Volume XI                      Madison, Wisconsin, December, 1920                       Number 4


Farm Orchards

Just to head oft Prof. Moore, to have the first word, the Editor prints herewith a paper read at the Dec. 1919 Convention of the Minnesota Horticultural Society. Hear Prof. Moore at the Convention.

There are at least two kinds of farm orchards. The first kind consist of orchards planted designedly to yield only enough fruit for home needs with an occasional surplus. Such an orchard may contain ten to twenty apple trees, four to six cherry and as many plum trees. Crabs are included in the apple quota. The trees are planted 20 by 24 feet for the apple and 16 by 16 feet for cherry and plum. For the first five years after setting iner-cropping is permissible if the land is reasonably fertile and if a light coating of manure is applied every other year. It is not absolutely essential to fair returns that the trees be pruned at all. This is not intended as an argument against pruning for the beneficial results of rational pruning are so well established that no argument of mine could affect the situation even if I choose to make one. I merely mean to say that fruit trees that receive ordinary cultivation, as much as farm crops, will yield fine crops of fruit even if pruning is wholly neglected except as to the removal of dead or dying branches which may, (usually do) prove a menace to the tree by the process of decay.

Proof of this unorthodox stateent may be had by carefully observing seedling trees twenty years or more of age or old trees that have not been pruned in twenty-five years or more. Pruning is neither a vitalizing nor a devitalizing process but one which we have adopted to better further our ends, the production of a maximum crop of wruit of high quality.

The excuse I offer for this digression in the beginning of my discussion is that pruning seems to be the great bugbear of the farmer, something which we horticulturists have hedged about with so much of technique and skill that he despairs of ever acquiring even a working knowledge of the science. While we may therefore let the farmer off from pruning we cannot excuse him from spraying. Spray he must and it is strictly our business to see that he does it.

I have no quarrel with the farmer who plants this kind of an orchard nor the nurseryman who sells it to him. Every farmstead in Minnesota should have such an orchard. It is another class of so-called orchards that 1 have fought for years and will continue to fight; the orchard whatever its size, usually, if not always, wished on the farmer by an ambitious nursery agent and carried as a side line to general farming.

Either the farmer has persuaded himself or someone has persuaded him that one hundred or two hundred fruit trees may be planted and with very little care will, sometime, yield profitable re-re turns.

There was a time, about fifty years ago, especially in the eastern states and the central Mississippi valley states, where the apple is more nearly indigenous than in our more rigorous climate. and before insect and disease pests had arrived, when this sort of thing could be done and the doer “get by” with it but 1 am here today to tell you with all the emphasis that I can command that it cannot be done in Minnesota or Wisconsin at the present time.

The growing of high grade fruit is a highly specialized business and should be undertaken only by men or women, who are willing to devote the whole of their energies and abilities to the job. None of the farmers that 1 have met have brains enough to be a successful grain farmer, stock raiser or dairyman and at the same time raise good fruit as a side line. I am not denying that there may be such men, but I have never met them. In fact the farmers that have been most successful in their chosen lines of farming seem to have had too much sense to attempt it.

Fruit growing has never yet been successfully conducted as a side line to general farming and I predict it never will.

To be a successful dairyman will require all the time, brains and energy possessed by the ordinary man. As this is also true of fruit growing it is then plain that only the super-man can do both.

But entirely aside from the question of mental capacity and energy there is a question of applied agricultural economics. Fruit growing requires, aside from highly skilled labor, special equipment which may seldom be used to advantage in farm operations, the cost of which constitutes an item of overhead disproportionate to the volume of business. There is also the problem of marketing. Many factors enter into the problem of marketing perishable products that do not affect the marketing of staple farm crops.

As I said before there seemed to be a time when this kind of orchard farming or farm orcharding could be carried on in a fairly successful manner and in fact for nearly a century most of the apples grown in the United States were the product of orchards of one to ten acres. But this was also the period when the butter of commerce was churned with a paddle and fresh (?) milk retailed from an open can and measured in a quart cup. I will not reflect on the intelligence of this audience by carrying the analogy farther.

