Volume XI

Madison, Wisconsin, November, 1920

Number 3


Let us be thankful—not only because Since last our universal thanks were told

We have grown greater in the world’s applause.

And fortune’s newer smiles surpass the old—

But thankful for all things that come as alms From out the open hand of Providence:—

The winter clouds and storms—the summer calms— The sleepless dread—the drowse of indolence.

Let us be thankful—thankful for the prayers Whose gracious answers were long, long delayed,

That they might fall on us unawares.

And bless us, as in greater need, we played.

—James Whitcomb Riley

It’s Still Fair Weather

Oak Holler, Wis.

My Dear Friends: I’m wondering if this Editor man thinks I’m going to stand on this platform with my toes on a chalk line until I finish telling you what I thought about, saw and learned at the State Fair. Well I’m afraid I'll be dreadful tired if that’s the case. (Hope you folks wont go to sleep while I’m talking) for this spell has been coming on for some time and I’ve just got to get it out of my system. I’ve been told if you keep such things to yourself it settles into a disease called “Chronic grouch,” and if there’s one thing I don’t want to get it’s that. So perhaps if I “toe the mark” a spell I’ll feel better even if you don’t. Do you know I think some of this old fashioned, toe the mark", be on time, stuff we heard about in our grandfather’s days would help this State Fair as much as any one thing could. Wouldn’t the folks who come to the Fair on Monday be pleased if every exhibit was in place at nine or ten o’clock when the Fair officially opened? Am sure the children as well as the older people would be pleased to see that row of empty tables on either side of our building filled with flowers. Do you know I almost fear that Grouch is getting hold of me when I think of our inviting the children of the state to come to the fair, this is to be their day, and it’s just about half ready. You might as well tell them they don’t amount to much we’re saving the nice pretty things for the other folks. Just like some women keep house, save all the nice things for company, never mind the children they don’t notice any thing. If any of you people think I’m exaggerating you just stop and think. Got a pretty good memory haven’t you if you’re honest with yourself? Now tell me somebody please why, oh why do we invite those children there, just to let them wander aimlessly around the grounds and thru the buildings. When I see them I feel a good deal like my neighbor’s small son who called to his brother, “wake up, wake up, don’t you know this is my day,—my birthday?’’ If Monday is their day, suppose we wake up to the fact that children aren’t much different than you and I. If we work and help make any thing a success we are happy. I know, I helped even as a child when we went to the good old county fair. My stern old grandmother believed in children helping. The lessons learned then have never been forgotten.

I would like to see that grandstand filled with children, singing as only happy girls and boys can sing our national songs, for at least three quarters of an hour morning and afternoon. I would like to see them take part in a Pageant representing the history of Wisconsin. Get them in the habit of thinking this is their fair. Did you ever stop to think what it would mean to the fair in the coming years? Why do you enjoy the fair? This is why I enjoy it, I am interested in the exhibits, have never lost my interest—I like to watch the people, their expressions, the stray bits of conversations, the meeting of friends. Ah, that is one of the great things; from far and near they come in their automobiles, a happy, friendly crowd. Once a year we greet each other. Now think of the children meeting here year after year singing the songs, seeing the visions of the past and future arise before them. Will there not be a greater get-together feeling than is possible with us older people. It’s a power not to be lightly spoken of. You know what was said about training a child in the way he should go. Aren't some of us forgetting that? The days and years speed by—the children of today are the men and women of tomorrow, they are missing, we are missing so much that would help us all. Now don't think I'm forgetting the many things the state fair board has already done for the boys and girls. It’s this Day—the great Day of the party. Why it should be the biggest day of state fair week. You see it makes me mad because I’m only about seven on that day, and I 'in missing all the fun in this party. Why who ever heard of a party without any eats or games or anything? I don’t care if there are any eats or not because there are ice cream sandwiches a plenty, but I want to wear my best clothes and play games and show how well I can sing, just as well as the other children. And as they are more bashful than I am I'm just going to stand round and pester folks until they do something so I 'll keep still: Spanking has gone out of style nowadays, I’m not scared one bit. But I’m not going to give this Editor man any chance to say when he gets this handed to him, “Say, do you think I meant the whole magazine? I said a page.’’ Beautiful weather.

Yours truly,


“When the frost is on the punkin and the fodder’s in the shock.”

Annual Meeting American Pomological Society

The next annual meeting of the /American Pomological Society will be held December 1-3 in Columbus, Ohio. This convention, will be one of the utmost importance in the development and future of the organization, and every effort is being expended to make it a complete success.

A program of widespread interest and far-reaching effect is being arranged. Large displays of fruits and nuts have been promised. Delegations are expected from many of the states and from Canada. Everything now points to a big and profitable meeting.


The meeting and exhibits will be held at the Ohio State Fairgrounds. which is one of the finest in the country. There will be more than ample space for everything. One building, 200 feet by 100 feet has been reserved for the fruit displays. This building has an auditorium attached. Another building connected and of the same size will be used for exhibits of commercial materials, used by fruit growers.

Ohio State Apple Show

The Ohio State Horticultural Society will stage the State Apple Show in conjunction with the American Pomological Society meeting. There will be a premium list of $2850.00 for this feature. As the money is authorized by the state, it is not possible to allow competition from outside of Ohio. The success of previous shows promises that this one will be r 1 ig attraction to the visitors a hl public. It will also serve to ‘••inish excellent advertising ma-ferial for the American Pomological Society meeting.

Other Exhibits

Efforts are being made to have other states send exhibits of their pomological crops. Quite a number are already premised. Ample space, either on tables or racks will be furnished, and every assistance given that is possible, to exhibitors from other states. While no money prizes are available the American Pomological Society will offer “Awards of Merit*’ to successful competitors. In addition, there is the possibility of winning the Wilder Medal, a much coveted honor.

Assistance to Exhibitors

The Exhibit Hall will be open for work any time after November 23rd. This will allow a full week in which to put up the fruit. There will be a number of men present during that time who will give their services in packing and arranging exhibits. Fruit may be sent even by those who cannot come themselves and it will be taken care of.


There will be a sales booth operated for retail trade during the entire show. Friday evening and Saturday all day will be available for selling the fruit which has been on exhibit.


Exhibits may be shipped to Columbus either just before the meeting or earlier. If sent immediately before, mark it with your own name, care of the Ohio State Apple show, State Fairgrounds. Columbus, Ohio.

If storage space is desired, ship prepaid to R. B. Cruickshank. c o lumbus, Ohio. Also send notice by mail to the National lee and Storage Co.

National he and Storage Co., Ct>-

Student Judging Contest

One interesting feature of the meeting will be an intercollegiate students* judging contest. Each institution will be represented by a team of three men. A cup will be awarded to the winning team, and first and second individual winners will be given prizes. Professor F. G. Charles, The Ohio State University, is in charge of arrangements.

Commercial Exhibits

As this meeting will have representation from almost every fruit producing state and from the provinces in Canada, it offers a splendid opportunity to manufacturers and distributors of materials and implements used by fruit growers to display samples of their output. The attendance is expected to be between 5 000 and 2000. A large building, connected with the Show Hall is available and will afford every convenience for exhibitors. Those interested should get in toueh with R. B. Cruickshank, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio.


Columbus is well supplied with hotels, but as is the case in nearly all cities just now, it will be absolutely necessary for visitors to make reservations well in advance of the meeting. This must not be neglected.

The Hotel Deshler will be headquarters for the Society. Other hotels are the New Southern.

Chittenden. Neil and Hartman.

For further information address,

R. B. Cruickshank,

Ohio State University,

Columbus, Ohio.

