OFFICIAL ORGAN OF THE WISCONSIN STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
Madison, Wisconsin, October, 1920
A border of herbaceous perennials, Fox glove, Campanula, Sweet William and many other kinds so arranged that there will be bloom from frost to frost. We may all have a bonier of perennials, if not as large as this at least as beautiful.
The Profits From the Peony Patch
By William A. Peterson
The purpose of this article is to show “how to make the most money out of an acre of peonies.” The entire process is briefly described, from purchasing the roots to marketing the crop. The ideas presented are not untried theories, but are an epitome of a specialist's experience.
I do not propose to discuss isolated cases of extraordinary profits obtained by producing new varieties of peonies or even by cornering the market oil a rare sort. In fact, stocking up heavily on some new “queen bee” of a peony show frequently finds the grower, five years later, offering the same at twenty per cent of the original cost. There may be a dozen American growers whose extensive catalogues and large advertising of several hundred varieties make their profit on their acre of soil a bonanza.
There arc just two ways to make money out of peonies, either by selling the roots or the flowers. Leading up to the subject of profits, let us consider the three contributing factors thereto: First, the roots; second, the soil; third, the labor.
THE ROOTS OR DIVISIONS
The roots should be young and healthy. If divisions are used, have them cut from plants not over 4 years old and remove all but two strong eyes to each piece of sound tuber. The use of 1-vear or 2-year-old plants saves some time, but on a given investment the divisions are more economical.
Most people prefer blooms of solid colors, and mass together in lawn planting or in bouquets those of the same shade. The number of varieties carried, therefore, depends on the amount of land available, as one must cut enough blooms of a kind to make a shipment worth while, and furnish enough similar material to carry out a decorative color scheme. For example, a florist might want 500 Eugenie Ver-dier, the famous “baby pink,” for a reception.
The possible range of varieties comprises four distinct colors; namely, white, light pink, deep pink, and red, which is the usual classification adopted for exhibitions and by the cut flower trade. In each of these four classes are three well defined blooming periods, the early, mid-season and late. This makes twelve sections to be represented, as the goal set before each grower in selecting his varities and testing out the sorts to finally grow. Ultimately one may find it necessary to carry two absolutely indispensable sorts in some sections.
SELECTION OE VARIETIES
This building of a master list, into which each tested variety must fight its way by sheer demonstrated worth, is exceedingly absorbing. In comparing the painstaking records which we annually make, we sometimes find that an outstanding variety, like Mme. Forel, should be finally dropped, because other kinds have superseded it. In my personal study, in order not to be too exacting and in order to give new varieties every chance that is due them, I have really seven colors to divide the sorts into. viz.: First, paper white; second, cream or yellow; third, blu h or delicate flesh; fourth, light or medium pink; fifth, deep pink, and rose; sixth, red; seventh, crimson and deep red. In this way we have tried out about 1,-400 varieties and at the present time are carrying less than eighty.
Recommending varieties for other localities is not an entirely safe proposition and I shall only give a few notes on how certain sort:; conduct themselves at our nursery. We have discarded Meissonier, because of its crooked stems. We have also rejected Mme. Emile Galle, because it has no low lateral leaves and the lack of these prevents cutting it with a long stem, whereas Octavie Demay, a dwarf-growing delicate pink, admits of cutting with a fairly good stem without injuring the plant, and is a wonder. So far with us the prizewinning Jubilee has a weak stem. Golden Harvest is one of the mixed colored kinds that florists cannot send on a definite color order, unless the customer knows it by name.
FAULTS OF OLD FAVORITES
Mme. Crousfe is tender in our climate and often skips a season in blooming. Because Richardson's Rubra Superba has proven extremely shy, we no longer carry it, while Richardson’s Grandi-flora is all that its name implies and a free bloomer besides. This is one of those unusual sorts that come into bloom over a long period ; so one must have a good many plants to cut from to get a fair quantity of flowers at one time.
Adolphe Rousseau is a wonderful “black,” but is too loose and shows the yellow stamens too much. The greatly talked of pink, Lady Alexandra Duff, is on the same order.
Single-blooming varieties attract some people, but are not really suitable for shipping.
La Tulipe is objectionable in bud, as the florists call it a “candy bud,” whereas the bud of Kelway’s Venus leaves nothing to wish for.
No matter how fine a sort may ultimately develop on the plant, if in the early stages of opening it is likely to “waterlog,” like Charlemagne, it is not worth carrying. Probably more Delicatis-sima are used at June weddings than any other light pink sort.
The most popular selling red is Felix Crousse, with its perfect bomb shape and large gourd petal, which always indicates a good storage variety.
Many will be surprised to learn that we have finally dropped Edulis Superba. It does remarkably well in many places, but on our records, which we have kept annually since 1888, it is not nearly so dependable as M. Jules Elie and is generally not more than a day earlier. In some quarters Mme. Ducel is grown, but with us it is smaller than M. Jules Elie and so similar in shade and time of blooming that we do not need it.
We notice an increasing emphasis laid on the desirability of the fragrant varieties.
Having settled what roots to carry, we will now discuss the best soil conditions. The soil should be rich, deep and well drained, with plenty of sunshine. For root propagation a loose loam makes the tubers admit of better dividing, but the heavier soil, with even a clay subsoil, produces the best blooms. Not only plenty of well rotted manure before planting should be plowed in, but also an annual mulch should be applied thereafter in the fall, but without covering the top of the crown or touching the stem. Pigeon, sheep or cow manure and even some hard-wood ashes make the best fertilizer for our prairie soil. Peonies are such gross feeders that a large quantity of fertilizer, if worked in thoroughly, can be well taken care of, but no manure should ever touch the roots. For the most favorable results there should be plenty of water during the blooming period, and also toward the end of August, to make large eyes for the next season. Some of the foregoing remarks might be classified under the head of labor rather than soil.
planting and later attention
Now as to the labor: The planting should be done during the early part of September, in rows three feet apart by fifteen inches between plants down the row. In two years’ time, if the bed is to stand for blooming, every other plant should be lifted, divided and planted elsewhere.
If there is any question of the plants having any stem disease, during the month of September, cut off the old leaf-tops level with the ground and burn them up. The surest method of keeping the roots free from disease is to dig out and destroy every large plant, among blooming ones, that has no flowers. In fact, we have made it a practice for years, in the treatment of all our standard sorts, to destroy June 1 every peony plant 2 or more years old that has no buds. This avoids the possible spread of disease and also prevents the perpetuating of shy-blooming strains of peonies. As long as plants bloom, we need not worry.
KEEPING THEM TRUE TO NAME
The young shoots, as they push up in the spring, are quite beautiful and differ decidedly. At this stage of their development we go over our fields and dig out and throw away every plant differing in appearance from others in the same variety. This gets rid of any possible mixtures and is the last check in our system of keeping every plant true. I may be pardoned in mentioning here our 10-year-old, unique guarantee of giving three for one for every plant blooming untrue to description.
Every three weeks from May to September we run a horse cultivator down every row, and just before freezing up we use a V-shaped potato plow to trench a furrow to draw the water away from the crown. Sufficient handhoeing during the summer must be done to keep the land free from weeds.
MARKETING THE ROOTS
The labor of marketing the roots is mostly done in September, which is the proper time to move peonies. It is preferable for customers to do their own dividing, as then the cut surfaces are fresh and wither less when put into the ground. However, many purchasers do not know how, and for that matter we our-Continued on page 39
Johnnie Speaks a Piece
This Time It’s About Fairs
Oak Holler, Wis.
