Volume XI           Madison, Wisconsin, February, 1921              Number 6

Why the Plum Fails to Set Fruit

I)r. M. J. Dorsey, University Farm, St. Paul

From Minnesota Horticulturist

One of the characteristics of the plum in Minnesota is the heavy crop of bloom produced each year. One would think that with such a heavy bloom that annual crops would be a certainty. Every plum grower, however, knows that this is not the case. What, then, are the factors entering into the failure of plums to set fruit when flowers are produced so regularly?

It is well known that the fruit buds produced in late summer and fall bear the rudimentary flower buds which bloom the following spring. Then if any flowers are lost before they bloom, it will be clear that they should be lost between the period of dormancy in winter and during early growth in the spring. Each fruit bud contains three to .five flower buds. An examination of the fruit buds during early spring in a large number of varieties at the Fruit-Breeding Farm shows that in the tender varieties all the flower buds may be killed and that in the semi-hardy varieties only a part may be killed. In the hardier varieties, like As-siniboine, none of the flower buds are ever killed. Where a portion of the flower buds have been killed, only one or two flowers will come from each fruit bud and in some cases the fruit buds produce no flowers at all. Careful counts made during early winter show ithat 10 to 50% of the flower buds may be killed, with practically no noticeable effects upon the mass of flowers at bloom. A large plum tree may produce 30,000 or more flowers and 10,000 or 15,000 can be killed by winter without showing any appreciable loss when in full bloom. If each flower were to develop into a fruit, some of the fruit spurs would have to bear three quarts or more of plums. That such production is physically impossible is readily evident. The killing, therefore, of flower buds during winter up to a certain point serves as a thinning process, but beyond that a point is soon reached, especially in the tender or semi-hardy varieties during the severest winters, when there is a great reduction in the crop. Winter-killing alone can account in certain varieties, for the loss of all, or practically all, of the flowers, but in others

only a fraction, or none at all may be lost. Only in exceptional seasons, therefore, with the semihardy and tender varieties does winter-killing account for the failure of fruit to set. What happens to the flowers which bloom but from which no fruit is developed ?

A study of plum flowers shows that those which come into full bloom may be lost in three separate, but distinct, periods of dropping. These are so different, both as to the time of occurrence and the stage of development, that they can be set apart into definite “drops.”

Those flowers which fall at the time of bloom are known as the first drop. In some varieties none of the flowers fall immediately after bloom, but in many instances, all of them drop soon after opening. This happened in Wolf two years in succession after the heavy crop in 1914 and appears to be related to exhaustion caused by over production or a lack of food supply. An examination of the flowers which fall at blooming time shows that in each one the pistil is aborted. Goff, in Wisconsin, thought that these aborted pistils might be caused by winter killing. However this may be, it should be stated that they reach a stage of development before dying larger than that reached in the fall before dormancy, therefore it appears that some other cause, such as early abortion in the young embryo, may be acting more directly. Like winter-killing then, the first drop, due to aborted pistils, may include all of the flowers or it may effect none. Flowers with aborted pistils are prevalent, however, in all plum varieties, but generally only about five or ten out of each 100 blossoms fall because the pistils are aborted. So far we have considered, then, two important causes, winter killing and aborted pistils, which may or may not subtract from the sum total of the flowers produced on each plum tree.

The question now arises, what happens with the great number of plum flowers or pistils, as the case may be, which are not winter-killed and in which the pistil forms normally? Many fruit growers are well acquainted with the fact that during the third week following the bloom there is always a heavy drop of rudimentary plums about the size of small peas. This is known as the second drop and may consist of a small percentage of the total flowers remaining or it may include all of them. What are the causes of this second drop ? It is at this point that the success or failure of the crop is definitely determined.

The second drop is due to the fact that fertilization has not taken place. Pollen may be present in abundance upon the stigmas, but it should be remembered that, in order that fertilization may take place the pollen tube must grow the entire length of the style and reach the rudimentary stage of the seed at the base of the pistil. This process is called fertilization and since fertilization determines definitely whether or not there will be a crop, it will be of considerable interest to growers generally to analyze the reasons which cause a failure in fertilization.

The causes of non-fertilizaton can be sought primarily in the conditions of the weather at bloom. How can the weather effect the plum crop to this extent? Let us, first, state briefly the processes involved and then it can be made clear why weather has such a direct bearing upon it. There are two structures concerned in the process of fertilization. These are well known to fruit growers. First, it is necessary for normal pollen to be produced and disseminated. The American and Japanese varieties of plums are all self sterile and it is necessary for pollen to come from other varieties bearing visible pollen which bloom at the same time. Secondly, after pollen has reached the stigma the pollen tube must grow down the style and fuse with a special cell at the point where the rudimentary seed is forming. These are delicate structures and intricate processes.

Weather can be analyzed from the standpoint of wind, rain, sunshine and temperature. By way of contrast it may be stated that the conditions' ait bloom most favorable for the setting of fruit are warm, clear days with low wind velocity but with a relatively high temperature. These conditions favor the work of the honey bee, or the wild bees, which are the most active agents in carrying plum pollen. If cold, rainy, windy weather, with a low temperature prevails for any considerable time, especially during the early days of bloom, bee flight is interfered with or prevented completely at certain times. Consequently, there is a lack of pollination and pollen may reach only a few pistils upon each tree. If, however, the early days of bloom are favorable for bee flight and pollination is complete, the question then arises, are there any weather conditions which will prevent fer-

tilization taking place, since the setting of fruit is dependent upon fertilization? The opinion has generally prevailed among fruit growers that rain washes pollen from the stigma or that it bursts the pollen when once shed from the anther. A study of this condition shows that in the plum this is not necessarily true. Stigmas which have been through three days of rain have held as high as thirty pollen grains. A stigma, on which a mass of pollen had been placed, had seventy pollen grains adhering to it after it had been stirred in water for ten minutes. That plum pollen is not burst by rain or by being placed in water is shown by the fact that successful crosses have been made by pollen so treated. It appears then that plum pollen is not destroyed by rain and that injury from this source is greatly lessened by the fact that plum anthers actually closed during rain even if they have been open for some time. The greater quantity of pollen disappears from the anthers the first few hours after they open. This is particularly true in those varieties which have the dry pollen, as contrasted with some of the Japanese-Americana crosses where the pollen is more or less sticky. This fact no doubt has led to general belief that pollen is washed away.

With the action of rain and wind and sunshine in mind, let us see what influence low temperature may have upon the processes involved in fertilization. Temperatures sufficiently low to kill plum flowers outright seldom occur, likewise frosts have not injured plums seriously although some of the flowers may have been injured. It appears certain, therefore, that fertilization may take place at relatively low temperatures, even though the growth process may be more or less retarded.

The question arises, after pollen once reaches the stigma in ample quantities and from varieties known to be fertile, can pollination be prevented by weather conditions? The influence from here on must be sought in the effect low temperatures have upon the growth or formation of the pollen tube.

The plum pistil remains receptive three to six days. Fruit has been found to set in crosses made six days after bloom. There is a relatively short time then, a maximum of six days, that pollination can take place because the stigma begins to die and unless pollinated before it dies pollen tubes cannot be formed. Figure 3, A.

Growth is relatively slow in the pollen tube of the plum. Under favorable conditions in the greenhouse Surprise pollen took as long as six days to grow a pollen tube the full length of the style. It is clear, therefore, that since the style drops off, twelve to fifteen days after bloom, that there cannot be any great delay in the pollen tube reaching the style. Goff found that tubes were not formed at temperatures below 41 degrees F. This being the case, it will be seen that cool weather may actually prevent pollination, or since the temperatures are low for considerable periods during the early spring days, especially at "isrhts, it can be seen that low temperatures alone, even following ample pollination, can render fertilization uncertain or prevent it completely. When adverse weather prevails at bloom, only one or two plums out of several hundred were found to be brought about.