A Code for Motorists

Some of these days we are evidently going to have a code for motorists. It won’t be a set of laws somebody frames for them. It will be a list of reminders of their own framing and will mention things thoughtful men and women will not do because they do care about their neighbors.

The state botanist of New York calls attention to the increasing disappearance of the wild flowers because thoughtless motorists invade the woods along the highways and tear down and uproot. It is an unhappy thought that for the pleasure of an hour or a day, the bright beauties which have returned to us season after season and made the outdoor world beautiful should be destroyed. The weeds and burrs are ready enough to take their places. And they will not be plucked. But the bloom of spring and summer and the bright berries of autumn are a nation’s resource.

And this is chiefly the work of thoughtlessness. “What harm can the few flowers I take do where there are so many ? ’ ’ Would not this be the answer of most of the ravish era? Let them multiply the destruction by the number of cars which journey over any good road in these days. If they think of this, will not the laurel and the arbutus, the dogwood, the wild roses and all the rest be spared?—Milwaukee Journal.

Some Cucumber Diseases Make Rotation Advisable

Certain diseases that affect cucumbers live over from one year to the next in the soil, investigation by the United States Department of Agriculture shows. A transfer to new soil each year in addition to seed treatment and spraying of the vines is found advisable to effect their control.

The ornamental wild cucumber vine is a factor in over-wintering and spreading cucumber mosaic or ‘ ‘ White pickle, ’ 'one of the most serious diseases. Mosaic cucumber fruits are often deformed, mottled with green and yellow and have numerous large dark green warts. The leaves turn yellow and die, leaving stretches of white stalks.

The disease does not live in the soil, but is believed to be caused by a virus which lives over winter in the wild cucumber seed and is spread by striped beetles. The cucumber beetles feed first on the diseased wild plants in the spring and then fly to the cucumber fields. The eradication of the wild cucumber is therefore recommended.

Downey mildew is prevalent in the Eastern, Southern, and to some extent in the North Central States, Avest to Illinois. It is caused by a fungous parasite, and can be checked by timely and thorough spraying with 4-4-50 Bordeaux mixture.

Angular leaf spot or leaf blight is caused by a bacterial parasite and is carried by the seed. It can be combated best by treating the seed in a 1-1,000 corrosive sublimate solution, washing them in running water afterwards and drying immediately. Directions will be sent on application to the department. The disease may live over in the soil to a slight extent, making rotation advisable.

Cucumber anthracnose, recognized by brown dead spots on the leaves and sunken areas on the stems and fruits is a fungous disease, which lives over winter in the soil and probably on the seed. Seed treatment and rotation arc recommended.

Cucumber scab is another fungous disease, known also as spot rot and pickle spot, which occurs mainly in the northern cucumbergrowing sections. Stems and leaves are attacked but it is most noticeable on the fruit. The disease lives over in the soil, and crop rotation is recommended.

. Bacterial wilt is caused by bacteria which live in and clog the water-carrying vessels of the plants and causes them to die. The disease is carried over winter and spread chiefly by striped cucumber beetles. It may be somewhat checked by pulling and burning or burying all wilted plants as soon as they appear and by spraying with 4-4-50 Bordeaux mixture and arsenate of lead (four pounds), the spray acting as a repellant and poison to the beetles.

Grapes and raspberries are best protected over w-inter by covering with dirt. Lay the plants as near the ground as possible. Put the dirt on just before the ground freezes.

Gladioli, dahlias, cosmos and other tender bulbs should be lifted before the ground freezes and stored in the house basement where they will not freeze. They should not get too dry or be kept moist.

Plant tulips about four inches deep and mulch with straw or strawy manure when the ground begins to freeze.

Why and When Winter Kills Grapes

(From Bulletin No. 433, Agr. Exp. Station, Geneva, N. Y.)

The winter killing of fruits is an evil for which a remedy would be heartily welcomed; but effective control of winter’s rigors or prevention of their dire consequences has seemed to many investigators so “impossible” as hardly to be worth study. Recent experiments with Vinifera grapes at the Station have shown, however, that winter injury, one of the great obstacles to success with these grapes in early attempts to grow them, can be easily controlled. Can like effective, practicable methods of preventing the occasional disastrous freezing of fruit buds or fruiting canes of American grapes be developed? As experience has often shown, the best “striving” for a remedy for any evil is a thoro investigation of the conditions under which it develops and of the causes which produce it. The occurrence of three years o? marked shortage of crops in the “Grape Belt,” due to winter injury, has given opportunity for such study of the factors influencing winter killing.

The grape crop of 1910 in the section about Fredonia, particularly in the Station vineyard there, showed that more than half of the fruit buds w’ere killed during the previous winter; again in 1913, the yield dropped to about half what it was in 1912 or 1914; and in 1916 the tonnage was the lowest known for many years.

While each of these low-yield crops was preceded by notably cold weather during the preceding winter, it was not low temperatures alone that determined the injury, nor was the extent of injury in the three seasons measured by the fall of the mercury. The half crop of 1910 followed a winter when the lowest reading of the thermometer was —10° (in February); yet the crop of 1912 was practically uninjured by the winter altho the mercury dropped to —19° on February 10th of that year. Similarly, the crops of 1914, preceded by a thermometer reading of —15° in February, was twice as large as that of 1913, when the lowest temperature recorded for the winter was only 0° or slightly below. The abnormally low temperature of —16° in mid-March of 1916 would undoubtedly have caused a poor crop in the fall of that year, but other factors were necessary to bring the yield down to one-third of what the vineyard had produced.

Undoubtedly the most important factor in winter injury to grapes is immaturity of tissues in the fall. Preceding the severe injury in the winter of 1909-10 was a marked shortening of the season of growth, so that fruiting wood and buds went into the dormant condition soft and moist. On October 12 and 13, toward the close of the harvest of 1909 and while many grapes were still on the vines, a freeze stopped growth so that the tissues had no further opportunity to ripen and harden. Of course, the drop to 27° at this time did not actually kill buds or wood on which the next season’s crop depended; but their immaturity allowed them to succumb easily at one or more of three critical times during the winter. These were a long-continued period of cold weather in December with 5° as a minimum, a sudden drop to —10° in late February, and a freeze in late April (27°) following an abnormally warm period when buds probably started growth.

In 1912 very heavy rainfall in September with temperatures far above the normal promoted succulent growth and again led to immature wood and improperly ripened buds. In pruning during this fall it was impossible to find enough well-matured canes on two-year wood to provide for a full setting of fruit, and it was necessary to use some canes coming from older wood. Only three-fourths as much wood was pruned away this fall as in the previous year, owing to the light weight of the withered, immature canes, yet fewer buds were left for fruiting than in that year. Altho no remarkably low temperatures were recorded for the winter of 1912-13 the poorly-matured canes and buds again suffered, so that the crop was only a little larger than that of 1910.

In the late summer of 1915 low temperatures and cloudy weather made growth of fruit and wood slow; and again a warm, rainy September and a cool, dark October left wood soft and succulent, so that it was in no condition to resist the low temperatures of February (—13°) and March (—16°) that followed.

Frequently light crops follow heavy ones in vineyards, the common assumption being that the heavy crop exhausts the vine’s supply of food, which it must have an “off year” to replenish. This is undoubtedly true to some extent, but winter killing of part of the buds also centers here as a factor. The energies of the vine are probably devoted mainly to ripening the fruit as long as this remains immature on the plant, leaving the final maturing of buds and canes to the comparatively short period which comes between the grape harvest and stoppage of growth by cold. With a large crop, too little strength remains in the vine to mature the buds properly, and many of them are killed or changed in character by winter without general death of the canes.