My Dear Horticultural Friends —Did you ever get the chance to do something you had always wanted to dot If you have you’ll know how I felt when the Editor of this paper told me he wanted me to write him something every month for a yeai. Didn’t care what I wrote so long as I wrote. Do you know my friends I’m thinking this Editorman is a going to be a sadder and wiser man at the end of the year, principally sadder. For I sure never did anything in my life just as other people thot I ought to. They used to tell me my first name should have been Willful and my middle name Contrary, instead of the plain old fashioned name I really have. But ye Editor man was wise in one respect —he firmly impressed on my mind 1 ‘ one page ’ ’ was my limit— maybe a little more but he looked extremely doubtful over the “little more.” Guess he was afraid I was like the story I heard about the Chinaman, who listened to the political speaker,—‘ * Talkee, Talkee—who windee sip.” Oh I’m not going to count this introduction as part of my page, Mr. Editor. I just want to start out right. I’m sure the readers aren’t going to agree with me and I want to tell ’em I will not worry a bit if they don’t. They can criticise me all they like, I just listen and go right ahead and—write some more. This time I'm going to write about the State Fair—just got back. Some Fair to try to see in one week. You see a Fair has always had a great attraction for me. Way back—oh, I’m not going to tell you how many years ago I started going to Fairs. Used to go with my Grandparents, Aunts and Uncles in the big old fashioned buggy, along with the jams, baked stuff and flowers. The big wagon had gone with the grain, vegetables, fruits, butter. Some exhibits they took down there to the County Fair and when they came home they were well decorated with blue ribbons. Grandmother’s garden was sure famous and as for baking “Um” I can still taste the blueberry pie, cookies and fried cakes. There was only one building to hold all these exhibits, pretty small we’d call it now—but still, looking backward, even now I think it used to be a pretty good Fair. Everybody in the county went. Why it was the event of the year. Such good natured friendly rivalry to see who would get the most prizes. Dq you know I can not remember whether they gave any premiums or not. They gave blue and red and white ribbons. Just about two inches of dark blue ribbon, that was the coveted sign. The thing that impressed me most then and still clings to my memory, is the greetings, the grip of the hands, “glad to see you sort of a feeling.” I can remember standing around my hand tightly clutching the hand or dress of some of my people, while the crowd closed around us and they asked and answered questions. I used to think, well I wouldn’t tell everybody what I did to get such nice things to exhibit. I’d just be selfish and keep things to myself. There’s the thing I didn’t understand. That was the secret of this particular Fair being such a success. They got together and told each other what they had or hadn't done. Help each other and help yourself. Some slogan wasn’t it; And now Im coming back to the big Fair. I can see it slowly but surely surging back to our grandfather’s days. Now don’t you all start to talk at once. I know this Wisconsin State Fair is the most wonderful modern up-to-date exhibit, sure—read the advertisements —been to these too and its true. But—there’s still room for improvement. We need more of this get-together sort of a feeling. We need to get together Fair Board, Superintendents, Exhibitors—plan, criticise, praise, criticise, plan some more. Each Superintendent and his or her exhibitors want to make their building the most attractive, the most helpful, the most educational. They can’t do this without criticism, not the kind that hurts, the kind that helps. Get the other fellow’s opinion. Never mind if you don’t think he’s interested in your building. It’s surprising some times what a lot the other fellow knows about the things you think he doesn’t care anything about. And you just come back at him, tell him where he failed to come up to your expectations, but don’t forget to praise him for what he has done: “a little praise |^s a long ways.” And besides you’H all feel better. Then we want the opinion of the Public—the people who go to the Fair. Write to the Secretary, to the Board, to the Superintendents. Holler long and loud. Keep on hollering till you get what you want or they give you a plain statement as to why they can’t. You see the lit-
tie girl said if you want anything bad enough, and pray hard enough, you’ll get it. I believe this; the explanation is simple. You will do your best to get what you want if you really and truly do want this—whatever it is. Don’t sit back and sulk because things don’t suit, just get busy and get it to suit. Take a chance, smile and go after it. Nine times out of ten there’s no obstacle there. All you’ve got to do is get busy. My gracious here’s that Editor-man and he’s hollering, if you want to get anything in this paper hand it over, and I’m just getting started. Well 1*11 continue in my next. Got a whole lot of things I’d like to tell you about Fairs, Folks, Boys, Gardens, and funny its more Fairs. Sounds some like a weather report don’t it? Continued Fair. Hope it don’t get Frosted.
Editor Collingwood of the Rural New Yorker has been shedding bright sunshine and cheer for years to the hearts of thousands thru his “Hope Farm Notes” but in a recent number he, for the first time, gets real provoked ove^ the price situation and the meager returns from his truck farm in New Jersey. He asks and answers some questions to which your editor invites your respectful attention. There are things brewing in this fair land of ours and among them an effort, well thought out, on the part of those whose fortunes depend on labor, to hammer down the price of food so that the workman may be induced to accept less wages. The farmer is the goat every time. The following theme ostensibly written by a market gardener is somewhat long but well worth reading:
Not much. Sweet corn still brings a fair price, but apples and tomatoes are very cheap. At times tomatoes have been down to 35 cents a basket. It is reported that the Delaware growers refuse to deliver at the canneries for less than 50 cents. If they cannot get that they will let the fruit rot on the ground. We have a good crop, and as fairly as I can figure they cost over 50 cents a basket to produce. We have had a great crop of Wealthy apples, but they strike a market filled with culls and windfalls, and bring very little.
Discouraged, we suppose?
Not a bit. We simply push a little harder to get our stuff off. We took our chance, put up our money and raised a good crop. The market, which we could not control, has beaten us, and we now expect to lose money on the season's work. If anyone is to be definitely blamed I suppose we should take our share, for we took a chance on future prices, much as people do on wheat futures or stocks. Thus we are not growling publicly, but—never again! We have done our share contributing to the nation’s food supply at a loss.
But what could you have done?
Saved the labor of all but one man, some |500 worth of fertilizer, a great bill for packages of seeds, and various other items. In that case’ we should have seeded everything except a few acres of corn and a garden, kept more hogs to pasture the grain and left the orchards in sod. In this wet season we should' have had a good apple crop, and the saving on labor and fertilizer would have meant a profit and much less worry. As it is, all hands have worked themselves down to worry without any adequate return.
I do not know, and I begin to feel that I do not care! We have had our lesson, and I think “the world" needs one in like manner. I. think the lesson must be rubbed in until the people fully understand the part which the farmer plays in human society. When I first saw New York most people did understand that, for thousands of city folks were only one generation removed from the farm. Now with another generation sewed up in brick and stone, people have little idea where their food comes from, or who works to produce it. As they do not seem able to learn through heart or brain I think thej' must learn through their stomach.
I am not going to stop and argue whether it is or not. I never really saw anything “cut any ice” unless it was narrow. If someone wants to tell me why I should continue to produce food at a loss I am willing to listen, but I do not agree to accept the argument. I will, however, agree to work at a loss if other industries will sell their products as cheap comparatively as our farm prices are! I notice that most other industries are able to control prices and also the output. We are unable to do either unless we follow the example of the American Woolen Company and' shut down* when a surplus seems likely.
Why, I can get a dozen reasons for it—all from men who think they know. My neighbor says it is all due to the Democratic Administration. Another neighbor says it is due to the Republicans, because they control Congress and will not let the poor Democrats save the country. You may take your choice on that. Personally, it seems to me that the present Administration is about the feeblest specimen of law enforcement I have ever known. Yet, as judged from their record (in New York State) in food law enforcement, I do not see that the Republicans are any better. I do think the politicians of both old parties are largely responsible for our present mixup, because they have lacked the courage to stand up and face the real issues. For either party on tiieir record to promise any reform In profiteering or food handling is, in my opinion, pure bunk,” and no '>ne knows it better than these same politicians.
But who is responsible for wfrat lias happened?
We are chiefly- responsible. By "we” I mean both producers and consumers. We have exhausted our political strength fighting over what I call third-class issues which do not directly affect us. We let the politicians select the issues for us, and out of the 110 million people in this country you may count on the fingers of one hand the leading public men who are not tied up to some selfish interest or prejudice which comes in ahead of the rights of the people. The biggest and1 most vital issue in this world today is the production and distribution of food and fiber. but let any public man undertake to get down into the heart of it and tell the truth, and see what becomes of him. You can no more cure the trouble from which our business suffers through either of the present political parties than you can cure a case of heart disease by rubbing liniment on a man’s back and giving him ginger tea!
Nothing on earth but a change in human nature—on the part of both farmers and consumers. For years we as farmers, have fought each other and tried each to match our own little farm against the entire market. We have been too anxious to make the present dollar at any cost without considering that a dollar spent reasonably today may make $10 tomorrow. We have not invested our earnings in the farm, but have sent them oil to invest in stocks or bonds which simply built up the town and city, and' made new bait to lure our boys and girls and our capital away from the farm. For example, take my own farm. Had I spent more time in draining our wet fields and seeding more cover crops and hauling more black dirt out of the swamps I could this year have grown even larger crops with far less cost of fertilizer! Then we all raise what we can and dump it onto the market, each for himself, culls and all— anything that will bring a little money. We have not known up to within a few years what our crops cost, or what others are doing. Now all this has become a part of human nature. No political legislation can change that. We have got to do it ourselves.
Yes, for it is being done here and there all over the country. The Dairymen’s League has started it, and met with some success. I can name many cases where farmers have organized to control their market. They do not always succeed, but they slowly realize the need and the meaning of discipline, the proper use of capital and the fact that they must drop their personal prejudices and get together. ' That is what I mean by changing human nature. It is said to be an impossible thing to do. If that is true we must harness human nature and make it work as a double team.
They are also very largely responsible for our troubles. The ‘'human nature” of the city consumer is more selfish and shallow and hateful than that of the countryman. One day on the Paterson market fine tomatoes were down to 25 cents a basket. A woman walked right by the wagon for a quarter of a mile to a store and bought a can of tomatoes for 18 cents. People buy $15 shoes, 30-cent collars, “soda” at 11 cents and other luxuries in proportion without a murmur, and then growl like bears at any fair price for food! Every grocer must support a lot of ‘‘dead’ beats.” They run up a bill, and then run away from it. The grocer gets it back in two ways. He charges more to the people who pay cash and he beats down the producer for what he buys. Of course he cannot beat down the big food handlers. Their prices are fixed. But there will come a time when the market is crowded. Then the storekeeper buys for almost nothing and holds up the consumer for the full price. For some years now consumers in the factory towns have been buying recklessly. Now they are beginning tc curtail. They are keeping up purchases of high-priced manufactured goods, but fighting food prices bitterly. I think the Government through its failure to control the Cuban sugar crop is responsible for the high price. The people are so angry over this high price that they refuse to buy sugar. They are using less of it as candy, for cooking and for canning. That action is reflected in the market for our fruit and some vegetables, for the home canning trade has become enormous. The loss of this home canning trade has increased the market surplus for fruit, thrown it back upon us and hurt prices. This means cheaper supplies to the big canners, who can buy for almost nothing, unless, as in Delaware, the farmer refuses to sell below a stated price. Then next Winter, with a shortage in home canning, these cheaply acquired goods will mount up in price. If these consumers could have canned without sugar and bought their usual quantity, the price of fruit would have been held, and with the new sugar crop the dealers would have been forced' to come down.