All of this proves that the weather has a very direct bearing on the processes involved in the setting of fruit. There yet remains one other group of plums falling at a size larger than the second drop to be considered. This drop is known as the third, or the “June Drop,” and without going into great detail, it may be stated that when plums fall at the size of a small marble they do so after fertilization has taken place because the seed fails to develop. In some eases of the crosses where extreme combinations have been made, like Compass x Yellow Egg, 1327 flowers were pollinated, 652 set and only 8 matured, as contrasted with Compass x Burbank, in which 175 flowers were pollinated, 116 set and 114 matured.

The plum grower is directly interested in the weather conditions which prevail during bloom. It is unfortunate that conditions which affect so intimately the setting of fruit are so far beyond control. An attempt to control the conditions during bloom has suggested itself to many. In the West smudges are burned in the orchards and these are effective primarily in preventing frosts where relatively narrow temperature ranges are concerned. The greatest influence upon the setting of fruits in the plum comes from temperatures above the frost point which retard pollen tube growth. Wann spring showers apparently have very little detrimental influence upon the setting of fruit. In contrast to showers prolonged rains have greater influence because in Minnesota they are usually accompanied by conditions unfavorable for the dissemination of pollen, pollen germination or tube growth. In the last seven years there has been as much as a month’s difference in the time plums have bloomed but neither the earlier or the later blooming periods have apparently escaped unfavorable weather. It is clear then, that, since the conditions which prevent the setting of fruit are so far reaching in their effect and so difficult to control except within a very limited range that pollenizers for particular varieties ties should be sought among those which show the fastest tube growth at low temperaures. This phase of the subject is still under investigation. It takes years of painstaking labor to work out these intricate problems. They are fundamental to a full understanding of the reason why fruit is not produced regularly.

Send for catalogs and make up the seed and nursery list for next year. It will soon be time to plant many of the flower and vegetable seeds for early use.

Let’s Be Friendly

Oak Holler, Wis.

Dear friends: Wonder what you 've been thinking about since you got back from the convention

1 've been thinking of what my Mother used to tell me the last minute before I started out to Grandfather’s in vacation. After the usual ordeal of getting my neck scrubbed, my hair brushed and being sent back several times to scrub my hands a little cleaner (never could see the sense of all that fussing then) Mother would say, “Now Johnnie don’t forget to say ‘how do you do’ to Grandma and Grandpa right away—shake hands and tell them Mother sends her love; then shake hands and say ‘how do you do’ to your uncles and aunts and mind every word they say. Be nice to your cousins— don't get angry if they do say things you don’t like—just forget it. Now be a good boy. H’m! I knew that by heart. Could say it backwards and forwards—upside down and thru the middle. Am quite sure I always remembered the part about shaking hands and Mother sending her love. Always tried hard to mind my aunts and uncles because— oh well, what’s the use of bringing up painful memories, the most of you know what was liable to happen—for a shingle and the woodshed was real handy those days.

But when it came to not fighting with my cousins—that was different. I really tried to be as good as I could. Think perhaps they did too—but there’s a limit —every boy knows that—girls too for that matter. We sure scrapped and fought, but there was no bitterness then. And when the day was over we all gathered together in the big room and told stories and sang all the songs we knew—and like as not we two who had fought the most during the day sat together in Grandmother’s big rocking chair with our arms around each other and sang the loudest. Do you know as I ■wandered round ’mongst you out there I thot a lot of other boy’s Mothers must have told them just about what my Mother told me. I can not help but think the early training we received comes to the surface—for surely the spirit of our childhood is growing in our Conventions. The friendly greetings, the warm clasp of the hand. The spirit of tolerance even though we may not agree — we are friends. Aren’t we glad we had Mothers who told us over and over to be friends—to forget the little things—just remember that the spirit of friendliness is the greatest thing in the world— aren’t we really beginning to forget “who’s who’’ and holding out our hands in friendly greeting to all? There really isn’t so much difference in us after all when we become acquainted.

Have you ever tried holding out your hands in warm greeting to some one you think doesn’t care anything about being friends with you? Try it once. You will be surprised to see how really interested and friendly most folks are. That's the way our society grows—from one end of the state to the other—even from the neighboring states they come—and as we hold out our hands in friendly greeting each year this friendship grows stronger.

Those who do not come to these meetings, are missing more than they think. Pointed words cannot tell of the inspiration received there. The earnest desire to give the best there is in us to help each other. There is another meeting in the summer—-don’t you think you’d better plan on going? This feeling of get-together and help some body is growing. Don’t you want to get into the circle—am sure you wiil be glad you went—your only regret, the fact that you didn't go before. Here’s hoping this spirit of friendship grows until we can do as our Scot friends do—join hands and sing the old songs together.                Johnnie.

The Supplement

The annual garden supplement is mailed with this issue. Members, who through long experience in gardening do not need it are requested to pass it along to some less fortunate neighbor. In case none such can be found members are asked to return unused copies to the secretary. Printing costs have mounted so high that only a small edition has been printed while requests for it continue throughout the year.

Put out food for the birds. They especially need it on stormy cold days, when tree buds or fruits are hard to find.

Cornstalks or hay wound around tender shrubs or smooth barked trees often saves them from winter injury.

Flowers for Everybody’s Garden

Mrs. C. E. Strong at Annual Convention.

I do not know if Mr. and Mrs. Everybody are here or not—if they are I want to say to them, that I think they gave me a pretty hard task.

I started out asking different people what they liked best—I failed to .find two who agreed. So I decided to answer the questions as well as I could—if Everybody wasn't satisfied, why there are many other Hower growers here, who no doubt would be glad to help them. These are the questions I have been asked to answer: The Everybody family own a home; they are very much interested in flowers and would like a list of bulbs, annuals and perennials that are easy to grow. They haven't very much money to spend but they want a lot of flowers the whole season, both for show in the garden and to cut. They intend to learn about the culture later.

Pretty plain questions, covers the ground. There's just one thing left to my imagination and that's the size of the garden. I decided the only thing I could do, was to give a large enough list so no one could feel slighted. I am quite sure of one thing, the Everybody family is starting out right in asking for a list early, so they can order the seeds and plants. This will save them a great many disappointments. Was also glad to know they intended to find out how to take care of this garden. For no matter how good the list may be, everybody is going to be disappointed. unless the seeds and plants are cared for properly. From my own experience in gardening I have found it is not necessary to spend a large amount of money for flowers as a great many of the best perennials are easily raised from seed.

Any or all of the following list sown early in the spring will grow readily and many will bloom the first year: Arabis Alpina, Saxatile Allysum, Sweet Rocket, Sweet William, Long-spurred Columbine, Lychins, Gold Medal Hybrid Delphiniums, Fox Gloves, Gaillardias, Pyrethrums, Shasta Daisies, Oriental Poppies, Myosotis Pallustris Semperflor-ens. I wouldn’t advise Everybody to plant all of these at once. The best way would be to read up the descriptions in the seed catalogues, then pick out five or six they think they would like best. If they are careful about following directions about sowing and caring for them, they will soon be ready for all the rest. There is one perennial not given in this list I wish Everybody would try raising from seed. Perennial Phlox is one of the most satisfactory showy plants grown in a garden and one of the easiest grown from seed. I have a large bed of these plants that in my estimation equals if it does not exceed in beauty any other collection I have ever seen—it was grown from fifty cents worth of seed. I think its the best advertisement for the nurseries in West Allis, for everybody who sees them proceeds to order some phlox plants. I wish to tell Everybody they can do likewise but its not done in one year nor without considerable work. They need careful weeding out of some sort or your phlox bed will be ruined. If I should try to tell you at this time how I found out all I have about Phlox nobody would ever hear the rest of this paper. Everybody here knows the reason, fifteen minutes the limit This much I can tell you though, get your seed is October and sow it immediately— it needs tin-freezing for perfect germination.