If there are any who still cling to the belief that apples should be grown by farmers as a side line to farming let him take a look at the hundreds of thousands of orchards in Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, Pennsylvania, New York and other states; orchards either slowly or rapidly disintegrating, depending on environment or the comparative resistance of varieties, but in every case producing only cider and cull fruit. From these farm orchards turn, and often it is only necessary to turn half way round, to orchards of twenty-five, fifty or one hundred acres owned and tilled by fruit growers and he will be thoroughly convinced that the business of fruit growing should be in the hands of fruitgrowers rather than farmers.

In discussing this subject it is manifestly impossible to differentiate the farm orchard from the commercial orchard by acreage or number of trees, it must rest on the intent of the owner. Are you a farmer or a fruit grower is the question I want to ask every land owner who now has trees in excess of home requirements or who expects to plant a “farm orchard.” If he replies that he is a farmer and expects to make his living from farming, I should say to him, ‘ ‘ dig out and burn every tree in excess of the number required to bear fruit for your own use. The sooner you do this the sooner you will be relieved of a great responsibility and you will at the same time be setting a good example and affording relief to your fellow citizens by reducing the quantity of undersized, scabby and wormy fruit on the market.”

It may be held that this is a reflection on the intelligence of farmers. On the contrary I hold that such advice is not only rational but complimentary for I maintain that a man who is a successful farmer cannot afford to neglect his fifty acre corn field, planting or plowing it, to spray one hundred apple trees, nor to neglect his harvest to go into the highly specialized and competitive field of marketing apples. If it be further contended that the farmer is entitled to good apples for his own use, that the spraying of two dozen trees involves as much of skill as the spraying of two hundred or two thousand I will reply that there is a wide difference in the time required and in its exactitude. You are now ready to ask how and where apples should be grown, enough to supply one hundred and ten millions people if farmers are not to be permitted to raise any.

If we begin to use figures this does seem a serious proposition for if we allow only one apple apiece for the entire year one million bushels of “Standard A” will be needed while if we strive for the millenium of “an apple a day” and put all the doctors forever out of business it will require the stupendous quantity of 365 million bushels.

My answer is that apples must be grown by apple growers, specialists whose livelihood depend on producing high grade fruit. The size of a purely commercial orchard is not an important factor. A trucker or “cash crop” farmer who cultivates 20 to 40 acres of land may consistently plant an orchard of five acres and secure splendid returns from his local market, eliminating closed packages, freight charges and brokerage. There is probably no town of 1,000 population in Minnesota but could furnish a market for all the apples that could be grown in such an orchard while the cities of ten thousand and over afford markets that are never adequately supplied.

The farm orchardist or the orchard farmer who picks his scabby and wormy fall apples with a club and markets them in the Universal Farm Open Package, the wagon box, will not agree with this statement nor do I expect him to do so; the soon-' er he converts his surplus trees into material for saw handles and firewood, the sooner the market will be left open for the grower who offers clean, sound Duchess, Wealthy, McIntosh, and other good kinds carefully picked and packed in bushel baskets.

This leaves only the larger commercial orchard to be considered and the advisability of planting at the present time.

It seems to me the prospects were never brighter, nor the opportunities greater than at the present time for engaging in apple raising on a large scale.

Statistics show that the number of bearing trees is steadily decreasing, our population is steadily increasing, the fever of planting on a large scale is over, the promoters are mostly out of business and our export trade knows no limit. Considering these things why shouldn't we plant apple trees?

Success depends, as in any other business venture, on courage, vision and the application of business principles.

Growng fruit is not a get-rich-quick proposition, neither can it be done by proxy. It means being on the job all the time. For this reason orchard companies, company orchards, acre lots, and similar orchard investment schemes have never proven satisfactory to investors and never will nor should any reasonable person expect it.