What part do the middlemen play?
Like most of us, they are after the last dollar, and they get it. I spend no time cursing the middlemen, though they have steadily robbed us. If they are thieves it is because “we” (producers and consumers) permit them to practice thievery. I know what they do to get our produce for less than its value, and then sell it for more than it is worth. The middleman is a human being, and in our present state of civilization he is entitled to a fair share of the cost of distribution. The trouble with the world is that he gets more than his share. We cannot make him disgorge by swearing at him or pleading with him—we have got to do it ourselves!
First, change human nature and get together in support of our business. I am told that on the board of directors in many large corporations are men who hate each other personally with a hatred which you and I can hardly understand. Yet when any question concerning the rights of the corporation comes up these men drop their personal differences and vote together. I think, as farmers, we must learn how to do that. In the next place w’e have got to put what is called kithe fear of God” into the hearts of our law-makers. "The voice of the people is the voice of God.”
Just what do you mean by this “fear of God?”
I mean the conviction in the hearts of our public men that they have got to serve humanity and not their party alone. In the end the politicians are not masters. They are very humble servants. They obey the strongest hand'. They are ruled by fear. You rarely see one stand up and fight for the unpopular side. What I mean is that "we" have got to make this issue of food distribution so big and so true and so popular and so just that our leaders will have to get in and put it over. It must be a crusade for a fair distribution of the essentials of life—no more, no less. These public men work on the theory that their delegated power authorizes them to do about as they please, after election. Twenty men averaging $5.-
000,000 each and very insistent will
have more power over a public man than 10,000 ordinary citizens who
find fault 364 days and "vote
straight” one day! It would be just so with you or anyone else. It will ever be so until you and' I and the rest of the 10,000 can change our "human nature” and make our public men understand that we mean business.
The Fall is here and leaves will leave
The trees and make us sigh and grieve;
The leaves will leave, the trees will stay,
To shiver through each wintry day;
The trees will stay, and yet, by ji ng
You’ll find the trees will leave next Spring.
Denies Apples Are Wasted
The season is now about ripe for the “feature” writers of the big city dailies and the political spellbinders to begin their annual howl about apples rotting on the ground all over Wisconsin while consumers are paying enormous prices. Such articles do not please the consumer, the fruit grower nor anybody else.
While it may not be of any great interest to readers of this paper the editor takes the liberty of reproducing a specimen of his spleen which appeared in a Milwaukee paper one year ago.—F. C.
Reports from the various sections of the state about the waste of apples in Wisconsin are disputed by Secretary F. Cranefield of the Wisconsin State Horticultural society. Mr. Cranefield, in response to an inquiry from The Journal, writes:
‘‘So far as the present season is concerned, such reports are without any foundation whatever. Wisconsin apples are just beginning to ripen, and it is therefore absurd to say that any are rotting under the trees.
Reports Are Current Annually
“However, such reports have been current in other years and are usually greatly exaggerated, and in most cases wholly untrue. Some alarmist from the city rides through the country in an automobile, sees a few bushels of windfalls on the ground and sets up the howl, ‘Thousands of bushels of apples are rotting on the ground, and we in the city are paying exorbitant prices.’
“This cry is taken up by the politician who wants to make a big hit with the city people, and he rings such changes on it as best suits his purpose. It positively is not true that thousands of bushels of apples rot on the ground annually in Wisconsin. I do not mean to say that no apples go to waste, but the quantity is much smaller than the poorly informed alarmist or agitators would have us believe. A bushel of apples on the ground under a tree makes a big showing. Further, no self-respecting housewife would take as a gift much of this fruit, and if it was' gathered and olfered for sale to the people who circulate these wild yarns they would rage still more at the grocer for offering them such trash.
Two Classes of Orchards
“In order to understand the situation, it is necessary to know something about the orchards in Wisconsin. In this state the apple orchards may be divided into two classes, farm orchards of ten to fifty, or rarely as many as 100 trees each, and commercial orchards of 500 to 10,000 trees each.
“In the average farm orchard the trees are wholly neglected. The farmer never gives the orchard a thought until the apples, if by chance there are any, begin to ripen. “On account of lack of pruning, spraying and tillage, much of the fruit is gnarly, scrubby, and wormy.
“If all the apples from the farm orchards of Wisconsin were packed in barrels it would be necessary to label 95 per cent of them culls under our state grading law. Sometimes such apples as these rot on the ground and that seems to be the only solution, as most of them would not bring freight charges if shipped to Milwaukee markets.
No “Commercial” Apples Lost
“The only suggestion I have to offer is to those who know something about handling apples at wholesale. These farm orchard apples can be bought, shipped loose in box ears and sold either direct to consumers or to the trade. The shipper may or may not make a profit.
“No apples from commercial orchards go to waste. These apples bring a good price, and they are worth it. It has cost time, money and brains to produce them.
“The apple crop in Wisconsin this year is estimated by the federal bureau of markets at 114,-000 barrels. Of these from 25,-000 to 30,000 barrels will be first class apples, grades A and B, and, according to the present outlook will bring from $6 to $8 a barrel wholesale, and possibly $10. Of the balance, some, fewer this year than usual, will rot on the ground. It is unavoidable.”— Milwaukee Journal, Sept. 2nd, 1919.
A Worth While Fruit Show
Wisconsin fruit growers, especially amateurs should help to make the Wisconsin fruit exhibit at the meeting of the American Pomological Society in Columbus, Ohio, Dec. 1-3 a credit to our state. Apples, pears and grapes are needed, not in large quantities but a dozen, or less, typical specimens of standard varieties, especially apples of Wisconsin origin: Wolf River, McMahan, Northwestern, Pewaukee, Gem City and others. Pears are also badly wanted for while pears are not commercially prominent in Wisconsin we can and do grow some good ones. Grapes of the later maturing kinds will easily keep in storage until Dec. 1st.
No cash premiums are offered but bronze and silver medais and ribbons. This Society is assembling a display and help is needed. An A. P. S. medal or ribbon is the highest honor that can be won by any fruit grower. All fruit contributed will be entered in the name of the grower. Select only perfect specimens, typical of the variety, wrap each in several layers of paper, pack snugly in eartons and send by mail or express to F. Cranefield, 701 Gay Building, Madison. The fruit will be ^placed in storage and placed on exhibition without charge to the exhibitor.
Published Monthly by the Wisconsin State Horticultural Society 11 N. Carroll St Official organ of the Society.
FREDERIC CRANEFIELD, Editor. Secretary W. 8. H. S., Madison, Wia.
Entered ai second-class matter May 18, 1912, at the postoffice at Madison, Wisconsin, under the Act of March 8, 1879.
Advertising rates made known on application.
Wisconsin State Horticultural Society
Annual membership fee, one dollar, which includes fifty cents, subscription price to Wisconsin Horticulture. Send one dollar to Frederic Cranefield, Editor, Madison, Wis.
Remit by Postal or Express Money Order. A do.'lar bill may be sent safely if wrapped or attached to a card. Personal checks accepted.
Postage stamps not accepted.
J. A. Hays..............................President
F. Oranefleld, Secretary-Treasurer......Madison
J. A. Hays..............................Ex-Officio
F. Cranefleld ...........................Ex-Officio
1st Diet., Wm. Longland..........Lake Geneva
2nd Diet., R. J. Coe................Ft. Atkinson
3rd Dist., E. J. Frautschi..............Madison
4th Diet., A. Leldiger ................Milwaukee
5th Diet., Jas. Livingstone .........Milwaukee
6th Diet., H. C. Christensen...........Oshkosh
Tth Dist., Wm. Toole, Sr...............Baraboo
8th Diet., J. E. Leverich.................Sparta
9th Dist., L. E. Birmingham.....Sturgeon Bay
10th Dist., Paul E. Grant............Menomonie
11th Diet., Irving Smith ................Ashland
BOARD OF MANAGERS
J. A. Hays, President................Gays Mills
Our Neighbor says that he has now completed a year's observation of his Neighbor’s Garden and has nothing more to tell.
The editor accepts this statement with reservations.
The author of the delightful articles which covered just one year in a garden is a well known professional man of Madison, who, as you may have surmised, is a skilled amateur gardener who grows flowers and vegetables of the highest quality just for the joy of seeing them grow. He is a true nature lover, very unobtrusive but always ready and eager to help his neighbors.
sional gardener of high standing, said: ‘‘No other feature of the paper has given me as much pleasure the past year as Our Neighbor’s notes; they remind me of David Grayson.”
May we not live in hope that Neighbor may have a new neighbor next year so that he may praise him and scold him a little in his own peculiar way.
Just Plain Mud
Now comes Prof. P. J. Parrott of the New York Experiment Station who has used clay as an insecticide. For leaf hoppers he offers four formulas and the fourth is this: Copper sulfate, 2 lbs., lime 2 lbs., clay 30 to 40 lbs., water 100 gallons.