There are a few things I would advise everybody to buy.—bulbs of course. Tulips, Narcissus. Daffodils are the indispensable* in Everybody's garden. I prefer double tulips because they are more lasting—also very fine for cutting. Salvator Rosa, t'our-1-one Dor, Tournesoll, Ball of Snow, are the best I think. Narcissus Alba Plena Odorata for double and Narcissus Portions, single. For Daffodils the obi Von Sion is a stand by. Rigk" here I want to tell Everybody something I know Somebody will disagree with. Dig up your bulbs only about once in this -or four years, and sow the seeds of annuals amongst them early in the spring, such as Nigel-las, Clarkia, Godetia, Dianthus. Candytuft, Verbenas, Gypsophila. These give you later a plentiful supply of cut flowers and shade the ground so the hot sun will not hurt your bulbs. Iris—you will want some of the early Pu-mila, whose buds show early in the spring. Then Iris Siberiea. white and violet blue. When you get to the Tall Bearded Iris, you can spend much or little for after this beautiful flower has gotten into your garden, she will make you reckless, you will forget you cannot afford to spend money for flowers. However no matter luw much or little you spend, the

charm of this flower is the same, each opening blossom gives you a new thrill. These should be planted surely, Florentine Alba, Madam Cherau, Mrs. H. Darwin, Pallida Dalmatia, Plumeri, Sherwin Wright.

Do not be afraid to try a few of the gorgeous Japanese—all they need is a heavy covering of cornstalks as they are not quite hardy everywhere.

Does Everybody want Peonies? If they are anything like myself they do. Here are six, none costing over a dollar, very free blooming—Festiva Maxima, Golden Harvest, Mons Jules Elie, Felix Crousse, Queen Victoria, Delachi. You need not envy the possessors of the more aristocratic members of this family, there may be many just as beautiful but none more satisfactory. To help out in that lots of cut flowers—sow some more annuals in your Peony bed. Tall branching larkspur, ealliopsis, bachelor’s buttons or centaurea if we give them their proper name, snap dragon. Gladiolus — the only trouble with these are the more you have the more you want. To me they are about the last word in cut flowers. I shall not attempt to give you a list of the best ones, do not believe I'm equal to this. However I know a garden wouldn’t seem complete without America, Panama, Chief Oshkosh, Peace and Schwaben.

Almost all catalogues paint alluring pictures of great clumps of lilies—easily grown, perhaps they are by professionals but not by the average amateur. Lilium Elegans and Lilium Tigrinum are easily grown, soon forming good sized clumps, while Lilium Candhlum or Madonna Lily is perhaps the most beautiful and yet can be grown by everybody. I am sure Everybody will be glad to know how to secure a large clump of these lilies in a few years at a very small expense. Take one or two bulbs—carefully break off the outer petals, I’m calling them this for want of an easier name, as the bulbs look as tho they were composed of numerous fleshy petals. Plant them where you want your clump of lilies to be, eover with about two inches of ground then plant a double row of Chinese Delphinium around them as closely as you can—in three years you will have a fine show of Lilies. Don’t attempt to grow the lilies without the Delphiniums, there’s a charm there, if you break it, you will be disappointed.

Everybody should have at least one plant of Clematis Recta in their garden; it is a ■wonderfully attractive plant with its masses of creamy white fragrant blossoms. So are the Goat’s beard or Meadow sweet—properly named Spirea. If you have a damp spot in your garden a clump of the rose and white feathery plumes of the Meadow Sweet will delight you for several weeks.

I wonder if Everybody forgot to mention Roses—am sure they didn't leave them out on purpose —for whoever heard of a garden without Roses. Everybody plant a few anyway — Frau Karl Drushki, General Jack, Mrs. J. H. Laing, Hermosa, with Dorothy Perkins and Flower of Fairfield for climbers. Just to make sure there are flowers for Everybody I hope they will plant a few of the old fashioned June Roses, the kind that only bloom once a year, but the kind that you pick arms-ful of pink and white roses to give to somebody who is homesick for a sight of real roses once more—and still have plenty to look at.

By the time Everybody has planted all these flowers Nobody will remember me and this list. Everybody will be busy either working in their own garden or helping Somebody start a new one. Everybody will be happy— and so will I.

Poinsettias that are through flowering may be cut back and just given enough water to keep them alive for a few months, when they may be started into growth again and cuttings taken for next Christmas crop of flowers.

Delphinium, columbine and other slow growing perennials should be sown in the house early and transplanted once, if possible, before they go into the garden. They often are sown in March and transplanted directly to the garden.

The Minnesota Garden Flower Society for several years has placed flowers once a week in every hospital ward in the Twin Cities where there are sick soldiers. This was begun at Fort Snelling, but is now carried on in both Minneapolis and St. Paul. In summer the flowers are regularly collected from the members' gardens for the purpose and in winter are purchased.—Le Roy Cady, associate horticulturist, University Farm, St. Paul.

Wisconsin horticulture

Published Monthly by the Wisconsin State Horticultural Society 12 N. Carroll 8t.

Official organ of the Society.

FREDERIC CRANEFIELD, Editor. Secretary W. 8. H. S., Madison, Wit.

Entered at the pobt office at Madison, Wisconsin, as a.cond class matter. Acceptance for mailing at special rate of postage provided for in Section 1103, Act of Oct. 3, 1917, authorized July 15, 1918.

Advertising rates made known on application.

Wisconsin State Horticultural Society

Annual membership fee, one dollar, which Includes fifty cents, subscription price to Wisconsin Horticulture. Semi one dollar to Frederic Cranefield, Editor, Madison, Wis.

Remit by Postal or Express Money Order. A dollar bill may in- sent safely if wrapped or attached to a card. Personal checks accepted.

Postage stamps not accepted.


J. A. Hays..............................President

F. Cranetield, Secretary-Treasurer......Madison


J. A. Hays..............................Ex-Officio

F. Cranefleld ...........................Ex-Officio

1st Dlst., Wm. Longland..........Lake Geneva

2nd Dlst., R. J. Coe................Ft. Atkinson

3rd Dist., E. J. Frautschi..............Madison

4th Dlst., A. Leldiger ................Milwaukee

5th Dlst., Jas. Livingstone .........Milwaukee

6th IM<t.. J. W. Roe...................Oshkosh

7th I>ist., (’. A. Hofmann............Baraboo

Sth Dist., J. E. Leverich.................Sparta

9th Dist., L. E. Birmingham.....Sturgeon Bay

10th Diet., Paul E. Grant............Menomonie

Uth Dlst., Irving Smith ................Ashland


J. A. Hays H. C. Christensen F. Cram field

Something New

By action of the executive committee in session Jan. 10, the society undertakes a new line of endeavor in some respects similar to the trial orchard work.

We will try to build up the small fruit industry in Wisconsin as we have built up the orchard industry.

We discovered, after our small fruit survey two years ago, that there were practically no raspberry growers in the state, about 42 acres grown for market or less than a berry apiece for each man and woman in the state and none whatsoever for the children. We all spent two years deploring the fact, and waiting for something to turn up. As neither deploring nor waiting got us anywhere it was thought best to do something.

The plan adopted is founded on the assumption that a great many people in the state would engage in the raising of berries if they knew how and could be convinced that it is profitable.

To the end that a considerable number of people may be shown, not merely told but convinced by seeing, five demonstration plats of one acre, or more, each will be planted this spring in as many counties. So far as possible these plats will be by the roadside on state trunk highways and in charge of a man who is in sympathy with the work.

There will be a contract for a term of years between the Society and the owner of the land favorable to and protecting both parties.

Raspberries and strawberries, mostly raspberries, will be planted and cared for according to directions laid down by the most successful growers in the state. Immediate supervision of the work in each county throughout the season will be in the hands of the County Agricultural Agent who will also arrange for meetings of farmers and others interested during the season. In this way we have the very valuable co-operation of the county agent organization. Further: the demonstration, while primarily intended to encourage those who are fruit inclined to plant for market, will be a direct aid and encouragement to farmers who want to plant for home use. There is only one way to raise a good raspberry or strawberry and that way is as applicable to the home garden as to the ten acre plantation.

Full details of the plan have not yet been worked out but the five counties have been pretty positively located. Announcement will be made of the exact location of each plat as soon as determined.