The bud of the grape is compound, consisting frequently of three buds enclosed within the same bud scales: The first, or primary, to produce fruit; a secondary which ordinarily produces wTood only, but may sometimes bear fruit; and a tertiary, which ordinarily remains undeveloped, but expands as a shoot in case the others are destroyed. The unnoticed winter killing may cause the primary bud to fail, when the secondary, or even the tertiary bud, puts forth a shoot; and the owner of the vineyard thinks the’ vine did not produce a fruit bud at all, because of food exhaustion. Many instances of this character have been observed in the studies at Fredonia; and, on the contrary, it has also been noted that two full crops may succeed each other, like those of 1911 and 1912, when winter killing did not harm the second crop because conditions allowed proper maturity of both fruit and wood in 1911.

The winter killing of the season of 1915-16 showed that varieties differ greatly in their resistance to winter injury. The destruction of buds in the Station vineyard at Fredonia varied from 10 per cent to 100 per cent, or complete killing. This vineyard contained about 150 varieties or representatives of species; and of these twenty lost more than 80 per cent of their buds, and fifteen of them lost less than 20 per eent.

These varietal differences indicate, to some extent, that hardiness to winter injury is a species characteristic, though species are so thoroughly intermingled in many varieties that very definite conclusions are not warranted. Labrusca influence definitely lessens the tendency to such harm; while varieties with Vinifera blood, in any combination, usually show a high percentage of winter injury. Aestivalis varieties appear slightly less affected, and Riparia still less but more than the relatively hardy Labrusca crosses.

This specific difference in groups of varieties may be associated with greater or less hardness of wood, since grapes are known to differ considerably in this respect, but studies have not been carried far enough to establish this correlation.

In nearly all the cases studied, immaturity of wood and buds for the season was indicated by immaturity of the fruit, as shown by high acidity and low content of solids, especially sugar.

This index cannot be taken as infallible, however, since many other factors than maturity of wood and bud may influence the degree of winter killing. Most perfect maturity may be followed by winter injury, if warm and cold periods alternate too violently or too frequently; but such maturity undoubtedly serves as a protection in ordinary winter weather.

Since immaturity predisposes to winter injury, those factors which tend to produce slow growth or to prolong unduly the season of growth are “accessories before the fact’’ of winter killing. Among the factors found to exert such an influence, improper drainage was perhaps most injurious. In some instances, severe pruning after damage by late frosts in the spring induced rank growth of wood, which did not properly mature and therefore suffered during the following winter.

Excellent opportunity was given to test the effect of fertilizer elements on maturity, since the Station vineyard contains duplicate plats fertilized with these elements alone and in combination with each other and with lime. None of the elements—nitrogen, phosphorus and potash— influenced maturity; so none of them can be considered as having any relation to winter injury of grapes.

Winter injury in very unfavorable seasons cannot be prevented, of course; but the evidence indicates that something can be done to lessen the amount of damage in such years and to reduce it to a minimum in other years.

First, vineyards should not be located on land that cannot be readily drained; and drainage systems should be installed or improved, where possible, in vineyards already established.

Second, the time of discontinuance of vineyard cultivation in mid-summer or later should be governed by the weather, allowing cover crops or weeds to grow longer if soil is full of moisture, so that the transpiration of these plants may lessen water in soil and check undue luxuriance of the grape vines. Wide-leaved cover-crops, or green-manuring crops, like rape and cowhorn turnips, may shade the ground so much, however, that the check of evaporation from the soil surface is more detrimental than the transpiration from the plants is helpful. Thin seeding is the remedy where such conditions are anticipated.

Narrow-leaved plants like the grains, or sparse-foliaged crops like buckwheat, exert comparatively little shading effect.

Slowly available forms of nitrogen, such as raw bone, leather scrap, hair, etc., should be avoided unless used very early, so that their stimulus to growth may not come so late that the wood is left immature.


Crates, Bushel Boxes and Climax Baskets

As You Like Them

We manufacture the Ewald Patent Folding Berry Boxes of wood veneer that give satisfaction. Berry box and erate material in the E. D. In earload lota our specialty. We constantly carry In stock 16 quart crates all made up ready for use, either for atrawberries or blueberries. No order too small or too large for us to handle. We can ship the folding boxes and crates In K. D. from Milwaukee. Promptness Is essential In handling fruit, and we alm to do our part well. A large discount for early orders. A postal brings our price list.

Comberland Emit Package Company

Dept. D, Cumberland, Wis.

Wisconsin horticulture

Published Monthly by the Wisconsin State Horticultural Society 12 N. Oarroll St Official organ of the Society. tions received before Dec. 1st can be incorporated in the program.

Write the Secretary.

I Shall Pass This Way But Once

FREDERIC CRANEFIELD. Editor. Secretary W. S. H. S., Madison, Wla.

Enter d at the postoffice at Madison, Wisconsin, as s cond class matter. Acceptance for mailing at special rate of postage provided for in Section 1103, Act of Oct. 3, 1917, authorlz d July 15, 1918.

Advertising rates mude known on application.

Wisconsin State Horticultural Society

Annual membership fee, one dollar, which Includes fifty cents, subscription price to Wisconsin Horticulture. Send one dollar to Frederic Cranefield, Editor, Madison, Wis.

Remit by Postal or Express Money Order. A dollar bill may be sent safely if wrapped or attached to a card. Personal checks accepted.

Postage stamps not accepted.


J. A. Hays..............................President

F. Crunetleld, Secretary-Treasurer......Madison


J. A. Hays..............................Ex-Officio

F. Cranefleld ...........................Ex-Officio

1st Dist., Win. Longland..........Lake Geneva

2nd Dist., R. J. Coe................Ft. Atkinson

3rd Dist., E. J. Frautschi..............Madison

4th Diet., A. Leidiger ................Milwaukee

Sth Dlst., Jas. Livingstone .........Milwaukee

6th Dist., H. C. Christensen...........Oshkosh

7th Dist., Wm. Toole, Sr...............Baraboo

8th Dist., J. E. Leverlch.................Sparta

•th Dlst., L. E. Birmingham.....Sturgeon Bay

10th Diet., Paul E. Grant............Menomonie

11th Diet., Irving Smith ................Ashland


J. A. Hays, President................Gays Mills

The Program; It’s Up to You

Suggestions for the convention program are in order but must be in soon. There are certain leading topics concerning commercial fruit grooving that are always on the program and must always be there. Each year’s advance in spraying, cultivation, etc., must be discussed and the secretary is never in doubt about these topics. After al! these topics comprise about one-third of the program, the balance being devoted to amateur gardening, floriculture and home adornment and it is this part that puzzles the one who prepares the program. What do you want? You tell. Sugges to New Hampshire

George F. Potter of the horticultural department has been appointed professor of Horticulture at the New Hampshire College succeeding Prof. Gourley. The college is located at Durham. Prof. Potter is a very worthy young man, “self made” as the writer can testify but he always refrained from boasting of it.

He went thru college on a hoe. a bicycle and his nerve; hoed strawberries, potatoes and other truck during vacation and performed wonders in way of riding a bicycle 365 days in the year to and from a farm not by any means nearby. That he will meet with success in his new position no one who knows him will doubt. We shall miss Potter and the bicycle. Wonder if he took it along?