A correspondent of an eastern agricultural journal thought that Prof. Parrott must surely be joking or was misquoted but on being questioned about clay conies right back like this:
“All of these mixtures, if applied in liberal amounts and at the proper time, will give effective results against such insects as the apple leaf-hopper, apple aphis, pear psylla, etc.
If you have followed our experimental activities as reported in the Proceedings of the State Horticultural Society, you have perhaps noted that we have been recommending the use of considerable lime in several formulas for spraying against the foregoing insects. In the case of potatoes, tomatoes and young growth of apple trees, large amounts of lime may injure the tender leaves, and in experiments with various clays we have discovered that clay may be a satisfactory substitute for lime. Clay exercises the same repellant properties as lime, and is safer, besides being much less expensive.
The suggestion that clay possesses insecticidal properties generally provokes a smile at first, but horticultural history reveals the fact that clay has long been used' as a repellant, although its merits for this purpose have not been thoroughly understood. I hope our work will de-
I Shall Pass This Way But Once
Therefore I crave a pleasant journey. I desire congenial companions and the opportunity to loiter a bit by the wayside, perchance to gather a flower or plant a seed. In order to enjoy this journey I must be cheerful or those who journey with me will lose their cheerfulness.
I rather think its up to me to make this trip worth while; don’t you!
Tell me then, you good people who sometimes read this paper, what shall I, who will pass this way but once, do to make the journey pleasant.
The editor will find room be it only a line or two, if you will tell me. What shall I do? What would you do! Will you tell me?
Write it out just as you would say it to a friend, ten words or a hundred and not necessarily horticulture.
I shall be here next month in this same corner. Do you want that I should be alone? I know many fine people and I know that every one of them has some fine cheerful idea locked in his heart. I wish they would tell me. You must send your name to the Editor but I will not tell if you want it that way. Pilgrim.
termine the ranges of usefulness of clay and the conditions under which it can be satisfactorily employed for a number of our common pests, such as potato leaf-hopper, potato fleabeetle, pear psylla, apple aphids, etc.
P. J. Parrott.”
It’s going to be awfully hard on the lime-sulfur manufacturers but we certainly should worry, not. Just hitch up alongside any old clay bank and load the spray tank.
Growing Raspberries in Iowa
By T. W. Blackman*
We have grown Raspberries for many years, most of the time by the acre.
We were successful for a number of years growing the Gregg on our hillsides and mulching heavily. By this means we obtained a strong, healthy growth of canes which came through the winter in good condition, and we finally came to the conclusion that the canes are not killed so much by low temperature, but rather that it is the dry, hot weather in summer that so weakens the canes that they are unable to stand the dry, cold winds of our winters. In summer they produced large juicy berries in the driest weather. People often asked us if we watered our bushes.
While this method was a success, still the time came when we could no longer obtain mulching and so we were forced to look to other means. As an experiment one year, probably in the nineties, we selected a nice piece of rich garden soil, planted six rows of Gregg and each fall covered five rows with soil and left one row out to the weather. The result was surprising; the five rows bore fine crops yearly, while the one row bore little and at the end of three years was almost gone, the five still being strong bushes.
We at once began planting both black and red Raspberries by the acre for covering, and have continued the practice. This year we covered about .five acres of the largest canes we ever saw.
♦Paper read at 1919 Convention of Iowa Vegetable Growers’ Association.
Now it is some undertaking to cover these bushes, and probably ■would not be practical except for the fact that we are market gardeners and usually have most of the force necessary for the work. We do not always get a good crop, yet we are reasonably sure of a good crop most seasons. This last season a very large crop set, but the early drought reduced the size of the berries about half. Still the crop was very satisfactory and a light rain towards the last made the last pickings best. Raspberries are very quick to respond to even a small amount of moisture, we mean, of course, good thrifty bushes, because half dead bushes in a weed patch would not do this.
We are now growing four varieties, and a fifth, the Scarff, on trial, is very promising. Our standards are Gregg, Cuthbert, King and Columbian, and all respond equally to winter covering. If some one can discover any easy and cheap way to grow Raspberries in Iowa, his fortune is made, as demand is practically unlimited at any reasonable price. We sold ours this season at $4.80 to $5.40 per 24-pint case.
The question will naturally come up, will all this labor of covering and uncovering pay?
I doubt it myself and rather think one could make more money growing com and hogs, but the business is in our line and, if I am to grow them at all, I want crops and this is the only way I know of getting them. And then we forget about the covering along in July when the berries begin to roll in and we can load up and go to market with something that people want and are willing to pay well for. When you ask the grocer how many he wants he often says: “All you have on your load.”
Aside from covering we give no special cultivation, but prefer rich soil not too rolling, and preferably fall plowing. We plant two feet nine inches by seven and eight feet, the Black Caps in very shallow furrows, the red in deep furrows, all laid out straight. We plant nothing between them as we want the bushes to have all the moisture available. We have grown the old Wilson Blackberry this way and were highly successful with it until anthracnose and cane borers drove us out. Iu fact the most amazing crop of fruit we ever grew or saw anywhere was an acre of Wilson Blackberries matured in 1892 and which had been laid down in winter and the whole soil deeply covered with manure mulching.
In laying down bushes we use four men in a gang—one gathering the bushes together, pulling and bending down, placing one foot on them to hold them while the other men pile on the soil, enough to hold them, then move on. Later we go over them and finish the job. A few canes will be broken, but not enough to cause serious injury.
We always take out all old canes as soon as possible after fruiting, beginning sometimes before the pickers are out of the patch. This throws the whole strength of the plant into new growth.
We also, at this time, thoroughly cultivate the bushes, as we have been obliged to slack up on cultivation for a time.
This treatment, if weather is Continued on page 40
AMONG WISCONSIN BEEKEEPERS
Devoted to The Interests of The Wisconsin State Beekeepers' Association
H. F. Wilson, Editor
Wisconsin State Beekeepers’ Convention
December 1, 2 and 3, Senate Chamber, State Capital.
Make this the greatest convention ever held in Wisconsin
Have you a paper to read before the State Convention? If so, send work in getting state members. There is a big opportunity for other local associations to induce the members of their local to join the state association. The membership of the state association is now over 800 but unless considerable work is done, we will not be able to reach the desired number of 1.000 by the time of the convention.
Standard Grades—Why Not Standard Prices?
In looking over the reports from the reporters of local associations, one is immediately struck by the variation in honey quotations. Since our honey is now all graded accord-
Among those present at the Beekeepers’ Chautauqua, Madison, August 10th to 20th.
us the title at once and we you on the program. The for the December meeting pear in the November issue cousin Horticulture.
will put program will ap-of Wis-
BETTER BEEKEEPING BETTER CROPS STANDARD GRADES STANDARD PRICES
Ixx'al AHiliated Associations Showing State and Local Membership ing to certain standards, why can we not have a standard price throughout the state? The standard retail price per pound averages nearer 35c than otherwise. The great variation comes in larger quantities and wholesale lots. Some of our beekeepers do not believe that honey can be profitably produced for less than 30c a pound. Yet there are beekeepers who are disposing of their crop at 20c a pound and no doubt we may later hear of some who have accepted less. In competition with western honey it is possible that our beekeepers may have to accept as low as 20c wholesale but I do not believe any beekeeper can pay himself good ial from
1. Sheboygan Co.
2. Fond du Lac
3. Grant Co.....
4. Marathon Co.
5. Waukesha Co.
6. Chippewa Valley
7. Northeastern Wis.
8. Dane Co.....
9. Milwaukee Co.
10. Winnebago Co.
11. Richland Co. .
12. Shawano Co. .
13. Wood Co.....
14. Northern Wis.
15. Jefferson Co. .
16. Fox River Valley
wages and’ a fair interest on his investment and accept less. The cost of bottling, wholesaling and selling could easily make a difference between this wholesale price and the retail price now being paid for honey.
Personally, I do not believe that it is fair to compare the food value of butter, eggs, milk or even sugar with that of honey. Honey is not in the same class of foods as the above although the sugar content is relatively close to that of cane or beet sugar. However, honey is not sold Jn the form of sugar nor is it intended that it should be used in the place of sugar. Honey belongs in the same class with jams, jellies and other similar food products. The price of honey should be compared with the price of high grade jellies, jams and bread spread’s.
Wisconsin produces only a comparatively few kinds of honey. The quality of this product is more or less the same each year for the entire state and there is no reason why honey should sell for less in one section of the state than in ^mother, and it would not if all our beekeepers would follow good' business methods in disposing of their crop. It is a known fact that carloads of honey from the west are shipped into the state, bottled, put on to the market and sold at the same retail price as our Wisconsin honey. Some Wisconsin honey is shipped out of the state. The great bulk is sold at home. Every pound of honey produced in Wisconsin could be sold within the borders of the state if the beekeeping industry was organized, the honey advertised1, and properly distributed.
Is it not possible then for our beekeepers to become better organized even to the extent of forming a selling organization so that honey can be produced and distributed at a price that is fair to the beekeeper as well as the consumer. This question will undoubtedly be brought up at the state convention in December and our beekeepers should come prepared to discuss the situation from every angle. H. F. W.
Dr. C. C. Miller recently died at his home at Marengo, Illinois. Dr. Miller was one of the finest beekeepers of his time and in addition was a splendid man to meet and visit with.
We are rapidly passing into the third generation of beekeepers in America and it is to be hoped' that the next generation will see the beekeeping industry standardized and working on a business foundation that will place it among the Important agricultural industries of the time.