If the plan works out as expected other plats will be established next year until fifty or one hundred are located. The Board of Managers thru the Secretary will be pleased to receive suggestions both as to the general plan as well as offers of sites for future plats.

Success is certain if we all get behind the movement. Don't be backward about coming forward with suggestions. Don’t let George do it all.

Important Change in Constitution

On Thursday afternoon of the (’onvention the Society adopted an amendment to the constitution more important than any other amendment since the 190-’> revision.

The amendment provides that the members of the executive committee shall be elected by th** members present at the annual convention in open meeting as the president and vice president are elected.

Heretofore, as the older members know, members have been selected from congressional districts and by the local societies in such districts. Now, if the members present at the annual meeting so decide, all of the members may be from one district.

Every member has a copy ot the Constitution and By-Laws, a

little pamphlet with brown paper cover prepared and mailed to every member in 1919 and to every new member since. If members will look up their copies and mark the change it will save tile expense of having new copies printed. Mark as follows:

Page 5, Article 5, beginning at ’’and” .fifth line change so as to read, “and eleven additional members, a majority of whom shall constitute a quorum.” Strike out all of Article 7, page 7, and all of Article 8, page 8, and number articles 9, 10 and 11 to read 7, 8 and 9.

Premiums Awarded at Annual Convention


II. II. Harris, Warrens

Collection Apples 2nd; plates:

Fameuse 2nd, Newell 3d, Plumb Cider 1st, Salome 1st, Scott 3d, Wealthy 3d.

Single Tray: Fameuse 1st, N. W. Greening 4th.

L. B. Irish, Baraboo.

Plates: Gano 2nd, Newell 2nd, Scott 2nd; Single Tray: Scott 2nd.

Ralph A. Irwin, Lancaster.

Plates: Fameuse 3d, N. W. Greening 4th, Salome 3d, Windsor 1st; Single tray: Fameuse 4th, N. W. Greening 1st.

F. B. Sherman, Edgerton.

25 plates, 5 commercial varieties: 2nd, collection 3d; Plates: Fameuse 4th, Golden Russett 3d, Grimes Golden 2nd, McIntosh 4th, McMahan 1st, Spy 1st, Pewaukee 2nd, Salome 4th, Seek 3d, Scott 4th, Tolman 4th, Utter 2nd, Wagener 1st, Wolf River 3d, Windsor 2nd; Single tray: Fameuse 3d, Grimes Golden 1st, McIntosh 2nd, McMahan 1st, Salome 2nd, Tolman 2nd, Windsor 1st.

L. E. Birmingham, Sturgeon Bay.

Plates: Grimes Golden 1st, McIntosh 2nd, Newell 4th, Tolman 2nd, Wealthy 2nd.

Kiekapoo Development Co.

Plates: Ben Davis 3d, Golden Russett 2nd, Jonathan 3d, McIntosh 1st, N. W. Greening 3d, Tolman 3d, Wealthy 1st, Windsor 4th; Single tray: Jonathan 1st, McIntosh 1st, N. W. Greening 2nd, Wealthy 1st; 5 trays: McIntosh 1st, N. W. Greening 1st, Wealthy 1st; Ten trays: McIntosh 1st, N. W. Greening 1st, Wealthy 1st.

A. K. Bassett, Baraboo.

25 plates, 5 commercial varieties: 1st collection 1st; Plates: Ben Davis 2nd, Fameuse 1st, Gano 1st, Golden Russett 1st, Jonathan 1st, Newell 1st, N. W. Greening 2nd, Pewaukee 3rd, Salome 2nd, Seek 1st, Scott 1st, Tolman 1st, Utter 1st, Windsor 3d, Wolf River 1st; Single tray: Ben Davis 1st, Fameuse 2nd, Gano 1st, Jonathan 2nd, McIntosh 3d, N. W. Greening 3rd, Pewaukee 1st, Salome 1st, Seek 1st, Scott 1st, Tolman 1st, Windsor 2nd, Wolf River 1st; 5 trays: N. W. Greening 2nd, Tolman 1st, Gano 1st, Salome 1st; Ten trays: N. W. Greening 2nd, Tolman 1st, Wolf River 1st, Fameuse 1st, Salome 1st, Seek 1st, Windsor 2nd.

N. A. Rasmussen, Oshkosh.

Plates: McIntosh 3d, Wolf River 2nd; Single tray: Wolf River 2nd.

A. M. TenEyck, Brodhead.

Collection apples: 4th; Plates: Jonathan 2nd, McMahan 2nd, N. W. Greening 1st; 5 trays: N. W. Greening 3d.

Mrs. J. H. Cooper, West Allis.

Plates: Ben Davis 1st, Spys 2nd, Pewaukee 1st.


Wm. Toole Sr., Baraboo

Short Horn Carrots 1st, Yellow Danvers Onion 3d, Salsify 1st, Leek 1st, Collection Nuts 1st.

Walter R. Brunka, Oshkosh

Collection: 2nd, Blood Turnip Beets 1st, Chantenay Carrots 1st, Short Horn Carrots 3d, Winter Cabbage 2nd, Pop Corn 2nd, Red Onions 1st, White Onions 1st, Parsnips 1st, Hubbard Squash 2nd. Celery 1st, large onions 2nd.

Albert Gilley, Stoughton.

Red onions, 3d.

II. C. Christensen, Oshkosh.

Blood Turnip Beets 2nd, Chantenay Carrots 2nd, Chicory 1st, Celery 2nd.

Mrs. E. E. Schneider, Madison.

Short Horn Carrots 2nd, Hubbard Squash 3d, Salsify 3d.

N. A. Rassmussen, Oshkosh.

White turnips 1st, Yellow turnips 1st, Rutabagas 1st, Chantenay carrots 3d, Winter cabbage 1st, Chicory 2nd, Pop Corn 1st, Yellow Danvers onion 1st, large onions 1st, Parsnips 3d, Peppers 1st, Hubbard Squash 1st, Chinese cabbage 1st, Salsify 2nd, Collection 1st.

J. W. Roe, Oshkosh.

Red onions 2nd, Yellow Danvers onions 2nd, Parsnips 2nd.


Conducted by the Department of Economic Entomology College of Agriculture

How did you like the story on cockroaches in the December paper? From time to time there will appear in this department articles treating with the more important pests which sometime or another gain entrance into all houses. These will be written by one who has tested and understands the most up-to-date methods which are used against such pests. Read them and keep them on file as the time is sure to come when you will want to know how to control one or more of these pests. This page is your page and if we do not answer all your insect troubles, write us and we will be glad to help you out.

Sparrows—A Nuisance to Most Fanners

Never before have we received so many inquiries regarding the bets methods to rid premises of sparrows. If granaries are at all accessible, these little birds soon find entrances and very quickly become not only a nuisance but a costly liability. At this time of the year, they are easily killed with a poison and without much danger to other birds which are protected by law.

The best method we know of at present is the use of a poison consisting of strychnine. Proceed as follows:

Select a suitable feeding place inaccessible to or unfrequented by other birds or animals. Attract the English sparrows to this place by daily feeding of clean wheat or bird seed. As soon as the sparrows gather in large flocks, for feeding, substitute the poison food which is made as follows:

Place 1/8 ounce of powdered strychnine sulphate (strychnine) in 3 ounces of hot water. Add 1*2 teaspoonful of flour or starch moistened with a little cold water and heat, stirring gently until the mixture thickens. Pour the hot poisoned paste over one quart of wheat in a pail or other suitable container. Then stir or shake thoroughly until all the grains are coated with the mixture. Spread out in a safe place until the grain is thoroughly dry. It is then ready for use.

Be careful in the use of the poison grain as the killing of other certain birds is punishable by fine or imprisonment. Also keep the poison away from other animals or children as it is dangerous to all life.

Don’t forget to watch your beans for presence of the bean weevil. If the beans are in warm storage, this little pest if present will soon eat them full of holes. The beans should be put into a tight container and fumigated with carbon bisulphide. Afterwards, place the seed in a tight container and put in a cool place so that if there are any weevils not killed, they will be unable to develop. Remember carbon bisulphide is explosive, when mixed with air. Keep all sparks away. L. C. F.