Annual Convention and Fruit Show State Horticultural Society, State Capitol

Tues., Wed., and Thurs., Jan. 11th, 12th, and 13th, 1921

Winter is Coming

In spite of the beautiful autumn we surely will have winter by and by and all good gardeners will prepare for it. We live in a rather rigorous climate and “hardiness” of plant or tree must always be considered. In Continued on page 4 9

I made no mistake when I asked leave to travel with you, to be your disciple. You whose lives are spent somewhat aside from paved streets, glaring lights and the turmoil of the city have a clear perception of life and the duty each owes to his fellow man. You are making my way easier. One who signs “Irving” known no doubt in your councils says:

It is hard for one to tell another just what he should do. If it were me I should wi<h to be a help to those whom I might meet or see by the way, cheer the timid, say a kind word to the young man or woman who is just entering the field of labor; pet the little child and aid with careful thoughtfulness the aged.”—Zrr-diy.

That lays a burden on pilgrims but one that may be lightly borne for,—

“Apt words have power to ’suage the tumults of a troubled mind

And are as balm to fester'd wounds. ’ ’

Then there is another who dwells among flowers and knows the language they speak :

“A common sense application of the Golden Rule, a hobby and just enough of hard work all tend to make our passage thru liftworth. while.”—W. A. T.

That hint about a little hard while. I shall Then his wife words: “Read

work is worth ponder on that, adds just two Polly ana.”

An excellent suggestion. Are there not other good books or verses I should read? Let me know.

Altho “Neighbor,” who delighted us for a year, set himself a pilgrimage among gardens and turned his face away from us for a little time comes back to say:

“It was a great achievement to make two blades of grass grow where but one had grown before. It was a great vision which you had of making two great Tig, bright, lucious juicy apples grow where but a gnarled and wormy nubbin had grown before. Not often does one’s dream come so close to realization. Not often has so glorious a dream had so able and persistent a dreamer.” —Neighbor.

Then another sent a verse, would there were more who would do this for I am fond of verses.


This is the faith I bring to you, This is the hymn I sing to you. No matter what you preach, or where you pray—

There is no lasting victory, No final valedictory;

You've got to save your own soul every day.

—Edmund Vance Cooke.


Continued from page 4 8 the case of fruit trees this is the first point to consider when new varieties are brought out because we cannot “put to bed” a tree, it must stand heat and cold and all the changes in between. In the case of cane fruits, shrubs, rose; and herbaceous plants we have learned that “hardy” has a different meaning than as applied to fruit trees. We have learned that by means of little protection, sometimes very little, we may enjoy many beautiful flowering plants sometimes considered too tender for our climate.

Winter covering is largely for the purpose of protection from winter heat rather than winter cold. We cannot hope to prevent freezing but we can prevent alternate freezing and thawing and it is that that kills.

By bending the tops of hybrid roses to the ground, pegging them in place and covering with burlap, carpet or heavy building paper we have afforded all the protection needed. This keeps out the winter sun. This applies to Dorothy Perkins, Rambler and other climbers.

For rose growers who believe in severe pruning, a heavy mulch of leaves, straw or sawdust that covers ten to twelve inches of the canes or stems is sufficient. This plan is often followed but these heavily winter pruned roses produce but few blooms, altho fine ones but most growers want quantity.

Other woody plants such as Exochorda grandiflora (Pearl Bush), Forsythia Kerria, Thun-berg’s Spirea and many others may not kill back as to wood growth but fail to blossom mile s “put to bed.” A light covering will usually save the flower buds.

Peonie-, phlox, campanula and all the others of this invaluable host, are benefited by a covering, not too heavy, of straw, hay or stable manure. Autumn leaves pack too closely and unless careful attention is given as spring approaches many of the kinds which start growth early will be smothered. Iris seems to need no protection. A heavy mulch is beneficial to most kinds to retard early growth.

A peony planted close to the south wall of a house receiving warmth not only by reflection from the home wall but bv radiation from the furnace healed basement, left uncovered for several years made a splendid growth each year but never bore flowers. After a winter when snow and ice was heaped over it flowers were borne in profusion.

Strawberry plants should be lightly covered late in November or before heavy snowfall for the same reason we cover roses. Cane fruits, blackberries and raspberries when grown in closely matted rows usually survive but not always. It is wholly practical to protect them by bending down and covering with soil either in backyard or acre lots. The process has been described many times in this paper.

Time to plant hardy bulbs for spring flowers. Hyacinth, daffodil and lily do well in the house.

Plant butternut and walnut seed as soon as if falls from the trees. If it dries there is seldom any chance of its growing.

Sumac makes a fine cover for rough banks along a lake or hillside. If mowed down each year it thickens and holds soil well.

Now is a fine time to determine how the home grounds may be made better. Prepare the ground for setting shrubs next spring and order them soon.

Clean up the orchard and garden. Weeds, leaves or brush around the trees help to breed insects and diseases. Grass at the roots of apple trees makes a fine harbor for mice during the fall and winter.

The Night Blooming Cereus

Harry I). Tiemann

The queen of all flowers is the Night-blooming Cereus (Cereus grandiflorus). At least one feels disposed to concede the honor (no disrespect to the roses and orchids) when in the still of midnight while other garden beauties (including the aforementioned) have retired from the stage, the ivory white petals of the cereus majestically and slowly unfurl, forming a magnificent deep-throated chalice. The flower inevitably creates an impression as of something sacred and unearthly as though belonging to angelic beings, and one gazes at the wonderful crown of cream colored stamens surrounded by the chalice of ivory whiteness with a certain feeling of reverence, which impression is no doubt enhanced by the knowledge that the flower opens for one night only, and by daylight its transient beauty will be gone never to return. The curious swan shaped pink colored buds begin to expand usually a little after sundown, and the flowers begin to exhale a powerful but delightfully sweet fragrance. They do not reach their full perfection until well towards midnight, and soon after begin to close and by morning are drooping pendently, as seen in several of the flowers in the photographs.

Although so chaste a flower they are not at all difficult to raise and grow readily from cuttings of the leaves. They require a light sandy loam, partial shade, and unlike the closely related cacti, considerable moisture. The plant illustrated is about sixteen years old, and the night before the photographs were taken fourteen blossoms opened at once, and the night of the photograph,

five or six more. Unfortunately no picture was made of the greatest display. The plants blossom irregularly, often two or three times a year.

The Cereus belongs to the Cac-

tus family and is a native of Mexico and the species discussed is one of about 150 species. The C. grandiflorus and the C. ----

(Queen of the Night) are night bloomers. It is of course not hardy, but must be treated as a greenhouse plant. For the pictures I am indebted to the Photoart Co. of Madison.

Storage Diseases Take Big Annual Toll of Apple Crop

Storage diseases take a heavy annual toll on the harvested crop of apples, greatly reducing an important food supply and increasing the cost and uncertainty of marketing operations. The responsibility for this loss may lie with the orchardist, the transportation company, the dealer, or the storage management, say specialists of the Bureau of Plant Industry of the United States Department of Agriculture, in Farmers’ Bulletin 1160, Diseases of Apples in Storage, now available for general distribution.

The diseases may be due to the work of a parasite or to the direct action of unfavorable conditions upon the fruit itself. Diseases like scab and certain rots that are definitely traceable to the action of particular fungi are called parasitic diseases, while hitter-pit, water-core, and scald are known to be wholly due to abnormal physiological conditions in the fruit itself, and are called non-parasitie or physiological diseases. Both these classes of diseases can be prevented largely by proper methods of growing and handling the fruit, but each has its own peculiar laws of behavior upon which the requirements for its control must be based.

Delay in warm packing, sheds or cars shortens the natural life of apples and greatly increases their tendency to rots and to scald. Filling the storage rooms so rapidly that cold-storage temperatures can not be maintained has a similar bad effect. Apple rots are slow to start at a temperature of 32° F., but if a beginning has been made at a higher tern-perature they proceed much more rapidly.