Those what attended the Chautauqua were doubtless struck by the incompleteness of the write-up in this paper. The writer in a measure must take the blame, but circumstances alter cases. He had been busy for hours immediately previous writing up notes of the lectures and brought to the article an ‘‘apperceptive mass" of beekeeping lectures only when he had a very limited time to prepare the article. Of course, it is unfair both to those who planned a good time besides the lectures not to mention those other enjoyments. Now that time has elapsed a little reflection is possible.
Chronologically first and last came swimming much indulged in by Dr. Phillips, Mr. McMurray, Theo. Bronson and others of the near ‘‘finny tribe.” Then there was Prof. Wilson’s ‘•hard-to-pull-off” sight-seeing auto trip to Vilas Park and other places of interest in Madison. Mr. Barr, the Scotchman from Milwaukee, gave two short talks overflowing with humor. His little talk on "Ethics of Beekeeping” showed how ungrateful others may be for services rendered and his moral which can be stated something like this, "Teach your fellow beekeeper but let him learn by doing his own work” was well taken. All will remember Mrs. Hildreth, the genial clerk, ever ready to relieve you of your superfluous cash; take down your beekeeping data in return for a little tag to preserve your identity; and other slips of paper which entitled you to the physical necessities of life as provided by Mr. Hamble under the smaller tent.
The tent colony enjoyed somewhat of a common fraternizing. Then, there was that picnic to Bernard’s Park across Lake Mendota. Mr. McMurry was master of ceremonies and was very much at home keeping the “young folks” busy with entertainment. The picnickers enjoyed very much the violin playing by Mr. Brown, and the banjo playing and darky songs of the colored cook.
All in all the Chautauqua was a success both socially and “aplcultur-ally.” We surely had an enjoyable and profitable time together. Lets do it again next year—more of us!
Sept. 9.—Some beekeepers are re
queening. No surplus from fall
honey flow, weather too dry. Ex
tracted honey, wholesale, in 60 lb.
cans 25c per lb.; to retailers 10 lb.
pail $3, 5 lb. pail $1.60, pints 54c;
to consumer 10 lb. pail $3.50, 5 lb. ail J1.80, pints 65c. Comb honey to retailer 35c; to consumer 40c. Tli< average amount of honey producer per colony for the entire season ii about 33 lbs.
Reporter—Emma L. Bartz, Chip pewa Valley Beekeepers' Assn.
Sept. 3.—Lots of brood this fall some of our beekeepers are requeen ing. Not getting any fall flow. Ex tracted honey selling for 25c per lb and comb honey for 30c per lb Practically all of the extracted hone; has been sold and very little coml honey on hand'. The average pro duction per colony is about 75 lbs.
Reporter—J. S. Sloniker, Clarl County Beekeepers’ Assn.
Sept. 13.—The fall flow still con tinues to be good thus giving mem bers an excellent opportunity to re queen, work that has been done mori thoroughly this year than ever be fore. The amount of surplus honei from the fall flow varies greatly de pending upon the amount of extract ing done after the clover flow. Price; of Honey: Retail—Extracted 35c t< 45c; comb 45c to 55c depending upoi size of containers and upon varioui grades of comb honey. Wholesale-Extracted 25c to 30c depending upoi quantity; Comb 35c to 45c regulatee by grades. The next local meetinf will be held at the apiary of Car Felton; enthusiasm is very keen, win ter problems and preparations foi winter bidding for first place. Th< average production per colony pei spring count is about 75 lbs. allow ing ample stores for wintering.
Reporter — Robert L. Siebecker Dane County Beekeepers' Assn.
Sept. 6.—Bees are in 100 per cen condition and nearly all are requeen ed. No fall surplus but enough foi stimulation. Prices. Wholesale—Ex tracted 22c to 25c; Retail—26c ir 60 lb. cans and 30c in smaller quan titles plus cost of container. Coml honey 35c and 40c. Three-fourths of extracted honey crop on hand Comb honey practically all sold European foulbrood' all through th< eastern half of Outagamie county American foulbrood is bad in ths northwestern corner of the county The average production will be somewhat better than 100 pounds, a few claim double that amount. Personally, I beliieve it is a mistake foi beekeepers to boast about their large crops. They happen only once in a while, and give a wrong public impression with reference to the profits in the business. How many business men will tell you how much business they do in any given length of time. Why should a beekeeper boast a large crop of honey and have any one multiply the same with the price and know how much monej you are making; and at the present time be accused' of profiteering, when we all know that we have poor sea-
WE CANNOT STOP
While the bees work on fall flows carloads of lumber are piling up in our yards. No shortage must delay shipments next year.
Even in the dull season our organization of experts must be retained to maintain the quality of Lewis “Beware” at all times.
We cannot stop lest beekeepers be disappointed. Help us avoid disappointing you next May. Order now. It will pay you well.
Order in October for next year.
Get the extra 7% discount now. Cash must accompany such orders.
WHERE YOU BUY YOUR
Do you know the principles of wintering bees successfully? Get “How to Winter Bees Outdoors,” a booklet for 5 cents, or send for the complete set of 15 Lewis “How" booklets, price 75 cents.
Makers of Lewis “Beeware”
Branches and Distributors Everywhere
sons, disease and winter losses to make up some other year and the good year must bring same to a balance. Some beekeepers boast a large crop and buy sugar to winter the bees on and do not subtract the pounds of sugar from their honey crop. Is that fair?
Reporter — Edw. Hassinger, Jr., Fox River Valley Bee. Assn.
Sept. 18.—Very few beekeepers in this section requeen. No surplus from the fall honey flow secured. Prices: Wholesale—Extracted 30c;
comb, 40c; Retail—Extracted 30 to 35c; comb 40 to 50c. Enough extracted honey for local market on hand and very little comb honey on hand. The average production per colony is probably not more than 25 lbs. for comb honey and 50 lbs. for extracted honey.
Reporter—W. R. Abbot, Jefferson County Beekeepers’ Assn.
Sept. 13.—Beekeepers in this section secured a surplus from the fall honey flow. Prices: Wholesale, Extracted 23 to 2 5c; Retail, Extracted 30 to 35c. tracted; very little comb honey. The average production per colony is about 60 lbs. The “clean-up" has made some of our beekeepers feel better and others down-hearted.
Reporter — Jas. Gwin, Richland County Beekeepers' Assn.
Sept. 14.—A few of our beekeepers are requeening but not nearly as many as should. In this section only in a few cases do bees gather a surplus in the fall. Not much honey sold' to the wholesaler in this section, retail prices 30c to 30v per lb. for extracted. Only part of this year's crop on hand and that is mostly all extracted honey. It is impossible to give the average production per colony at this time as it will run from 20 lbs. to 400 lbs. spring count. A meeting was held at L. T. Bishop’s yard September 22. It was a real school, demonstrations in packing bees for winter were given by some of our most successful beekeepers.
Reporter—L. T. Bishop, Sheboygan County Beekeepers’ Assn.
Sept. 7.—Some of our beekeepers are requeening but quite a large number are not. Many of our beekeepers feel that requeening is too big an undertaking. We have very little fall flow here as a rule, although my bees never have worked so steadily as this fall on buckwheat. About
Should send for our booklet on the new MODIFIED DADANT HIVE. The hive with a brood chamber sufficient for prolific queens. OUR CATALOG IS FREE.
50 per cent of the extracted honey crop on hand and about the same per cent of comb honey on hand. Our beekeepers are asking 45c for comb honey No. 1 fancy and 35 to 45c extracted depending upon how put up. As far as I can tell at this writing comb honey will run from 40 to 60 lbs. per colony. Extracted honey—one party averaged' about 75 lbs., smother party only about 20 lbs. while my average was about 65 lbs.
Reporter —■ W. T. Sherman, Walworth County Beekeepers’ Assn.
Sept. 13.—The progressive beekeepers are requeening, some every years, others every two years. Most of the side line beekeepers do not requeen. We have not fall honey flow in this county that yields a surplus. No comb honey on hand. Most of the beekeepers have been asking 30c retail for extracted honey. A few are selling for less The average amount produced per colony varies, so me had an average of 100 lbs. per colony and some secured no surplus at all. A lack of experience is the cause of this great variation.
Reporter — A. H. Seefeldt, Washington County Beekeepers’ Assn.
Sept. 6.—The condition of the colonies is good in general. Some beekeepers have requeened, but many have not. In some scattered places there was a fall flow, but little if any surplus is reported. It was too dry during July and most of August. Mostly all comb and extracted honey has been sold. Prices: Wholesale 25 to 28c extracted; Retail, extracted 3 0 to 37c; comb honey 45c retail. In general the crop is not as good as last year, the average per colony will not run over 75 pounds per colony. It was too cold and dry the first half of June and too dry after the first week in July.
Reporter—C. W. Aeppler, Waukesha County Beekeepers’ Assn.
Sept. 9.—Bees are in good condition generally, a few beekeepers have requeened and brood rearing has kept up well to date. No surplus from fall honey flow; buckwheat, sweet clover, golden rod gave enough to produce young bees for winter. About 12 tons of extracted honey in county; smaller producers completely sold out; no comb honey on hand. Extracted honey selling at 25 to 30c retail. The inspection work is nearly done; some American foulbrood' scattered through the county. Disease situation is improved over last year.