Grubs in Cherries

Wormy cherries are known to almost everyone, especially where spraying is not practiced regularly. There are several species that cause the grubs in the fruit but in Wisconsin most of them are the larvae of the plum cur-culio. Now and then there is also noticed a worm in ripe cherries which does not look quite like the plum curculio grub. This other worm is a true maggot coming from a prettily marked fly while the curculio is the larva of a snout beetle.

The curculio makes a eresent shaped cut on the fruit around the point where the egg is lain under the skin. This protects it from the growing tissue. As soon as the egg hatches the grub bores into the flesh of the fruit making it unfit for food. The grub of the curculio is quite similar to the maggots of the fruit flies. The latter however are more slender, somewhat semi-transparent, and taper quite prominently at the head end. The curculio on the other hand is somewhat plumper, more opaque, not so tapering, and when at a resting position the body assumes a crescent shape somewhat like a quarter-moon.

Quite unfortunately there is very little external evidence of the presence of the fruit fly larvae in the cherries at picking time “and often the fairest-looking fruits contain maggots which the housewife may discover at canning time or in the bottom of a dish of luscious cherries left over from a previous meal.’’

Fortunately, on the other hand, the fruit flies are not very important pests of cherries in Wis-cousin, the cureulio being the main offender of this crop.

Both are checked by the same method, spraying with lead arsenate, 1V2 pounds in 50 gallons of water. This is best applied right after blossoming time and again in a week or ten days.

L. C. F.

Peas and Beans for Everybody’s Garden

Win. Longland, Lake Geneva

(At Annual Convention)

Fresh peas in June picked from your own garden are generally acknowledged by all to be one of the best of vegetables. We are all generally hungry for them. Although they are one of the easiest crops to grow, it is sometimes very hard to keep a good succession, where they want and expect fresh peas two and three times a day as long as the season lasts. I have never yet found when I could depend on three varieties to do this as a spell of real hot weather will stop growth on a later planting of a variety and practically bring them to maturity the same day with a half crop of peas.

The ground I use for peas I have fertilized and spaded in the fall tile soil thrown up as rough as possible. This allows one to get in his crop earlier in the spring, the soil drying out quicker. If the ground is dry enough the latter part of March, I put in my first erop, or as soon afterwards as possible. I cultivate the ground, break up the large lumps but do not rake it fine. I plant in a shallow trench, thrown out with a spade about 3 inches deep and loosened at the bottom with a cultivator hoe, thus the seeds are two inches deep when covered.

At this time I plant Gradus for 1st, Marvellous for 2nd, and Sutton’s Excelsior for 3rd. I do not plant again until I see the peas bursting out of the ground. Then I plant Grains, Early and Late, Senator and Dwarf Telephone. In about 7 to 10 days I plant Stratagem, Senator, Advancer and Everbearing. It depends on the weather conditions whether or not I plant again as our garden is in the woods and does not get the winds like an open garden. I do not grow the June type of pea such as Alaska, Maud S., etc., because they are only about two days earlier and have not the flavor of the wrinkled varieties or Marrowfat. All the peas are grown on chicken wire built on a trellis made of stakes driven in the ground eight feet apart with a pole fastened at the top. I use binding twine to keep them to the wire as they grow very vigorous in our rich soil. We cultivate between the rows as often as possible as they like plenty of cultivation. I change the location every year. Peas planted early will generally do well in anybody’s garden.

Beans for Everybody’s Garden

French Beans or Stringless Beans as they are generally called are I think one of our easiest vegetables to grow and keep in succession. The three best varieties that I know to be prolific and very long bearing are 1st, “Cook's Prolific,” long, stringless, round green pod; 2nd, “Sutton's Masterpiece,” stringless, long flat, green pod; 3rd, “Far-quahar's White Wax.”

The ground is prepared as for peas. I generally plant the first crop of beans the latter part of April or as soon as the weather permits. I draw a wide drill with a hoc and sow all along the row, allowing 20 to 24 inches between rows. I plant these three varieties at the same time. These start to bear as numbered. For succession I plant every ten days till September. While they are bearing I never pick them when they are wet, always picking them in the afternoon as it prevents rust. Then I always pick what is ready to pick as they will bear very much longer that way.

Sometimes in midsummer the bean hopper will do damage just as they make their first leaves by sucking all of the juices out of the leaves. I take white mosquito netting in long strips and lay it over the beans until they get larger. Then take it off and put it over the next succeeding crop, this way they are not hurt as it is in the young stage when the damage is done. Cultivate well but never in the morning when the dew is on the beans, wait till they are dry.

Lima Beans

The ground is prepared as for peas and beans. As a rule there are many complaints about lima beans rotting in the ground. Generally the reason for this is a cold wet spell just after the beans are planted. For the past 17 years I have not’ had any trouble that way. This way takes a little longer but it is sure. Chop out a hole with a hoe every foot, drop in a handful of sand, push three or four beans in the sand edgeways and cover up lightly with soil. This way they will not

rot or break their necks in coming up, which the large varieties are apt to do.

Bush Lima

I plant Bush Limas 15 inches in a row 3 feet between varieties. 1st, Henderson’s Bush Lima, 2nd, any variety you fancy. Follow with Tall Lima. 1st, Early Leav-iathan, 2nd, King of the Garden.

Pole Limas

Plant Pole Limas one foot in a row five feet between varieties. Drive poles in the ground 10 feet apart and staple a wire on the top and about one foot off the ground. Tie binding twine between the two wires at intervals of one foot. They climb this very easily. Cultivate the same as peas and beans.

Good News!

For years we have been urging farmers to do one of two things, take care of their orchards or dig them out. For a long time it appeared as if our preaching had no effect but here comes the first glad note from the Appleton Post-Crescent of .Jan. 13th, 1921.

“Outagamie county is a poor place to raise apples and try to sell them at a profit, thinks Fred Brockmann, farmer living in the town of Freedom. Mr. Brockmann had two acres of prolific apple trees but is clearing the entire tract except for a few trees near his house which he will use for shade and for a home supply of apples.

The apple crop this year was unusually heavy and there appeared to be no sale for them. Wisconsin apples do not keep all winter and most people buy the eastern product instead. Mr. Brockmann believes his land will

GILSON GARDEN TOOLS Make Your Work Easier and More Productive

No matter whether you are engaged in gardening on an extensive commercial scale or simply grow small fruits and vegetables for your own use, you will find Gilson Guaranteed Garden Tools a big help. They are built for practical gardening conditions — with features of construction ideally suiting them for the work for which each is made.

The Gilson Weeder

Makes every stroke count. The “flexible" rocker blade penetrates the soil going and coming, gets beneath the surface without any appreciable effort, cuts off weeds, chops and pulverizes and leaves the soil in perfect condition. Side fenders prevent too close approach of plants. The teeth on back of hoe may be utilized as a rake. Made in four different sizes: 3% in., $1.15 in., $1.35; 8 in., $1.45. Wheel outfit, $3.70.

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takes the grief out of gardening and makes thorough cultivation a joyous pastime. Specially designed V-shaped cutting teeth get the weeds and loosen the soil so that the plants can grow as they ought. Easily adjustable to rows up to 14 inches—middle teeth can be removed for straddling row’s, ors—5 tooth, $1.15;


The Gilson Triplex

Three tools in one—a combination of the Gilson Weeder, tooth Liberty Cultivator and a strong plow, all on one easily moved and adjusted pivot axle. Change from one tool to the other is made in a jiffy. You have a complete gardening outfit absolutely efficient for plowing, tilling and weeding. Price $8.95.

Ask your dealer for Gilson Garden Tools — if he can't supply them, order from this advertisement or send for free illustrated catalogue.

the nine


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Arsenate of Lead

It kills quick, sticks longer and has maximum suspension




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770-778 Kinnickinnic Ave.




produce greater profit if planted with something else.