Ventilation is as important as low temperature in the prevention of scald. Apples that receive good aeration when delays occur in handling them do not have their tendency to scald increased by the delay. [Any ventilation of the storage room that results in an actual renewal of the air within the package is of great value in scald control.] Apples scald far less in boxes, baskets, or ventilated barrels than in the usual tight barrel. Wrapping apples in oiled wrappers furnishes the most complete protection against scald.

Trimming Evergreen Hedges

A member writes: We have a nice evergreen hedge here and last spring it seemed to blight quite badly. We thot it was going to die but late in the summer it started to grow again and has pretty well recovered now. I enclose a twig, perhaps you can tell me what to do so it wont happen

again. I didn't know but I had trimmed it too late last fall as it was about December when I had it trimmed. Kindly tell me the best time to do that work and give me cause and cure of the blight if you can.         P. H.

The specimens were sent to Prof. Vaughn who replies as follows :

I have examined this twig in company with Professor Aust, our landscape gardner, and we believe that the hedge has suffered from over-cutting last fall and possibly winter injury. Professor Aust states that he has best results from pruning evergreen hedges in June or August. In a ease like this, however, where there has been considerable injury, an early spring pruning would probably give best results. We do not find any evidence on this twig of any parasitic fungus disease.

Remove all weeds and grass from about trees now. Mice find a nest in the material and eat the green bark of trees and shrubs, qinal from


Conducted by the Department of Economic Entomology College of Agriculture

“Buggy” or “Weevily” Beans

Beans are often damaged seriously by the presence of an insect which feeds within the seed, both in the field and in storage. This pest causes a loss of millions of dollars annually to the farmers and merchants of our country. In many sections farmers are planting other crops in fear of destructiveness of the weevil. Many a home gardener harvests his beans in the fall and puts them away apparently clean and in a few months finds that they are all full of holes and ruined for food or seed.

There are several species of weevils infesting beans but the most destructive is one called the common bean weevil. The adults fiy from the storage room or house to the fields where beans are growing and there the female weevils lay their small whitish eggs which appear as mere specks on the pods. In time they hatch and the young white grubs burrow their way through the pods into the developing beans within.

As the beans usually develop and are harvested before the grubs become full grown, their presence is not detected at that time, and the beans are put away in storage. If the temperature is sufficiently high the grubs continue to grow and eat out cavities next to the skin but not puncturing it. The grubs change to pupae and then to adult weevils and at this stage before emergence they appear as darker or semitranslucent spots on the beans. The beetles then cut out circular flaps, emerge and this leaves the small round holes in the seed w’hich is the most conspicuous evidence of the presence of the wree-vils.

These adults which have just emerged in turn mate and lay eggs directly on the beans. When these eggs hatch, the grubs bore thru the eggs directly into the beans. Thus generation after generation of weevils are produced until the beans are all full of holes, presenting a honey-comb appearance, gradually becoming reduced to a pow der.

Are There Any Remedies to Use Against This Pest?

There is at present no satisfactory method known to prevent or stop the infestation which comes in the field.

Plant Only Weevil Free Seeds

This helps to lessen the number of weevils in the field and consequently reduces the number in storage.

■ At harvesting clean up all remains of pods and seeds. Those left in the field can harbor the insect over w’inter, w’hich furnishes a source of infestation for the next crop.

As soon as the crop is ripe, harvest, shell and sack as soon as possible. Storage in pods does not confine or kill the weevils.

If there is then indication of the presence of weevils, the seed should be treated to kill the insect.


The use of carbon disulphide as a fumigant is one of the easiest methods to kill the weevils. This material is a heavy liquid which evaporates rapidly and its odor is easily detected. The gas is heavier than air and is also highly explosive w’hen the proper mixture of air is secured. For this reason its use is objectionable but if proper precautions are taken to keep all .fire or sparks away no trouble will ensue.

To fumigate place the beans in an air-tight container such as a pail, barrel, or specially made bin or box. The tighter the container the better the results.

Us the carbon disulphide at the rate of one-half cup to a barrel. Place in an open saucer on top of the beans or pour directly upon the seeds. Place on cover and leave for 24 to 48 hours. For best results the temperature should be 70° or 75’ F. Below 60° it is not effective.

The fumigation, however, should be repeated within 10 days or 2 weeks to kill any weevils not caught by the first application.

Use Heat For Small Amounts

The small grower or town gardener can free his beans by placing them in an oven and heating to 120° to 145° F. for several hours. The beans should be spread out in a thin layer so that the heat reaches all parts. This process does not injure the germinating qualities of the beans but Joes kill all insects.

An old remedy is to dip the beaus into boiling water for one minute, no more, and then spread them out to dry rapidly.

Lime mixed with the seed is used in some of the southern

states and has proved to be quite effective in preventing weevil development. Use air-slaked lime at the rate of 1 part by weight to 2 parts of seed. This prevents continued breeding in storage.

To keep the weevils out the beans should be placed in a tight room or bin free from the adult weevil. Examine occasionally to guard against reinfestation.

Charles L. Fluke.

Do not try to store squash in a moist cellar. A dry, warm place near the furnace or in a warm attic is best.

Much better quality of dill and sage may be had from the garden than can be bought. Start an herb garden next spring of the sorts you use.

Gladioli require less work than dahlias, are easier kept over winter, and in the long run are more satisfactory. Plant a goodly number of them next year.

Dig gladiolus bulbs as soon as frost kills the foliage. They may be dug any time now, but it is well to let them grow as long as possible. Larger bulbs will reset.

Why cut down all trees along the highways being graded? We recently saw two or three dozen large maples along a road taken out entirely: It would look much better and be as usable if the row had been thinned to 50 or even 75 feet. If the road were well made the trees would not injure it at all. Let’s have some shade on our new roads.

What Our Neighbors Say About Us

A comparison of some of the eastern Minnesota roads with western Wisconsin roads would tend to send all traffic possible through Wisconsin. Minnesota must have better roads and better road maintenance.—LeRoy Cady, associate horticulturist, I niversity Farm, St. Paul, Minnesota.

Plan now for the Orchard

you will put out next spring. Also the shrubs and ornamental plants around the home. We have a complete assortment of all the leading sorts to select from. Circular showing many of the leaders in colors "free for the asking.”


Fort Atkinson, Wis.

Send for book giving experience of many growers and full details.

The Skinner Irrigation Co., 237 Water St., Troy, Ohio.


The primary obligation of the American Red Cross is to the Service Man of the Army and Navy. Five duties still remain:

First—To stay with the Army of Occupation, comprising about 17.000 officers and men. Second—To continue in the hospitals of the Army, the Navy and the Public Health Service where there are more than 26.000 men. many of whom w 11 be retained there for months and some for years, and carry on recreational and social work.

Third—To keep in touch as an Advisory Organization with the discharged men of the Army and Navy, and be ready-—not n the, way of financial aid. but what is worth more—to contribute kind advice and friendlyassistance.

Fourth—To carry on the work with the families of soldiers and sailors and for the community at large.

Fifth—To take care of those blinded in the crash of war, a Service turned over to the Red Cross by7 the Government.

“Am I my Brother’s Keeper" is the stammering alibi of sordid selfishness. Answer the call of your Red Cross, which holds its Fourth Roll Call November 11-25, and fulfill your obligation to the brother who is still with Uncle Sam.

Right Here Where You Can’t Miss it We Print the Dates of

The Annual Convention January 11, 12, and 13, ’21

Reserve These Dates Now!