Reporter—H. E. Greenwood, Winnebago County Beekeepers’ Assn.
4 cups scalded milk
% teaspoon powdered cinnamon
*4 teaspoon salt
Beat the eggs sufficiently to unite the yolks and' whites, but not enough to make them foamy. Add the other ingredients and bake in cups or in a large pan in a moderate oven. The baking dishes should be set in water.
2 cups milk
3 yolks % cup honey
% teaspoon salt
Mix the honey, eggs, and salt. Scald the milk and' pour it over the eggs. Cook in a double boiler until the mixture thickens. This custard is suitable for use in place of cream on gelatin desserts, or to be poured over sliced organized or stewed fruit
% cup honey
6 ounces bread crumbs
% cup milk
Rind' of half a lemon
% teaspoon ginger
2 egg yolks
2 tablespoons butter
2 egg whites
Mix the honey and the bread crumbs and add the milk, seasonings, and yolks of the eggs. Beat the mixture thoroughly and then add the butter and the whites of the eggs well beaten. Steam for about two hours in a pudding mold which is not more than three-quarters full.
1 quart cream
6 lady Angers % cup delicately flavored honey
Chill the honey by placing the dish containing it in a pan of ice water. Whip the cream and add it to the honey, mixing the two well. Line a dish with lady fingers and fill it with the honey and cream. Serve very cold.
1 pint cream
1 cup hot, delicately flavored honey
Beat the eggs slightly and slowly pour over them the hot honey. Cook until the mixture thickens. When it is cool, add the cream whipped. Put the mixture into a mold, pack in salt and ice, and let it stand' three or four hours.
1 quart thin cream
% cup delicately flavored honey Mix ingredients and freeze.
1 pint milk Yolks 6 eggs 1 cup honey 1 pint cream
Heat the milk in a double boiler.
Beat together the honey and eggs, add' the hot milk, return the mixture to the double boiler, and cook it until it thickens. Add the cream and when the mixture is cool, freeze it.
Orchard and Garden
Elderberry fruits are used in pies aud sometimes in making sauce or syrups.
High bush cranberry fruit makes fine jelly and with the high prices being paid for fruits this year should find a ready market.
Send for bulbs for fall planting. Tulips do well planted outdoors. Daffodils, hyacinths and narcissus varieties are fine for spring flowers in the house. Plant in pots this month.
Black currants sold for twenty five or thirty cents a quart in July. Red currants and gooseberries were nearly as high and yet there are thousands of farms in this state that do not have a bush of either. Why?
Fifty cents a quart for raspberries the latter part of July ought to encourage more people to grow red raspberries, especially since they are one of the easiest fruits to grow either by the acre or on the city lot.
Bids are being asked by the government on vegetable and flower seeds to be distributed by congressmen. A few of the items are as follows: sweet peas 5,000 lbs., zinnia seed 500 lbs., candytuft 1,000 lbs., nasturtium 2,000 lbs., beets 70,000 lbs., lettuce 60,-000 lbs., and radish 75,000 lbs. All of these are standard seeds easily obtained from any seedsman. Why should congressmen send them to you or me?
Worms Injure Pine and Spruce Nursery Stock
A worm about an inch to an inch and a half long with the body covered with black dots has been found in several instances, injuring young evergreen nursery stock this past season. This insect is the larva of a black fourwinged fly and is called the pine or spruce sawfly because of the saw-like ovipositor possessed by the female. A closeiy related species called the larch saw-fly often defoliates the trees in the tamarack swamps.
The pine sawfly makes its appearance in late summer feeding upon the leaves and as the larvae are gregarious, the work is quite conspicuous. Nursery trees suffer and may perish unless steps are taken to stop the larvae from feeding. It has been found that arsenate of lead used at the rate of 2 pounds to 50 gallons of water to which has been added about 2 pounds of dissolved laundry soap (small amounts are 2 rounded tablespoonsful to a gallon and an inch cube of soap) will readily check the pest. The soap is added to make the spray stick to the leaves and unless this is done poor control will result. If the amount of soap indicated above does not cause the spray to spread well, add more soap.
Chas. L. Fluke, Jr.
Fruit-Tree Bark Beetle damage. It usually confines its work to dead or unhealthy trees but when quite abundant it will attempt to enter perfectly healthy trees. Stone fruits, however, exude so much sap if injured that the beetles are either driven out or killed. In time the tree may become so weakened that the beetles will gain entrance and begin their depredations.
They will attack peach, plum, cherry, apricot, quince, apple, june berry, and choke cherry. A peculiar instance of the damage they may do came to our attention this year, during mid-summer. The adult beetles were found on cherry trees eating small burrows into the short sprus -which bear the clusters of leaves, causing the leaves to brown and die.
Interesting Life Habits
The adults, which are beetles, are about 1/10 of an inch in length and dark-brown in color. They appear in spring and the females seek suitable branches in which to lay eggs. They then burrow through the bark into the sap wood and make what is known as egg chambers, tunnels iy2 to 2 inches long which run between the bark and sap w’ood, usually lengthwise of the branches. As they make these chambers, they lay from time to time minute white eggs in single rows, one on each side of the burrow's.
three days for the eggs to hatch, the first laid hatch before the adults are through laying. As soon as the young grubs emerge from the eggs they begin burrowing at right angles to the egg chambers, but change their direction shortly so that as they become full grown, all the tunnels run lengthwise of the limbs. In about 20 days they become full growm, excavate burrows into the sap wood, plug the opening, and change to pupae, the resting stage. The pupae transform into beetles in about ten days and soon gnaw their way out ready to mate and start another generation. Probably only twro generations occur each year in Wisconsin.
How to Prevent the Damage Caused by the Fruit-Tree Bark Beetle
One of the best methods to avoid infestation is by keeping the trees vigorous by proper pruning, cultivation, and spraying. Abandoned orchards, old pruning piles, choke cherry trees along the roadside and neglected or w’eak trees should be cut down and burned. If limbs and branches become infested they should be cut off and burned before the beetles have a chance to emerge. A stiff whitewash, to w’hich has been added *4 pound of salt to every pail of whitewash, applied to the trunk and larger limbs has given good results. Trees w’hich have become half dead or dying are the surest and most direct route to trouble from this pest. Avoid this insect by giving proper attention to
A tiny insect but one which is canable of doing considerable In about a w’cek the chambers arc finished but as it takes only such trees.
Charles L. Fluke, Jr.
The Needs of Our Neighborhood
By Mrs. Hattie Kepler, Boaz,
In writing on the needs of our neighborhood I am writing on a need that is general. There may be, and, doubtless, is this difference, that the need is greater or harder to remedy in one place than in another. If I may put it in one word, ours is a genuine community spirit. You ask, what is a community spirit? Well it is a feeling of interest and concern for the other fellow. It sees itself bound up with a neighbor for weal or woe. It knows that, no matter how much personal success there may be, if a neighbor suffers loss, this loss falls, in part on the other, also. Such a feeling is always more common in t he early history of any community. We can have pardonable pride in the fact, that our state of Wisconsin stands in the front rank of states that are trying to create and foster this community spirit. This work is being done through the efforts of men in close touch with our state university. Men are sent out to address people and organize them into clubs and community centers. Besides, they are sent out to instruct and interest the people in those things that concern the general welfare of each community. The burden is carried largely by the state. There are also instructive motion pictures and slides that can be obtained for no other cost than postage or express. Now, the question is how are we to get this community spirit. Well, to get at the matter, perhaps, a lesson from life may help us. Almost always, before we build up we must do some pulling down. In a prairie country the most may be only to burn the tall grass, but in a timber country, there must be cutting of trees and burning of much rubbish and pulling of stumps, before any good cultivating can be done. So we shall need some little pulling down before we can build.
To begin with, there is great need of some forgetting. In the past years, this neighborhood, (like many others) has been a scene of much unpleasantness. As long as these are kept alive by constant repeating and remembering, there is no hope of better things. They cannot be undone, do only harm in being remembered, and so ought to be buried. In the language of the Indian, we should bury “the hatchet.’’
Another bit of rubbish to be destroyed is suspicion. This evil trait will make its possessor and all about him or her most unhappy. The sincerest acts are looked upon as hiding a dagger of some sort. Every truthful word is a cover for some poison. The beauty and fragrance of the rose is not observed and enjoyed, because of the fear of some rank thorn beneath. Its feeling is expressed in the words: “Do the other fellow, before he does you.” As long as this feeling exists in any neighborhood there can be no pleasure or profit that can be called common.
There is great need of trusting, even if occasionally deceived. Confidence shown will some day bring confidence, just as love begets love. The Bible says, “We love Him, because He first loved us.” This holds good in all relations of life. It is impossible to take interest in any one we hold under suspicion.
Very closely allied with this is the unfortunate trait of telling all, or perhaps, more than we know. The proof of one’s religion lies in the ability to bridle one’s tongue. We need to paste under our hats words something like these: “There is so much good in the worst of us, and so much bad in the best of us, that it ill becomes any of us to talk about the rest of us.”
