After the state is thoroughly organized into a permanent selling organization I would heartily favor joining hands with the American Honey Producers League into a National Organization. After that is done the beekeepers will be in a position to do a little price dictating themselves, and will also be strong enough to carry on a National Advertising Campaign, which is absolutely necessary in order to take honey out of the ordinary honey class and put it into the Quality honey class.
During the winter months the state secretary in co-operation with the county secretaries should get a list of all the supplies needed by the members for the next season, and then go after the large quantity prices from the manufacturers. We should save more each year on our supplies alone than the Association expenses would cost us.
The moral to all this is to immediately form ourselves into a state wide selling association and let this association handle both our purchases and sales, and in a short time we will realize something worth while out of our honey industry- We should have confidence in our officers and back them up with our money and honey.
If we remember our motto—SYSTEMATIZE, STANDARDIZE, ORGANIZE and ADVERTISE and carry it out to the limit, no paper will ever again be written entitled “The Beekeepers Folly”—I thank you.
It makes little difference whether or not the bees come by parcel post or express if they are properly prepared by the shipper and are given reasonable care in transit. Hive bodies with full sheets of foundation or drawn combs should be ready and placed on their stands when the bees arrive. Some kind of a feeder should be placed in the hive and syrup made of equal parts of water and sugar fed to the bees until they can get an abundance of nectar in the field. We always use a feeder of the Alexander type fastened at the rear of the hive. If they are received on a cold day, do not attempt to put them in the hives, but place them in a room of medium temperature or cover them with a blanket and wait until the temperature rises to 60° F. If the bees are to be kept caged for a day or two after their arrival, be sure to sprinkle a little sweetened water into each cage. When ready to transfer the bees to the hive, place an empty super above the hive so that the cage can be placed on top of the frames. As a rule, the queen will be enclosed in a cage hung in the center of the cluster. It will be held by two wires fastened on the outside of the cage. Loosen the cover to the cage and then loosen the wires holding the queen cage. Lift out the feed can from the top and remove the queen cage. The cage itself should’ be laid on its side and the queen suspended down between the frames. Before putting the queen cage in the hive, remove the tin strip covering the opening at the end of the cage in which the sugar candy is contained and let the bees liberate the queen by eating through the candy. If there is dry candy in the cage, this should also be removed, or else the bees will continue to cluster on it until entirely used. Leave the empty hive body and cage on until the second day unless the bees all desert the cage sooner. If they have not left the cage by the second day, shake the bees out into the hive being sure that the queen is In the hive. If the queen is uninjured and plenty of stores are available, the bees will have the combs partly built out and eggs in the cells in three or four days. If the queen has not been liberated by the third day, the queen cage should be opened and the queen allowed to run out on to the combs.
Occasionally a queen will be found dead’ upon arrival and in this case it is best to telegraph the breeder asking for another queen.
If the dead’ queen is immediately returned in the queen cage, there should be no charge for the extra queen. All colonies should be carefully examined one week after the transfer to see if all the queens are laying. If the queens cannot be found, or there are no eggs present, it is best to unite these colonies with others in which eggs and perhaps brood is present. If non-laying queens are found, they should be killed before uniting.
To unite, place a newspaper with a number of holes in it less than the size of a bee over the colony with a queen and set the other hive on top. Replace the cover and leave the bees to work their way through the paper. As soon as the bees have cut away a part of the paper, shake them all into the lower hive and remove the others. It does not pay to leave packages queenless for more than a week or ten days.
Tramp the snow around apple tree trunks. Mice often find a shelter close to the tree and eat the bark. Get rid of all the rabbits possible by traps, guns or otherwise.
The wild grape is a thing of beauty and service; the wild raspberry and blackberry, the hazel nut, supply a fine border for a rural highway, and wherever same are now found they should be protected. Some of our enthusiastic road builders never learn to appreciate trees and shrubs. There have been so many places where beauty has been permitted to go up in flame and smoke, and only black spots mark the ravines and roadsides where beauty was profuse.
Look over Uncle Sam’s semi-monthly market reports. Check up the quotations on comb and extracted honey. You will find extracted honey prices going down. Comb honey prices are better and more stable. This is true in every market giving a report.
Last year we advised against a glutted honey market. Again we urge beekeepers to produce comb honey. The profit is more certain than for extracted honey. To get first grade price—use Lewis Sections.
Ask us for a 1921 “Beeware” catalog today. It’s free.
MK WVM AMB MKAMAN MUWMCNT
WHERE YOU BUY YOUR
* 'Beeware "Isa Registered Trademark
Brandies: Albany, N. Y., Memphis, Tenn., Lawyers, (Near Lynchburg) Va.
for Particular Buyers
Have all the standard varieties as well as the newer sorts. Can supply you with everything in
Fruit Trees, Small Fruits, Vines and Ornamentals.
Let us suggest what to plant both in Orchard and in the decoration of your grounds.
Prices and our new Catalog sent promptly upon receipt of your list of wants.
After June 1st, untested queens, $1.00; tested, $2. One frame nucleus with untested queen after July 1st, $5.00. Two frame, $8.00. Full colonies after August 1st. Orders booked now with 10 per cent down.
Should send for our booklet on the new MODIFIED DADANT HIVE. The hive with a brood chamber sufficient for prolific queens. OUR CATALOG IS FREE.