The farm originally had five acres of apple 'trees, but Mr. Brockmann removed the majority several years ago. It appears when there is a big apple crop, there is no sale for the fruit, and when the crop is small, nobody has enough to sell so there always is a disadvantage in raising apples.”

Here is one farmer who would not take care of his orchard so as to produce merchantable fruit yet had sense enough to get out of the game. May his tribe increase. When these neglected farm orchards whieh produce only culls that ruin the market for decent fruit are all gone a few real apple men will have the courage to plant real orchards in Outagamie county that will produce real apples. There will be no trouble in selling them, people will wear a deep rut to the orchard to buy these good apples. He didn’t know, l.kely there was no one to tell him, that he might better have put his time on the original 5 acres of orchard and let the rest of his farm go. It 

would have paid better, assuming the orchard consisted of standard kinds.

Watch for rabbit work. Either protect the trees or get the rabbits.

The Hawks Nursery Company

are in a position to furnish high grade Nursery Stock of all kinds and varieties suitable to Wisconsin and other northern districts.

Will be glad to figure on your wants either in large or small quantities.

Wauwatosa, Wis.

Send to the U. S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C'., for Farmers’ Bulletin No. 1057 on “Planting Farmsteads.” This is a good time of year for studying it.

no 1        no 2

Flo J


Crates, Bushel Boxes and Climax Baskets

As You Like Them

We manufacture the Ewald Patent Folding Berry Boxes of wood veneer that give satisfaction. Berry box and crate material In the K. D. In carload lots our specialty. We constantly carry In stock 16 quart crates all made up ready for use, either for strawberries or blueberries. No order too small or too large for us to handle. We can ship the folding boxes and crates In K. D. from Milwaukee. Promptness Is essentia) in handling fruit, and we aim to do our part well. A large discount for early orders. A postal brings our price list.

Cumberland Fruit Package Company

Dept. D, Cumberland. Wis.

Cream City

Grass For Shady Places and Fertilizer For Shrubs

A member asks the familiar question: “What lawn grass, if any, will grow in shaded places and under large trees.’’ Prof. Aust of the Agricultural College says: “Here on the campus we find Old Shady Mixture exceedingly satisfactory for shady situations. The member also inquires about fertilizer for shrubs and Aust says:

“Pertaining to fertilizers it is difficult to give directions without knowing more of the type of soil for which it is to be used. In my experience on the campus I use sheep manure and nitrate of soda throwing this directly around the shrubs during May and June. For trees eight inches in diameter I use two pounds, putting it on at intervals of two or three weeks, one-half pound to the application, spreading this around the tree.



From Bag to Fertilizer Distributor

Think what it means to have a top-dressing fertilizer which is ready for use without pounding of hard lumps and without laborious screening—one that is fine and dry and which gives every plant a uniform

Then think of having a fertilizer which contains one-third more ammonia (one-third more active plant food) than any other nitrogenous top-dressing.

Also think of a fertilizer which doesn’t wash out of the soil—one which is ever ready to feed but which will last the season through.

To all these advantages add low price per pound of actual plant food and you have in mind The Great American Ammoniate.

Something to Think About

The recent convention proved that we have arrived at a point in our affairs where a change must be made in order to accommodate all the different interests and still confine ourselves to the limitations of time and money that can be expended on the convention.

The amateurs complained this year that so little time was available for discussion and their point was well taken. The commercial l'ruit growers entered an equally well founded protest. The small fruit men pointed out that they were entirely overlooked while one-half day would be too short a time to present the topics of


Sulphate of Ammonia

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Arcarlign is the kiln-dried and screened grade, made fine and dry for top-dressing purposes. Ammonia 25'4% guaranteed. Made in U. S. A.

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most interest to them. Market gardening received but scant recognition and the professional tlorist interests were represented by zero. On top of all this comes the nuts! We hasten to state that nut growers are meant. Nut fiends are the worst ever but their claims are all well founded and demand recognition on our program: rural planning was mentioned incidentally while an entire day could have been profitably devoted to this subject. Aside from ten or a dozen minor subjects these were the only ones missed.

On top of this is another big outstanding fact: the increased interest in the papers and discussions. There were few or no loiterers this year in the rotunda during the sessions. As soon as the meeting was announced everyone made a bee line for the hall and stuck until the last word was spoken and left disappointed that they were not given opportunity to ask questions. Such a condition is wrong and must be remedied.

It is true that the secretary, who has much to do in arranging the program, can cut down the number of topics but is this wanted? Plainly from this year's experience it is not wanted.

The overcrowding of the program this year may be accounted for in part by the fact that there was only one person absent out of the forty-one on the program while twenty per cent is the allowance usually made.

The following three plans have been offered as a solution: The organization of a commercial fruit growers society which might be auxiliary to the state society but holding a separate conven-


Our Specialty: Planting and Developing orchards for non-residents A few choice tracts for sale. If interested, write us.



tion or conventions. This, in the opinion of the editor, would be the beginning of the end of the usefulness of the state society. Our strength and influence lies in the fact that every horticultural interest in the state is united in one body. If the orchard men split off other interests are likely to follow until only a skeleton will be left. No, the place for the large orchardists is in the state society and provision must be made for them.

The second plan proposed is to adopt the one followed by medical societies and many other large societies viz., to hold sectional half-day meetings. Under this plan the forenoon is devoted to topics of general interest and attended by all; in the afternoon three or more sectional meetings in as many rooms. In one of these meetings a program for commercial fruit men, spraying pruning, orchard culture, etc.; another program for vegetable growers; another for back yard gardeners, etc., etc.

The third plan is to extend the time to four or five days and the program divided into parts as now but all in one auditorium or room.

There may be other plans equally good and the editor invites suggestion and comment. This is a matter that must be adjusted before the next convention and demands careful consideration. Send your ideas to the editor who will give them space in our magazine.

Cooperative marketing pays in more ways than one. It is cheaper and more effective in advertising products and saves the individual grower’s time.

House plants will not thrive in gas, dust or high temperatures. Good ventilation and moist air are needed both for plants and humans.

The Jewell Nursery Company

Lake City, Minn.

Established 1808

Fifty Years Continuous Service

A Complete Stock of Fruit, Shelter and Ornamental Stock i n Hardy Varieties for Northern Planters.

Agents Wanted


Devoted to The Interests of The Wisconsin State Beekeepers’ Association H. F. Wilson, Editor


Pres. L. C. Jorgensen Green Bay.

Vice-l’rcs. A. C. F. Bartz, Jim Falls.

Annual Membership Fee $1.00.

Remit to H. F. Wilson, Serretary, Madison, Wis.


Trcas. C. W. Aeppler, Oconomowoc. Secy. H. F. Wilson, Madison. marketing the 1921 honey crop. For more particulars, write this office.

Beekeepers’ Short Course

University of Wisconsin

February 7 to March 17, 1921

Do not fail to send in for a catalog of our short course for practical beekeepers. No matter how long you may have been keeping bees, there will be some new information which will more than pay for the expense of the trip.

Honey the Health Food

Every time you write a letter, tell your friends about honey.

Wisconsin State Beekeepers’ Association

There are nearly 1,000 members in the State Association at this time and we are said to have one of the best organizations of its kind in the United States. Such an organization can only thrive through the full cooperation of the beekeepers. Every member of the State Association should make an attempt to secure an additional member this year, and if you do not already belong to one of the local associations, arrange for membership at once. Why not strive to increase the membership to at least 15 00 members by the time of the next annual Convention?

Wisconsin Honey Producers’ Cooperative Association

The response of our beekeepers to the request for membership in this organization has been very gratifying and with the present showing there seems we have every reason to expect that by the time of the next annual meeting of the stockholders, we will be able to increase the capitalization to $25,000. No attempt has so far been made to place honey now held by our beekeepers’ because the market is very slow, and the price is too low. An organized plan is now under way to get in touch with every large dealer in the United States with the hope that during February and March we will be able to dispose of a part if not all of the crop now on hand. Should we be unable to do this, it will be no fault of the organization, but due rather to the fact that the buyers are not taking any more honey at this time than is absolutely necessary to run their business.