Another thing to be removed is indifference, I-don’t-care feeling. The man or woman that thinks or feels this way, as good as says, that nothing can touch them. They serve notice, that they do not consider themselves a part of the community, they don’t mix, and so are in no danger or are in no need. They are sorely deceived. No social wall can be built thick enough or high enough, that the outside influence will not touch us somewhere. If they do not touch ourselves, they will our children, and often sooner and more than we notice. It has two bitter stings, it will sometimes promise, and not fulfill, or it will blight by discouragement.
The whole may be summed up in the one word, S-E-L-F-I-S-H-N-E-S-S. Write it with capitals. This does not mean the love of money, but includes a list too numerous to mention here. Just as the apples on the same tree are not alike, so selfishness does not show itself in the same way in each person. The man who will let his wife worry with green wood all winter is as selfish as the man that cheats a neighbor in a deal.
This will likely clear the ground now for the building-up part, the making of a communityspirit or feeling. One part of the task is already performed. It is something to have a topic like this on our program. It means that we feel that we need something. We are asking what it is. We only tear down the old when we feel that we need something new and better. The first thing to be seen is, that each one is, that each one is a part of the neighborhood, the city, the state and the nation. And, for that matter, a part of the world. The community, is what you and I make it. No one man or woman makes the conditions of it. One may be doing more than another in trying to make the neighborhood good or bad, but we all do our part. When we see this, we lose our indifference. Every thing concerns us greatly. And, if we see someone trying to do something to better things, we will walk up to him or her some day, and say, “I am glad to see you do this; it is just what we need. You can count on me to do what little I can to help you along. Just call on me any time.” It will help much, when people see that two are on the job. We go by twos today when raising money, etc.
This will open our eyes still more. Working at a common task shows us all off to better advantage. It is hard for any of us always to look our best under all circumstances. We usually look a little better at parties and at church than we do at our daily work. What is true of the exterior is likewise true of the interior. When we are interested in a, common purpose the truest democracy shines forth. All hearts beat with the throb of the same enthusiasm, and this helps us all to appear better to every other engaged in the same effort. And, if now and then, there arises a slight ruffle of difference, the fervor of the bunch soon smooths out the wrinkles. Consequently, they do not gain their usual large proportions. Besides, no one is at all anxious to throw a cold sheet over the warmth that is felt by every one that is helping along good things. In this way we leave to become a little ashamed of our suspicions, and our neighbors appear better than they did.
Then there is need of a larger view of life, and no one needs this more than rural folks. There is always plenty to do for him who will work, and there always •will be. If we did not take a little pleasure until there was no work to do, we would never take any. We need to see that life is not all work, but that there is also a time to play. Birds and beasts have their playful moods, then why not we?
There is no better place on earth to live than a good country home. Pure air, pure water, everything to eat fresh and clean, and plenty of room to stir about. If to these we can only be taught to add a few hours and times of enjoyment, our boys and girls will not have a hankering for city life. Pleasure and society are the lure of the city for the young. And it is a great deception at that.
Now this cannot be as it ought to be, until it becomes a common thing. No one family can bring the right conditions about. Mr. John Babb often took his family out for a day’s fishing, but how many followed his example? The most that this community saw of this sort of effort was when Rev. Chas. A. Stevens managed to induce the farmers to take a Saturday half holiday, and played ball. Old and young entered into the spirit of the occasion, and are we any the worse off for the recreation ? Did we lose anything then? What proper effort will do even in and around Sabin, can be learned from what was done for several seasons in having a lecture course. Some of those most active in the matter, were, sorry to say, under some suspicion of running a money making scheme, but any who knows at all about such things knows that this is almost impossible. But the lesson is, that these efforts were seconded by the people,—they patronized the entertainments. This was the work of only a few. What would it mean to Sabin and this vicinity, if the whole community entered heartily into such work.
And this makes me think of something else. There ought to be a place for everyone, and something for everyone to do. And there ought to be plenty of room furnished for young people to use what talent they have. They should be kept in the lead as much as possible, so that the next bunch will have a better outlook than we had. See how our government,—yes, all governments, save, perhaps one,—are calling out young men of promise, to train them for the active duties that must soon fall upon them. Where the right sort of feeling, prevails, the older ones do not feel that they are cast aside, and the younger ones are not discouraged.
Just one thing more, and this is for the writer, a delicate thing. For standing on the outside, it may be thought out of place thus to write. But the one looking on often sees what another does not. This is the need of a better feeling among the Christian people, both with the same church and among those of different beliefs. It is only natural for a community to look to them to take the lead in all good works; and, if they do not work well together, how can we expect others to do so? If there were a little more pulling together for the welfare of all and not so much concern for the gain of any party, this vicinity would soon feel the effect of the effort.
If, under the enthusiasm this institute gives, we could here and now organize a club, bent on creating and fostering a ‘‘Community Spirit” there is nothing that we need of the necessary things of life and happiness that we could not have. There is no lack of means for anything we wish, we have some talent that we could utilize to our profit, and, if we go at it with the right spirit, we can be among the happiest and most prosperous of communities. But, to accomplish this, “let not each one look on his own things, but also on the things of others.”
For purpose of storage, apples should be cooled promptly after picking and held steadily at a low temperature. In generaJl the lower the temperature, so long as the fruit is not actually frozen, the longer apples may be held in storage. The temperatures necessary for the storage of applies for any considerable period is, of course, much below the average outdoor temperatures which usually prevail in apple growing sections during the harvesting period. This means that a storage building, whether refrigerated' or non-refrigerated, must be provided with insulation of some kind. By “insulation” is meant any mateiall, or method of construction adapted to effectively hinder the passage of heat. The insulation of a common, or non-refrigerated, building, is a matter deserving of more attention than it usually receives. Buildings intended for artificial cooling, or refrigeration, are usualfly more or less effectively insulated, since inadequate insulation means a greatly increased cost for refrigeration. In a common storage building, however, the importance of insulation is sometimes not fulfly realized.
In most climates adapted to common storage the insulation performs a double duty. During the warm part of the storage season, while fruit is being harvested and stored, the duty of the insulation is to exclude as much as possible of the outdoor heat, while during the cofld season of the year outdoor temperatures are likely to be considerably lower, at least for a certain portion of the time, than the stored fruit can endure without danger of freezings During this portion of the storage period the insulation provided in the walls of the building serves to retain the heat contained within the building sufficiently so that the contents of the building will not become unduly cooled before the weather becomes warm again. Insufficient insulation means that the fruit may be either insufficiently protected against the outside heat during the early part of the season, or during long continued cofld’ spells the contents of the storage building may become unduly chilled and damaged by freezing. In most climates adapted to common storage an insulation sufficient to give protection against frost is amply sufficient to give the protection required against the outside heat early in the season.
Holllow walls, or walls with so called "dead air spaces,” are sometimes depended upon to provide the required insulation. The degree or protection, or insulation, which such walls afford is however very small. Whifle it is true that still air, or air at rest, is a very effective insulation it is also true that the air in an inclosed space of any considerable size does not remain at rest, but is constantly in circulation if there is any marked difference In the temperatures of the two sides of the wall. The enclosed air flying against the warmer side of the wall space becomes heated’ and expanded and consequently rises, while that lying against the colder side becomes chilled1 and descends, a rotary circullation being thus set up within the air space itself which serves to transfer the heat from the warmer side to the colder side of the wall. The smaller the air spaces the less is the tendency to circulation of the air within the same. The expense of sub-dividing walfl spaces into sufficiently small and’ tight air-cells to provide a satisfactory insulation is however out of all proportion to the resuilts and renders an effective construction of this kind impracticable.
A. practical method of accomplishing the desired result consists in filling wall spaces with some material of such nature that when packed1 down it wifll enclose a multitude of very small air spaces, or cells, these air spaces being so very small that the tendency to air circulation within the same is negligible. Among the materials suitable for the filling of such wall spaces are ground, or granulated, cork, mineral wool, mill shavings, and sawdust.
Of the materials mentioned, cork is probably the most effective, and is aflso, under most circumstances, the most expensive. Mineral wool is quite effective, but requires thorough packing in order to prevent settlement, It is also a rather disagreeable and somewhat uncomfortable material to handle, as some of the glass-like shreds, of which the wool is composed, are sufficientfly rigid to penetrate the skin of the workmen's hands and cause sores, also the dust which arises from the wool consists of splintery glass-like particles and is considered decidedly detrimental to the lungs of anyone breathing the same. Mill, or buzz pQaner shavings, particularly if from thoroughly dry or seasoned' lumber, are quite effective and are usually rather cheap. Sawdust is effective only if used in a thoroughly dry condition. As ordinarily obtained from saw miflls it is likely to be from green, or partially seasoned wood', and contains a great deal of sap which, when the sawdust is shut up in a closed space will result in fermentation, heating, and settlement of the sawdust filling.
In modern cold storage plants either cork or mineral wool in slab form is ordinarily employed as insulation. The slabs of insulating material are cemented' directly on the interior surfaces of the storage rooms, the surface of the insuflation being protected by a suitable covering of cement or plaster, to prevent mechanical injury.
All materials suitable for insulating purposes are of necessity more or less porous in nature and require thorough protection against moisture, as their value as Insulation is very largely lost when saturated with moisture. Protection against moisture is usually provided either by a covering of waterproof cement, or by one or more layers of a heavy waterproof insulating paper. Papers, such
as are commonly used in ordinary buildings and' known as "building papers,” are by no means water-proof and will not answer the purpose.