A well balanced program is being prepared, satisfying alike to amateur and 'pro*-fessional.

The Fruit Show Is An Assured Success

The Big Gardening Event of the Year—Don’t Miss It

P. S.—Invite Your Friends


Devoted to The Interests of The Wisconsin State Beekeepers’ Association


Why Not Have a Summer Meeting of the State Association

Northern Wis.....



Jefferson .........



Fox River Valley . .



Washington ......



Vprnon ..........



Green ............



Baraboo Valley . . ,



Price ............

. 12


Rrown ...........



Walworth .......



Clark ...........



Rusk ...........

. 10



The important thing is to market it. Are we ready for a State Marketing Association? If not, why not?

To the Secretaries of the Local Associations: The dues to the State Association for 1921 are fl. New members joining prior to January 1, 1921, will be given membership free to January 1, 1921, and will be credited as having paid dues until January 1, 1922.

There are now 92 6 members in the state beekeepers’ association. I hope every member will make an effort to secure another member so that we can have at least 1,000 members by the time of the state convention. Some of the old members are not paid up. If you meet one of these, be sure to get his renewal.


Meeting of Board of Managers, Wednesday afternoon, December 1, 2:00 P. M., Judiciary Committee Room, Third Floor, State CapitoL

Thursday, December 2


9—Social Meeting, Paying Dues.

9:30—Call to Order. Reading of minutes of last convention. Presentation of New Business by Members. Report of Board of Managers. Reading of Secretary’s Report. Reading of Treasurer’s Report. Appointment of Committees for Convention.

11—President’s Address, Gus Dittmer.


1:30—Bees, Animals and Other Things, R. R. Runke, Field Agent, Fond d'u Lac Co. Farm Bureau; Improving the Demand for Honey, A. C. Bartz, Jim Falls; Is the Present Honey Grading Law a Benefit to Wisconsin Beekeepers, F. F. Stelllng, Reedsville; How the Honey Grading Uw is Affecting the Honey Industry, C. D. Adams, State Div. of Markets.


7:30—Facts About Bees We Should Know (I>antern Slides), J. I. Hambleton Univ, of Wis.

Friday, December 3


9—Report of the State Apiary Inspector, S. B. Fracker, State Entomologist; The State Department of Agriculture and Apiary Inspection, C. P. Norgord, Commissioner of Agriculture; The Beekeepers’ Folly, A. Swahn, Ellsworth; How the U. S. Weather .Bureau Has Helped' Me in Successful Wintering, C. W. Aeppler, Oconomowoc; Beekeeping On a Large Scale, led by Rev. J. E. Cooke; open discussion by all members present.


1:30—How to Market the Honey Crop and Prices for 1921, led by H.

Every paper on this program is of vital interest to all of our members and each one should come prepared to enter into the discussion.

Local Affiliated Associations

With this issue of Wisconsin Horticulture we are starting a new classification of local associations. All those showing 100 per cent of the local association membership registered in the state association will be placed in the honor division.

Honor Division

County Bee. Assn.





Sheboygan ......

. . 60


Fond du Lac ...

. .    58


Grant ..........

. .    32


Marathon ......



Waukesha ......

. .    30


Chippewa Valley

. .    24


Northeastern Wis.

. .    34


Dane ...........

. .    23


Milwaukee ......

. .    23


Winnebago .....



Richland Co. . . .

. . 21


Shawano .......



Wood ..........




Start Now for the 1921 State Fair

The 1920 bee and honey exhibit at the State Fair was the biggest and most successful one ever held. For this success we are indebted to Mr. Dittmer and to the progressive and wide-awake beekeepers of Wisconsin who put forth their best efforts to assist him.

After bringing pressure to bear on State Fair Officials, Mr. Dittmer succeeded in securing their promise to enlarge the bee and honey building, however, in return Mr. Dittmer was compelled to guarantee that all available space would be occupied. Those that attended the fair can attest to how well both parties carried out their promises.

The remodeled' building is infinitely much better than it was a year ago. although by no means as adequate as it should be to house the aplcul-tural products of Wisconsin. There should also be a rest room, an office for the superintendent and a room for the judge where he could work unmolested. These Improvements will come for Mr. Dittmer has already made tentative arrangements for further revision for the coming year.

Most of the displays were above reproach. Mr. and Mrs. John Kneser were back as usual with a large display of everything tn the honey line from cough syrup to “fire-water.” Mr. Keeber, who was absent last year, was in his old stand. He had samples of some of the first honey he ever produced—over thirty years ago. The Moes of Monroe were wen represented. Mr. H. H. Moe, however, lost out this year, preferring to view the battlefields of France instead. His interests were well taken care of by his two sons. Walter Diehnelt had a very large and attractive display of comb and extracted honey. From the angle of the Czar and the manner in which he jingled nails in his pocket, people were led to believe that he was well pleased. Mr. Painter of Wausau, representing the Cloverland Apiary, was a new exhibitor this year. Having had no previous experience in the Fair ‘Game’, Mr. Painter managed, nevertheless, to take back enough blue ribbons to compensate for the hard work.

Four of the county associations were present; namely, Dane, Grant, Marathon and Sauk. These displays were exceptionally good. Rivalry in the future is going to be strong between the various counties. In the writer's opinion every association in the state should have been there. One purpose of organization is to improve the honey industry of the state. The marketing and advertisement of our project are not any too well developed. The state Fair is the best and most economical medium that we have for advertising honey since it places our product before the people of the entire state as no other medium can. The absent counties are failing in an important and vital function by neglecting the State Fair. They are shifting responsibility to other shoulders. This year, at least, it seems that the younger associations have graciously taken this responsibility, an incident that points to the fact that some of our larger and more prosperous associations need revision or an injection of young blood into their constitution.

The allotted space for Individual exhibits was crowded and improvement in the quality of the displays was apparent to every one. This was especially true of wax and baking,— where one or two cakes adorned the shelves the previous fair, countless cakes and cookies of every description were to be seen this year. As a matter of fact, the bakery goods and canned goods were little behind the displays of similar articles in the Woman’s building. The wax was of very good quality and arranged in attractive cakes. In this connection we must mention the display of Mr. Barr of West Allis. His unique and tidy display reached the zenith of perfection and brought forth praise and numerous questions. The G. B. Dewis Company, Watertown, Wis., and the A. I. Root Company, Medina, Ohio, both dealers in bee supplies were on hand to display the most improved and up-to-date equipment. We were somewhat disappointed in the showing made by the

The following gives the list of the principal exhibitors and amounts of premiums for each:

John Kneser, Hales Corners. .$129.00

Marathon County

J. M. Barr, West Allis

H. H. Moe, Woodford

Dane County

Grant County

Sauk County ............... 4’7.00

Cloverland Apiary Co., Wau


F. F. Houghton, Reedsburg... 33.00 Number smaller exhibitors. . .

Total premiums awarded..... 8 39.00

as against last year ......... 270.00

Difference ............ 569.00

According to out-of-state visitors Wisconsin has now one of the largest, if not the largest bee and honey exhibit in the United States with the exception perhaps of part of the Pacific Coast. Some of the premium lists for 1920 are listed below as follows:

Wisconsin .........$1153.00

Minnesota......... 1110.00

Illinois............ 589.00

Nebraska ......... 447.00

West Michigan ....  595.00

Connecticut ....... 489.25

Texas ............ 423.00

The Wisconsin bee and honey premium list for 1921 will be $2,000.00.