Before we can expect to do any great work along this line we must have sufficient funds to enable us to advertise. These funds can only be secured through a larger organization. If you have not already done so, be sure and send in your subscription for at least one share of stock. A number of beekeepers have already subscribed for ten shares at ten dollars a share. We will be glad to furnish you any information desired concerning the association.

National Honey Producers’ League

A meeting of the officers of the National Honey Producers’ League will be held at Indianapolis on February 15 to 17, 1921. Every beekeeper is welcome to attend the meetings and to listen to the discussion. Any beekeeper who has the time and money to attend will be well paid for the effort.

Wisconsin State Fair

At the time of the State Convention every beekeeper who exhibited at the Fair in 1920 had made application for space in 1921. At that time there was only room for eight more exhibitors. If you have not already applied for space, do so at once. Let everyone strive to make the 1921 Fair greater than ever. We now have the largest premium list of any state fair of the United States and should have by all means the largest and best exhibits.

Beekeepers’ Chautauqua and Summer Meeting of The State Beekeepers’ Association

Arrangements have been made with the Association of Commerce of Chippewa Falls to hold a meeting at Chippewa Falls from August 15th to 20th. A large park with an auditorium is available, and a camp site will be ready for those who desire to camp out. A number of prominent speakers will be present and special attention will be given to

Bees and Alsike Seed

A seven acre field of alsike. stand medium to good, threshed 39 bushels of seed, machine measure. There were fifty colonies of bees within one-quarter mile. This farmer has faith in bees to help produce a crop of alsike seed. Next year there will be another still larger field near th? first one.

Ivan Whiting, Plymouth, Wisconsin.

President’s Address

Gus Dittmer. Augusta

At this our 42nd annual convention, I am privileged to greet the beekeepers assembled here, as a State Association representing approximately 1,000 members.

A year ago, the association consisted of about 600 members, and when we stop to think that only a few years ago, it was less than 20". our growth seems phenomenal, and certainly exceeds the record of an\ other state.

This phenomenal growth is of course largely due to the organizing of about 35 County and Local Associations, of whom over 30 are associated with the State Association. This work is of course largely due. directly and indirectly to the extension work of the University and the Department of Agriculture, and will be persisted in, until every county is organized. Especial credit should be given to our Secretary, Prof. Wilson, who with the consent of Dean Russell. and the aid of the Agriculurrd College, has been untiring and persistent in his work for Wisconsin Beekeeping.

Our work at the Agricultural College, has now reached the point, where the necessity for more room and better facilities are in absolute demand, and the University will no doubt provide for this need at th* earliest possible moment. Sufficient provision should be made in the nex: budget, to meet this necessity of the beekeeping section of the College, with the view to place it eventually on a par with Dairy and other departments. I was much impressed on meeting at the Chautauqua last Augv.st. a young Chinaman from Peking, and found that he was taking the Beekeeping course at the Agricultural College. This shows the importance to which Wisconsin Beekeeping has attained, and the necessity of the state to spend some money on it.

That the beekeepers comprising this association, have awakened to the importance of Wisconsin Beekeeping, is evidenced by the fact, that at a time, when the membership was about 700, they by an almost unanimous vote, raised the annual dues from 50c to $1.00.

If the members almost unanimously voted to raise the dues to $1.00, it must have been with a definite object, realizing the importance of strong organization, and trusting to the action of this convention to do something effective.

Something has already been done in the way of bringing WISCONSIN HORTICULTURE with four pages exclusively for beekeepers, to each of us every month. This however after paying for it and our ordinary expenses, will still leave us a margin, which should be used for other vital purposes.

We certainly can have no object in accumulating money in our treasury, and keep it there, as we are not an insurance or indemnity society.

What the members have a right to expect, is substantial benefit in the matter of buying supplies, and easy facilities to dispose of their honey without glutting the market, at a reasonably fair and uniform price, so far as it is possible for this Association to do anything in the matter.

Initial steps should at once be taken, to take this matter under advisement. and a committee appointed to consider it, and report at this session. I recommend that the matter be referred to the board of directors to consider and make recommendations.

In the past I have often been asked the question, what is the benefit to me, in being a member of the State Association? and I must confess that I was never able to give a satisfactory answer. When we were few in number, it seemed more like a social club, where beekeeping was th(* favorite subject for talk and discussion, for mutual information and benefit. It certainly W’as a great benefit to me and helped me to acquire what little I know about beekeeping. Going to the conventions year after year was of course expensive, and as all the members did not attend, they lost such benefits as I received, consequently the questionable benefit to them.

Now he receives all these and many other benefits, through the medium of WISCONSIN HORTICULTURE, which is worth more than the annual dues he pays- This however is only a beginning, and we must keep right on to increase the membership in the association and making it in-dispensible to every beekeeper of any consequence in the state.

Some plan of disposing of our honey by co-operation, assuring us of ready sale, where now many beekeepers dispose of their honey at ruinous prices, just because they don’t know how or where to sell, and receive uniform prices, should be possible, and is certainly worth considering while we are all assembled, even if we have to drop part of our regular program.

I now wish to speak about the Bee & Honey Department at the last State Fair. Our deparment was a perfect success the last time. Every foot of space was not only occupied but crowded. If more exhibits had entered, we would have been overcrowded, and dissatisfaction would have resulted.

$865.00 was awarded as against $2 70.00 last year, or more than three and one-half times as much. The number of exhibits we had proved to be just about right for the room at our disposal, approximately 3,500 feet.

For the number of exhibits we expected, we had figured to limit space to about 8 feet for each, but as we were disappointed by several, not less than 12 feet was given, and the exhibitors could have used more. It is therefor evident, that what seemed a disappoinment, proved to be for-unate.

If we remain in the old building, changes will be made, so that about eight more exhibits can be accommodated, or a total of about twenty, as against twelve last time, and each exhibit limited to twelve feet.

As all of last year exhibitors are coming back, they will of course have the first preference, and the eight additional for making it twenty, will have the preference in the order of their entries or applications.

There is however a probability of our being moved to a larger building. This however is subject to the action of the Legislature, making appropriation for a new dairy building and other buildings.

If such a change is brought about, there will be no limit to the number of exhibits, or the space required by each.

I am extremely anxious that such a change will result, and am confident that we will be able to make a proper showing in a larger building, in fact I know that we can put up the most attractive show on the grounds.

The premium list has been again revised, to conform to the growing needs of this department.

Especial attention has been given to Class 124, or County Association exhibits.

Class 122 covers individual large exhibits in numbers 1 to 5, and offers $283.00 awards.

Class 123 covers individual entries in charge of the Superintendent, numbers 6 to 39 and offers $762.00 awards.

Class 124 covers County association exhibits, in numbers 40 to 52, and offers $1,200.00 awards.

Class 124 does not offer direct premiums, but awards will be made according to the score, on the basis of $75.00 for each exhibit. If ten County exhibits qualify, $750.00 will be divided pro rata, but no one association to draw more than $125.00. In the scoring, mileage will be considered to the maximum of 250 miles or 500 points.

The State Fair wished to make County exhibits the special feature of this department, and for this reason is making offers specially attractive as an inducement.

Our first attempt at County exhibits was a perfect success, as every one of them placed large and well arranged exhibits, that made all of the old veteran exhibitors stand up and take notice, so much so, that next year, there will be a healthy and fraternal competition, as all of them will return, each with the object of placing the largest and most attractive exhibit.

The County Associations that participated are, Baraboo Valley, Dane county, Grant county and Marathon county.

iSix other County Associations had decided to participate and had engaged space, but either failed to appear or flatly backed out.

Among the visitors were members from ten different associations, that wore not represented with an exhibit. Every one of them were impressed with the exhibits, and we will have no trouble ■whatever to got the additional eight exhibits for the next State Fair.

Considering the importance to which the Bee and Honey Department has attained, thanks to the cooperation of all the exhibitors at the last fair, it would seem not only advisable. but the proper and right thing to do for this association, to at once make the State Fair a part of our regular business, by creating a standing committee on Bee and Honey Exhibit at the State Fair. Especially is this advisable in view of the probability of our being moved to larger quarters.