If you invest a sum of money in an orchard company the best you have a right to expect is a fair rate of interest on your investment. You have invested neither brains nor time and the fellow who has invested these valuable commodities is entitled to the profits, if there are any.

I am not thoroughly familiar with conditions in Minnesota but I am inclined to the belief that your state could easily stand fifty thousand acres of commercial orchards to be planted within the next five years.

Minnesota horticulturists are engaged in a fascinating game, the raising of seedlings. This is a splendid work and I would not be understood as underestimating the value of it nor so presump

tions as to offer any criticism of means or methods. I hope, however, I may be forgiven if I offer the suggestion that while it is well to emphasize their work it ought not to be over emphasized and while you are raising seedlings do not neglect at the same time to plant commercial orchards. If I read aright the geography and geology of Minnesota you have in the south-eastern part of your state a vast amount of excellent orchard land. Europe gave us the Duchess, Peter Gideon, the Wealthy and Wisconsin, the Northwestern. With this noble trio we can bid defiance to the Pacific Coast states and their delicious Delicious, New York with her Baldwin and even Missouri with tough old Benjamin Davis, Esq. Be of good cheer friends, sharpen your axe and your spade; the one for setting trees in commercial orchards, the other for the farm orchard. ripened and then put on shelves in a warm dry section of the cellar and near the heating plant. If stored in the ordinary cool moist cellar they are likely to decay in a few months. Squash and pumpkins should not be piled up high. A well ripened Hubbard squash, says Mr. Mackintosh, stored in the manner here outlined, should keep until May.

Hints For Keeping Vegetables Fresh

Urban and rural dwellers are confronted every fall with the problem of storing to the best advantage vegetables grown on vacant lots and in gardens. Shrinkage and decay take heavy toll every fall and winter.

R. S. Mackintosh, horticultural extensionist of Minnesota University Farm, says that all vegetables should not be stored the same way in the same cellar. The storage best adapted to potatoes, beets, carrots, parsnips, vegetable oysters and other varieties of roots is the ordinary cool and reasonably moist cellar. Winter squash and pumpkins, on the other hand, should be thoroughly

In order to limit shrinkage as much as possible the root crops mentioned should be covered with dry sand or soil, dry leaves or straw or chaff as soon as they are placed in the cellar. Cabbage should be kept reasonably moist and on shelves so that the air can circulate around them. If sufficient shelving is not available they may be wrapped in paper and suspended from the ceiling. Most of the outer leaves should be removed.

The moisture supply in cellars can be kept fairly constant by having some sand or soil that can be moistened occasionally. A tub of water will aid in keeping vegetables from drying too much.

Onions placed in storage should always be kept cool and dry to prevent loss.

Cover grape vines and raspberries with earth before the ground is frozen solid. It is best to lay them down when there is no frost in the vines. Frozen vines break easily.

The black alder and prickly ash are two native shrubs which might be used in landscape planting more freely to advantage. There are few prettier shrubs than the alder with its red fruits in autumn.


I Shall Pass This Way But Once

In this little corner will be set down each month kind thoughts, stray bits of sentiment, the record of kind deeds, some incident in life that made a deep impression, favorite verses or short poems, anything that will cheer our fellow traveler. Do not misunderstand, the editor is not the “Pilgrim,” we are all pilgrims, let’s help one another for each of us will pass this way but once. The editor merely brings together in one place these cheerful little bits gathered by the wayside.

Don’t hesitate to send them in, anonymous or otherwise altho the editor likes to know who it is that writes for he claims the privilege of keeping for his own these letters. No names will be published.

Do I make it clear? This is a corner for heart throbs and among the three thousand (more I hope) readers there are 2,999 who have something to offer. But I must not take all the room allotted asking you to help for you will want to read the messages to “pilgrims” since last we met. Here is one from a woman who understands:

Fellow Pilgrim: Is it not true that we are all fellow pilgrims in this journey where we will “Pass this way but once?”