There will be a revision of the method of awarding premiums for 1921. Mr. Dittmer quotes in particular the following changes; "Our premium list for 1921 will consist of 3 classes: Individual exhibits. No. 122, Individual entries No. 123, and County Association exhibits No. 124. Class No. 124 will be revised on the same basis as county exhibits in the Farm Produce Department. A sum of $900.00 will be set aside for the county exhibits on the basis of $75 for each county having an exhibit. Instead of offering premiums the exhibit will be scored' by points. 100 to 500 points will also be allowed for distance from the State Fair. A sum equal to $75.00 for each exhibit participating will then be divided pro rata, but no one exhibit to receive more than $125 or $150. For the best arranged and most attractive, ribbons will be awarded. Premiums will also be offered for the best graded exhibit, both comb and extracted, both for the individual and the county exhibit.” Mr. Dittmer ends by saying, "We are not only having the largest bee and honey department, but we are going to remain at the top.”

The prospects for the coming year are indeed excellent. Every exhibitor was well pleased and planning to return in 1921 with a much improved display. Many reservations for space have already been received. It will be quite a problem to satisfy every one next year, for no doubt, some exhibitors will have to put up with temporary accommodations. It will be a case of the early bird getting the worm. Associations and individuals contemplating doing their share in this big advertisement game should get in communication with Dr. Dittmer at once, and not wait until next year when it will be too late. It might be well to mention too that most exhibitors, individual and county, unload tons of honey to the Fair visitors at top prices. Bring the matter up at your next association meeting and do not let your county be conspicuous by its absence, as many were at the Fair this year. Often people would' inquire, ‘’Well, where is so and so’s county display? Why, we raised lots of honey." Generally such questions were answered by- their being told that their county did not have ambition enough to come and stayed at home to keep their bees from swarming Instead.

J. I. Hambleton.

Monthly News Reports From Local Associations

October 15—Bees are in good condition. European foulbrood does not seem to be as prevalent as it was last year. I have no personal knowledge of any American foulbrood. A great many farmer beekeepers lost their bees through European foulbrood last year. I think the outlook for the future is so good for the professional beekeeper or any person who uses modern method's of keeping bees.

Reporter—E. A. Barlement, Brown Co. Bee Ass’n.

Octoher 12—Bees are in good condition. Most of our beekeepers are getting pretty well along in fixing up the bees for winter. Prices of honey. Wholesale—10 lb. can $3.00; Retail 10 lb. can, $3.50—Extracted. Wholesale 60 lbs. at .35, $15.00; Retail 60 lbs. at 40c to 45c, $16.25 for Comb honey. Our own apiaries are free from disease. No reports from outside have been received, nor any come to my notice. There appears to be no marked change in beekeeping conditions with the exception of basswood getting less, but this being offset by the increase in white clover. But unless the beekeepers hold together and cooperate and discontinue under-selling each other, they' will force themselves out of business. Especially’ is this true with the commercial beekeeper who has to pay big wages for hired help and if he cannot get for the product of the hive what it costs to produce, he will have to go out of business and “try" his hand at something else.”

Reporter—Emma L. Bartz, Chippewa Valley Beekeepers Association.

October 17—Bees are in good condition in numbers and age. Prices of honey: On containers by wholesale from 2 5c to 30c and retail 30c to 45c —regulated by grades by wholesale from 35c to 45c and retail from 45c to 50c. American foulbrood is scarce. There is some European foulbrood where old queens are present, but in general conditions are very good. Beekeepers are enthusiastic in doing good work for the season of 1921. The honey crop is moving steadily with original fall prices still prevalent.

Reporter—Robert L. Slebecker, Dane County Bee Ass’n.

October 12—Bees are in fine condition. Our beekeepers have been receiving 22c wholesale and 25c to 30c retail for their honey, that is for extracted. and from. 35c to 40c retail-tor the comb honey. American foulbrood in the northwestern part of the county, our present system of inspection with our local Inspector on the job will, we believe, keep the disease under control if not eradicate it entirely in time. It certainly is the best means of inspection and insures our protection as no other system could and in a few years it will cost very little to keep up. European foulbrood is bad in the eastern half of this county, but only with the beekeepers who have black or hyrld bees. Most of these "bee owners” are such who have not attended our local meetings and are not members of our association. The future of beekeeping is on the rise under condition that the life of local and state associations be supported spiritually and financially by all the progressive beekeepers regardless of personal differences, act together and vote together for the common good of all. Sorghum mills have sprung to new life since the sugar shortage. Consequently farmers are buying very little honey for the present.

Reporter — Edward Hassinger, Jr.. Fox River Valley Bee Association.

October 12—Condition of the bees is good. Some beekeepers are feeding the bees sugar to help along as our Fall honey flow is a scarce1 article. There is not very much extracted honey on hand and scarcely any comb. Our beekeepers have been receiving 20c to 25c wholesale for their extracted honey and 2 5c to 30c retail for it. and from 30c to 35c wholesale for the comb honey. From all reports bee diseases are being

wiped out in good' shape. The past two years has taught the beekeepers the absolute necessity for clean yards. They are all learning the necessity of looking after the bees' welfare. The future outlook seems to be getting on a more business like basis. Our beekeepers are learning that there is nice money in the business, but like other vocations, “One must know the business." Failures and losses are simply the result of ignorance. The Winter Problem seems to be the hardest to solve; too many ways, none just right. Conditions are so various. We are all learning the game, and we will know it if we live long enough. It takes a life time. Reporter—C. L. Leykom, Langlade County Bee Association.

October 16—Bees are in fair to good condition. There are about 30 tons of extracted honey on hand in this locality, and very little comb honey. Our beekeepers have been receiving 25c for extracted honey wholesale, and 30c and 28c retail, and 40c retail for the comb honey. I think the disease situation is better since the clean up, but not as good as we expect a year from now. We have no strictly speaking beekeepers in this county. We have perhaps 20 apiaries of 100 colonies and over. I am sure the area-clean-up law with the restriction of movement of bees and bee appliances in the future will see better regulated' bee yards. This has been a very successful honey year. The variation of prices of honey has been a great hindrance. I believe in another year this price matter will be regulated.

Reporter— James Gwin, Richland County Beekeepers Ass’n.

October 14—In general bees are in excellent condition for winter. There are about 7,000 podnds of extracted honey on hand and 200 pounds of comb honey. We have been receiving 2 5c for extracted honey wholesale and 30c for retail, and 35c to 40c for comb honey retail.

Reporter—L. E. Cass, Vernon County Honey Producers Association.

October 13—The condition of the bees is good. There is very little extracted honey on hand and the comb honey is about all sold. We have been receiving 30c to 35c wholesale for extracted honey and 35c to 50c retail for it; 42c for comb honey wholesale and 45c to 50c for comb honey retail. The disease situation in this county is quite serious. I think the getting together and the very helpful talks by Mr. McMurry have awakened great interest among the beekeepers which will result in better beekeeping.

Reporter—W. T. Sherman. Walworth County Beekeepers Association.

October 14—Condition of bees is good. There was enough stimulation for late brood rearing, assuring young bees, but only in a few places is any surplus reported from fall flow. There is very little extracted honey on hand and no comb honey at all. Prices of Honey: Extracted'— wholesale 25c to 28c, retail 32c to 37c and comb honey ' wholesale 40c to 4 2c; retail 50c. The disease situation is improved, but an area clean-up is what is needed to insure complete success. The bees in this county are mainly In the hands of the small beekeeper, there being a few large producers. Since our association was organized a keener Interest is being shown. It cannot be said that there are more beekeepers, but all are evidencing the spirit of keeping bees better. If more sweet clover could be had, the bee pasture would be much improved.