There are several things that might be considered for a start. First of all, headquarters for the association, with the Secretary or an assistant on duty all the wed’. In connection with this, a Rest Room for beekeepers and their families. An exhibit should aiso be planned by the association, as a strictly State Association Exhibit, in charge of a competent beekeeper, and at the expense of the association.

It would be a good idea to have a lady for this purpose, to distribute suitab’e literature and give lectures or talks on the use of honey or any’ other subject of interest to the general public.

I hope hat I have not wearied you by my constant talk about the Hee & Honey Department, but I am profoundly’ interested in its success.

I have as I believe, the support and backing of the State Fair management. at any rate, they have given me all I have asked for, without stint or question. There is just one more thing I ask, and that is, the wholehearted support and co-operation ol the State Beekeepers’ Association, and in time we will have practically every’ County Association lined up. and when that time comes, we will have the largest exhibit at the State Fair.

Objects and Benefits of the American Honey (Producers* League

The basic idea of the League is an organization of representatives of associations of beekeepers and honey producers. These associations primarily’ are the members of the League, but act through their representatives. Others as individuals may and are desired to join, and these also get the benefits and services of the League, but have no vote at the meetings, although they' may join in discussions.

The object of the League is “The Furtherance and protection of the interests, activities and rights of beekeepers in all lines in any manner not inconsistent with public policy’.”

In carrying out this clause of the constitution it is proposed to give “Service,” the present day slogan. This service is to be given to the individual beekeeper. along certain lines already’ decided upon, and others as they may appear from time to time.

Among these may be mentioned:

It is contemplated to keep the members regularly informed as to prices and supplies of honey’ at the principal marketing centers. In this way if one market has all it can reasonably handle and another is short of honey, shipments may’ be made or delivered to the latter, relieving the shortage, and preventing flooding of the first. This service can be made of very great benefit to the producer.

The League could also inform the members of crop conditions and prices more effectively’ than the Government is now doing and thus assist the producer in arriving at a just price for his product.

We have no authoritative standard of races and strains of bees, and one is needed.

As for equipment, the supply’ manufacturers and dealers have to carry a much larger stock, at present, than should be necessary. As some of them do not carry a very large stock the beekeeper is apt to order some equipment that cannot be secured except from the factory at extra freight cost and long delay. For instance, in the past it was impossible to get foundation locally’ other than for

This would assist in protection against unjust laws and regulations. There should also be made an effort to make more uniform laws retatir... to diseases, and inspection and shipment of bees, queens, honey, etc.

Assist in getting liberal appropriations for national and state experiments and solving of beekeepers problems, such as Dr. Phillips ar.<Mr. Demuth have been conducting ir> Washington, and others in sta’-colleges, etc.

The above are only a few of ’! • man.v real benefits that can and w.i be secured by the American Hon-:’ Producers’ League, if (that litr •• word) the beekeepers will get behir*! it by forming State associations a: ■: having such associations affiliate wi* the League. Let each one do his part. Dou’t sit back and “let Georg do it” thinking you will get the ben*--fit anyhow. No one will get a-benefit if everybody sits back.

W. E. Joor.

Disposal of Honey and Brood Front

Diseased Colonies

top of above brood is “hospita i the brood

four or five colonies on slightly' diseased colonyqueen excluder until the hatched out. Then the colonies” are treated and

If only one. two, or three. colom-> in a yard are found diseased, it > better to destroy the brood at on< • by burning in a closed space of son:-kind. If a whole yard is to be treked so called "hospital colonies” nun be made by stocking the combs iron: combs from them melted down Oldest roved.

Hospital colonies kept around yard are extremely dangerous and are likely to be a continual source of reinfection no matter how carefully they may be looked after.

Honey from such colonies should be extracted and bottled as soon as taken from the hive. All combs, including those with brood from tin-lower hive body' of each colony should be melted down and the wax extracted at once.

Hospital colonies should not be allowed to run longer than 21 days before treatment. The bees should be removed from the upper stories by means of a l»ee escape and the hive bodies removed and carried into the storeroom before treating the bottom part.

Hospital colonies should be set at some distance from the main yard and all liivc bodies must be bee tight except for the entrance.

Annual Report of the Treasurer of the Wisconsin State Beekeepers’ Association from December 4, 1919 to December 2, 1920

Received from A. C. Allen for

expenses ................ $37.78

Balance due Secretary......  41.89



Financial Report of tlic Secretary for 1920

Postage ................... $36.07

1 Record Book

Envelopes and Cards


Wis. Hort. Acct

Telephone Calls


(Extra) Clerical Work


(Extra) Clerical Work


Received ................... 37.78

Balance Due ........ $41.89

Paid up Members

Unpaid Members


No. of Members last year

Increase of

No. of Affiliated Assns

Members paid for 1921


They do me wrong who say I come no more

When once I knock and fail to find you in;

For, every day I stand outside your door,

And bid you wake and rise to fight and win.

Wail not for precious chances passed away,

Weep not for golden ages on the wane;

Each night I burn the records of the day,

At sunrise every soul is born again.

Laugh like a boy at splendors that have sped,

To vanished joys be blind and deaf and dumb;

My judgments seal the dead past with its dead.

But never bind a moment yet to come.

Though deep in mire, wring not your hands and weep,

I lend my arm to all who say, “I can.”

No shamefaced outcast ever sank so deep

But he might rise and be again a man.



To balance on hand ..........................


1 >ec.


By the Print Shop, Erwin H. Koch, Mgr.

200 badges, $15.00; 250 programs, $10.00....




By Mrs. M. Hildreth, Asst. Secretary, for work

1919   ...................................





To H. F. Wilson

256 members at $.50 each..........$128.00

3 members at $1.00 each.......... 3.00

3 Assns. affiliated, $5.00.......... 15.00



2 3

By Wisconsin Hort’l. Soc., 294 memberships in

same which include a subscription to Wisconsin Horticulture for each member..............



2 3

By H. F. Wilson for Sec. expense fund ........



2 3

By A. L. Kleeber for expenses attending meeting

of marketing board to establish honey grades




By Asst. Sec. Mrs. M. Hildreth, salary for Janu-

ary and February.........................




Bv N. E. France for expenses attending meeting

of marketing board to establish honey grades


Ma r.


By Democrat Printing Company for printing 1500



2 3

By Asst. Secretary salary, March and April......




By H. F. Wilson, Sec. expense fund............





Bv A«st See sui.larv for Mav..................



By Asst. Sec. salary for June..................



o o

By Democrat Printing Company

500 stickers.. $4.25

2000 receipts.. 12.75

Disc. 1% ten days on the latter.............



2 2

To H. F. Wilson


182 members at 50c, each ..........$91.00

4 aff. Association $5.00............ 20.00




By Asst. Sec. salary July .....................




By three negatives of state fair Honey Ex-

hibit, $2.50 .........................$7.50




By Asst. Sec. salary August and September. . . .



o o

To H. F. Wilson

191 members at 50c .............. $95.50

120 members at 1.00 .............. 120.00

1 mpnihor at 1 50  .............. 1.50

1 member at 2.00 .............. 2.00

Aosn Affil        5 00 .............. 5.00




By H. F. Wilson, Sec. Exp.....................






Received dues from

62 9 members at 50c each ......................

........... $314.50

137 members at $1 each .......................

........... 137.00

1 member at $1.50 each .....................

........... 1.50

1 member at $2 each ........................

........... 2.00

r A ct«u)ria tinns affi'inted at S5 each ...........

........... 40.00


Paid to A. C. Allen, Treasurer

February 20 ...................................

........... $14-6.00

July 13 .......................................

........... 125.00

November 27 ..................................

........... 224.00



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Plan now for the Orchard

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Fort Atkinson, 'Wis.


Should send for our booklet on the new MODIFIED DADANT HIVE. The hive with a brood chamber sufficient for prolific queens. OUR CATALOG IS FREE.


Hamilton, Illinois