In climates adapted to the growing of apples the weather during the harvesting season is not (likely to be nearly as cold aS is desirable from the standpoint of the common storage building. • The cooling of such a building by ventilation is of necessity Intermittent, and is practically certain to be much slower than that in a refrigerated storehouse. The insulation of a common storage buiflding, should, in most cases, be nearly or quite as good as that of a refrigerated storehouse in order to retain as much as possible of the cooling effect obtained' during the cool portion of the day and prevent the warming up of stored fruit during the warmer portion.
If weather conditions during the harvesting period are favorable, 1. e. if the nights are very cold, apples in a common storehouse may cool promptly enoHgh to effectively check ripening and decay. In a weld insulated building, after the fruit is once thoroughly cooled, it is usually possible to keep it at a fairly low temperature. If, however, cool nights are lacking during the harvesting period, or, if night temperatures do not remain low for long enough periods, a considerable delay in the cooling of the stored fruit may result, which may be serious through allowing the ripening to progress considerably farther than is desirable. Delay in coofling also affords opportunity for the development of decay in fruit by slight bruises, or other Injuries, which afford' starting points for the development of mold spores. If the building is not well insulated these conditions will be further aggravated and the apples wifll enter upon the storage period under unfavorable conditions from the start.
Crop is Equal to Last Year
The cherry crop for 1920 equals the enormous crop that was harvested in 1919, according to the Fruit Growers Union.
The season came to a close for this year on Saturday night, when the last can was run thru the local factory. total number of cases handled by the organization was 205,453.
During the season just closed there were less Early Richmonds harvested than in 1919. Of this variety there were 25,919 cases of fresh fruit shipped and 58,975 cases canned at the factory, or a total of 83,975. Last year the total number of cases was 102,154, of which 69,513 were canned and 32,641 shipped.
The Montmorencies showed a marked increase over that of last year. The number of cases totaled 109,095. Of these 78,756 were canned at the factory and 30,339 shipped to outside points. Last year the total number of cases were 103,299, of which 16,-231 were shipped fresh and 56,-868 canned.
There were 10,891 cases more canned this year than there were during the season of 1919.
In addition to the number of cases sold thru the association there were fully 5,000 cases or more that were disposed of by the growers to tourists and by individual shipments by parcel post. Under these circumstances there were fully as many cases harvested this year as there were last.
The work of labeling was commenced on Wednesday and sliip-ments will be made as rapidly as possible from this time until all the canned fruit is shipped.— News, Sturgeon Bay, Aug. 12th.
Everbearing strawberries are becoming most as common as spring bearing varieties. Progressive does well on most soils and fruits until the ground freezes.
Early celery is better if blanched with tile or boards. Earth is apt to cause decay of the stalks.
Mark a fruiting vine of the wild grape for transplanting late this fall or early spring. Fruiting vines are more ornamental than those that do not carry fruit.
Cut out all old canes of raspberries and thin the new ones now. Thorough cultivation about the plants will reduce the insects that are apt to work on the plants.
Are you going to set out trees or shrubs about the home next year. Now is a good time to prepare the land, so that the work of planting may be quickly* done next spring.—LeRoy Cady, associate horticulturist, University Farm, St. Paul, Minn.
Peonies and iris may be transplanted now. Divide the old plants and set about two inches deep. There are few plants that will give as much pleasure as these two for the amount of work put on them.—LeRoy Cady, associate horticulturist, University Farm, St. Paul, Minn.
Therese, Avalanche, Mary’ Brand, La Tulipe, Baroness, Schroeders, and Asa Grey are all good varieties of peonies. Plant them this month. Keep the cultivator going in the strawberry bed as late as possible. You want strong, vigorous plants, if a good crop next year is to be expected.
GROWING RASPBERRIES IN IOWA
Continued from page 23 selves are often surprised at the poorly cut plants we sometimes receive.
After digging, the tops are at once cut off, to prevent the roots from withering, and in this dormant condition they can travel safely for several months. In all handling of the roots great care should be taken not to injure or break off any of the eyes.
MARKETING THE BLOOMS
Regarding the marketing of peony blooms: Long, straight stems are essential, but the cutting must leave the plant to grow the balance of the summer with at least one lateral leaf or, better, two lateral leaves on each stalk left standing. Where every terminal has a bud it is a good plan, when disbudding the side buds for the cut flower trade, also to roll off a terminal bud on one of two of the weakest stalks and thus give the plant more leaf area with which to breathe. The disbudding of all lateral buds, when the size of a pea, makes the terminal bloom develop larger.
Just at what stage of unfolding to cut a bud depends on the variety and how soon it is expected to open. Several earloads of peony blooms come annually to Chicago before Decoration day from points fully 600 miles away.
IN BUNDLES OF THIRTEEN
As soon as the stalks are cut and most of the lateral leaves stripped off in order to give more of the sap remaining in the stem to the bud, they are gathered together in bundles of thirteen of the same variety and size of bud. In uits of thirteen they can be sold either by the dozen or thts
The Jewell Nursery Company Lake City, Minn.
A Complete Stock of Fruit, Shelter and Ornamental Stock i n Hardy Varieties for Northern Plant-ers.
hundred. The buds cut when the dew is on them carry better, but if they are to be wrapped in paraffin or other paper, the petals must be thoroughly dry.
If possible, it is a good plan after the bundles are tied up to stand the stems in water for an hour before shipping in boxes.
HOLDING BLOOMS IN STORAGE
For the benefit of those who want peony blooms much later than their normal season—and this is really one of the recent developents of the industry—it should be stated that certain varieties of peonies when cut in bud will keep in cold storage for six to ten weeks, and upon their being taken out will unfold in all their usual glory.
We have now followed our lady love from the cradle to the grave. The subject under discussion j naturally eliminated
SENATOR DUNLAP for summer and PROGRESSIVE for fall bearing are the two best varieties for Wisconsin. Our stock of plants of these two varieties is fine. We also have AROMA, GANDY and SAMPLE.
Write us about what you want for your fruit garden and orchard ; also the ornamentals for your lawn, etc.
We are in a position to supply your needs.
THE COE, CONVERSE & EWARDS CO.
Fort Atkinson, Wis.
P. S. Fruit trees and plants of all kinds are going to be very scarce before planting time. Place your order early .
Send for book giving experience of many growers and full details.
The Skinner Irrigation Co., 237 Water St., Troy, Ohio.
many other interesting features pertaining to the peony, all equally fascinating, such as the ancient history of the peony, the renaissance of its culture in Europe. some of its famous hybridizers, a comparative study of the different, shapes and types of its blooms, the various styles and shapes of its petals, a classification of its fragrance, the duration of the individual bloom Origin alifrenti also on the plant.
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Our Specialty: Planting and Developing orchards for non-residents A few choice tracts for sale. If interested, write us.
GAYS MILLS, WISCONSIN
The Hawks Nursery Company
THE PROFITS FROM THE PEONY PATCH
Continued from page 29 reasonably favorable, will cause a vigorous growth wrhich is your promise for next year’s crop.
I can remember when Raspberries were hauled from Des Moines to Nevada in wagons and on ears, stacked in great piles on the sidewalk and offered at $1.50 and $2.00 per twenty-four quart crates. This has all changed. Perhaps the anthracnose and the many droughts of late years have had something to do with it.
In those days we sold our fancy Greggs for $2.25 per ease and got them picked for ten or twelve cents per six quarts, now the same berries would sell for $9.60 and would cost three and one-half cents per pint for picking.
I neglected to say that about the. middle <of . October we trim our bushes and burn the surplus so we have no long branches to bother when covering. We do not grow our own plants, but leave that to the plant specialist, and prefer eastern grown plants from Michigan, Ohio or New York, but usually buy Michigan plants.
We have no .figures regarding returns per acre or cost of growing, and the profits will not equal those from Strawberries, but the two crops go well together and as long as we grow berries we shall want both of them.
Berries grown on bushes hav-
Have all the standard varieties as well as the newer sorts. Can supply you with everything in
Fruit Trees, Small Fruits, Vines and Ornamentals.
Let us suggest what to plant both in Orchard and in the decoration of your grounds.
Prices and our new Catalog sent promptly upon receipt of your list of wants.
are in a position to furnish high grade Nursery Stock of all kinds and varieties suitable to Wisconsin and other northern districts.
Will be glad to figure on your wants either in large or small quantities.
n». 1 Jia 2 Fio J
ing winter protection arc usually much better developed than those from bushes out to the weather, and at least weakened in vigor by cold drying winds. Of course, in well protected situations the difference might not oe so marked but we are on the open prairie country.
To sum up, while there is no fortune in growing Raxpoerries, there is a fair profit and much satisfaction in the business.
Fruiting wild grape vines make good trellis covers. r
Crates, Bushel Boxes and Climax Baskets
As You Like Them
We manufacture the Ewald Patent Voiding Berry Boxee of wood veneer that give satisfaction. Berry box and crate material in the K. D. In earload lota our specialty. We constantly carry in stock 16 quart crates al) made up ready for use, either for strawberries or blueberries. No order too small or too large for us to handle. We can ship the folding boxes and crates in K. D. from Milwaukee. Promptness Is essential tn handling fruit, and we alm to do our part well. A large discount for early orders. A postal brings our price Hat.
Cumberland Fruit Package Company
Dept. D, Cumberland, Wil.