Reporter—C. W. Aeppler, Waukesha County Beekeepers Association.

October 13—The condition of the bees is good in the southern part and fair in the northern part. The amount of extracted honey on hand in this locality is about 5 tons, and the comb honey is nearly all sold. We have been receiving 20c to 25c for extracted honey wholesale and 20c to 30c retail for it; 25c to 30c for comb honey wholesale and 3 5c for retail. There is quite a lot of foulbrood in the southern part also in the central part. Some around Marshfield. It is spreading fast. There is some in the southern part of Marathon and in northwestern Wood that is infecting the yards around' Marshfield. Bees that are near wild swampy ground are in good condition, but those on high land stopped brood rearing early. On account of the drought there was no honey since about the 15th of August. In wet places there was honey until frost. Beekeepers will protect their bees better this winter to avoid repetition of last winter’s losses. A few beekeepers are buying package bees for next year. A queen yard will also be started here next year.

Reporter—Engelbert Henseler, Wood County Beekeepers Association.

The Aims and Objects of the American Honey Producers Lieague

Early in the year 1920, representatives of the majority of commercial beekeepers associations and kindred organizations met in Kansas City, Missouri. The object of this meeting was to ascertain if there existed points enough of common interest to warrant a national organization.

In former years such an association


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had often been proposed, but all argued that East was East and' West was West, and there was no common interest. The remarkable thing about the Kansas City meeting was that each section had one and the same great problem and all other problems depended upon the solution of the first.

This problem was: How to create a greater demand for honey. So apparent was it that the solution of this one question was the salvation of the beekeeping industry, that these men brought about an organization of organizations for this purpose. Thus was born the American Honey Producers League.

The first and greatest aim of the League is the betterment of the condition of the bee industry in America. As this end can best be gained through the increased use of honey, it is around this subject that the activities of the League center. Its membership is to be the membership of the State organizations. Its working force will be directed by a paid secretary and possibly a corps of paid assistants. To handle the work with ease and rapidity, the following divisions have been made: An Educational Bureau will utilize the combined strength of the beekeepers of the continent to see that State and National extension work are maintained, that the teaching of beekeeping in our agricultural schools is established or supported, that information relative to disease control, crop conditions, and markets reach the producer with dispatch, and that the public is well informed relative to the value of honey as a food.




is to



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in size and

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backed by legislative power, a legislative bureau will endeavor to secure uniform inspection, quarantine, and pure food laws, and the appropriations needed to carry on state controlled work.

The Bureau of Supervision of Marketing is the most difficult and important of all. It must put into immediate operation a standard grading of honey, packed in a standard container, and make this product a household favorite. To do this, it must have definite crop and market reports, and must be followed in its recommendations by the state distributors in their sales.

As legal aid is often necessary to obtain justice, a legal bureau will be maintained to look after transportation and classification claims on com-


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mon carriers and to take a hand where ever legal aid is needed.

As a clearance house for complaints a Bureau of Arbitration will act as a referee in disputes on matters of importance to the League.

The above projected work of the Ijeague, together with the countless smaller services it can render, makes this League unique in Business Organizations.

Membership in the American Honey Producers League

The American Honey Producers League deserves the support of every beekeeper in America. The services it offers and can render if you cooperate makes its value such that you cannot afford not to belong to it.

As the League is an affiliation of smaller organizations, there are several ways of obtaining membership. The first and regular method is by affiliation of organization.

“Any organization of Beekeepers may acquire the right to elect a member of this League by applying therefor to the Secretary of the League and accompanying such application with a sum equal to One Dollar ($1.00) for each member of such applicant association, provided that the Executive Committee may reject any application and shall return any sum deposited if such application is rejected. When once affiliated, such organization may continue its affiliation by paying annually to the Secretary of the League a sum equal to One Dollar ($1.00) for each member then belonging to such affiliating association. and by the further payment of a sum equal to One Dollar f$1.00) for each member subsequent^ joining such affiliated association, provided that the minimum fee for membership from any organization shall be One Hundred Dollars ($100.00), and provided further that when a state or provincial organization has affiliated, no other organization from the same state or province shall be received.”

If there is no state organization, any individual beekeeper may become an independent member, securing the service at the above rates, but without vote.

Any firm or corporation desiring the help of the League may also receive this service by the payment of a fee of $10.00 per year.

All United States, Provincial or State employees Interested in this subject are considered associate members and have the right to attend all meetings of the League and take part in the discussions, but have no vote. be approved by the Executive Committee.

The above extract from the constitution of the League shows definitely that membership is easy to obtain and hold and the voting power is retained by the beekeepers.

The value of the League has been realized by commercial firms dealing with beekeepers and they are becoming members, even though they have little voice in the organization. If every beekeeper, small or large, will get behind this movement, it will take but few years to place honeyin its proper place in the dietary ot the American people.

E. G. Le Stourgeon,

Pres. American Honey Producers


Asters have been a good flower in most places this year. The addition of lime to most of our soils before the asters are set seems to give better plants.

A pot of parsley set in a sunny window not only adds cheer to tile room, but is useful for garnishing and flavoring during the winter.

Spring is the best time to plant all sorts of plants except peonies, iris and rhubarb. Prepare the ground this fall and plant as early as possible in the spring.

Squash should be carefully handled from the field to storage if they are to keep well. Place on wooden racks in storage house one layer deep. The house should be warm and have a good circulation of air.

Do not let roses or perennials get wet before they are covered. They must go into the winter with dry foliage if they are to come through in good shape. See that the soil at their roots is moist. Otherwise they may freeze dry.

Geraniums, Christmas cactus, calla, and cyclamen make good flowering house plants for winter.

Do not put ungraded fruit or vegetables on the market, it pays better to sell each grade separately. Try it.

Loveliness, Mrs. Watt, Schwa-ben, Glory, Bluejay, Empress of India and Niagara are all splendid varieties of gladioli. Now is a good time to order stock for next year's planting.

An attempt is being made to list and describe all the varieties of dahlias under cultivation. Between 5,000 and 6,000 names have been listed and this does not include many foreign kinds.

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Carrots and beets keep better if a little dry sand is put over them. It prevents drying out.

Blackcap raspberries and gooseberries are best propagated by layering.

Apples carefully picked and wrapped in newspaper keep late into the fall and winter if kept cool.

Husk the popcorn and hang it up in a light airy place. It will dry enough to be used early in the winter.

Hang cabbage in a cool cellar. They may sometimes be wrapped in paper and laid on shelves in a cool cellar.

As soon as the frost kills the foliage of the grape it may be pruned back and laid on the ground ready to cover with earth.

While many raspberries will come through the winter without protection it is always safer to lay them down and cover with earth.

The Russian Mammoth sunflower is not only ornamental, but the seeds make good chicken feed. The plants make an effective screen.

Store onions in a cool, well-aired place.

Sapa and Opata plums fruit heavily and make good sauce. A tree or two is worth having in the garden.

Either spray and prune the orchard or use the ax. Trees uncared for are like abused underfed stock—unprofitable. Get rid of them.

It is a good plan to clean up the garden and spade or plow it this fall. Many cutworms and other insects are disturbed by fall plowing.

The past season has been a splendid one for hollyhocks. When well grown these are fine plants. Some excellent colors in singles and doubles are to be had.

Black raspberries are easily increased by tip layers. That is covering the top of each with soil causing it to send out roots quickly. These may be “heeled in’’ and planted next spring.

Some of the imported varieties of zinnias are well •worth growing. Strains of fine colors and large size were on the market this year. These made excellent plants for cut flowers or landscape work.

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