Do we not all enjoy the cordial greetings, and the friendly interest of our neighbors and fellowmen? Therefor we should show ourselves friendly, and do all we can to promote good feeling. Let us plant a hundred seeds instead of “one” so as to produce enough flowers—Smiles of nature—for Others to enjoy with us; what more pleasurable reward than to create in some one the thought:

Those beautiful flowers upon my neighbor’s vine

Are owned by her, but they are also mine;

Hers was the cost, and hers the labor too;

But mine as well as hers the joy, their loveliness to view.

They bloom for me, and are for me as fair

As for the woman •who gives them all her care,

Thus I am rich, because a good woman grew

Those beautiful flowers for all her neighbors view.

R. L.

Here is one that made the pilgrim editor’s heart glad for he knows this pilgrim is a very practical and successful farmer:

“There was one little incident in my life while in Montana that I often think of, and I really believe lias helped me many a time. It was this: One day (July 4th) I saw a storm coming while visiting at a neighbor’s house and started for my shack to shut some windows. When about 100 yards from the shack and pretty well winded from running the storm broke with great fury and before I could reach the shack— which by the way blew off the posts on which it was built—I was thoroly drenched and never felt so disgusted and discouraged in my life. A few minutes later when the rain ceased and I went ahead to see if there was anything that had not washed away the first thing that greeted me was a meadow lark sitting on a post and singing as tho nothing had happened, altho he must have been as wet as I was. It helped me then, and I never hear a meadow lark sing but I think of that experience.

King Saul had David play on a harp for him when he had the

blues. I’d rather have a meadow lark for mine.”          A. P.

This one is anonymous but very pointed:

“For some time I have been pondering as to whether the subject I have in mind would seem out of place or too insignificant for the new “I shall pass this way but once” column, in Wisconsin Horticulture.

The Editor, being a man, will probably consign it to the waste basket. (No, sister pilgrim, the pilgrim editor has no waste basket.) My appeal will be “To men only,” the women, in this case, being the long-suffering victims.

Is it possible, I wonder, to make the men or even any one man, realize how extremely aggravating, trying and nerve-racking it is to a woman, to have a meal ready on schedule time and then to be compelled to wait, wait, wait? Finally, after waiting and waiting we begin to eat, because he will surely be here soon. But no,—meal cold or dried up from repeated warming over, coffee cold, etc., etc. It is simply maddening.

If you male pilgrims make a resolution to be on time and keep it, you "will reap the everlasting gratitude, not only of the one woman in your home, but of all the others, whose husbands you have, at some time, detained. ’ ’

Quite so, quite so! How about it “He” pilgrims? Perhaps we better make that resolution.

And another has a suggestion that many already have followed:

‘ ‘ Plant a row of flowers by the roadside for the pleasure of all who pass by.”

And that is all for this month: Who will recall some little incident or kind word for next time? Send your letter, signed or unsigned to Editor Wisconsin Horticulture.

Johnnie Went Away But Look Who’s Here!

Oak Hill, Wis.

My dear friends, why is it so many folks dislike this time of the year, every little while I hear some one say: “Oh how I hate the fall all you can see is Dirt.” I wonder—don’t they really see anything but dirt? I don’t believe that is what you people see, is it? Let me tell you and those others what I see. Not just Dirt but fields of waving golden grain; the purple rosy sheen of the meadows—the rows of tall green corn. I see the long straight rows of vegetables. I see the red of the berries peeping from the green leaves.. I see the peach, the plum and the apple trees, row on row covering the hillsides, first in the glory of bloom, then loaded with their luscious fruit. I see the ferns by the side of the road, the creeping tendrils of the wild grape vine. I see the flower gardens. There is nothing I can see plainer—Dirt—There is a riot of color. Can’t you see them? The gorgeous Tulips, the snowy whiteness of the Narcissus. The yellow of the Daffodils—I see the Violets and Pansies—like children’s faces that smile at you. I see Pinks and Primroses. The nodding bells of the Foxglove, Campanula and Columbine. The great gorgeous Peonies; the carpet of blue Forget-me-not; the flaunting scarlet of the Poppies and Lychnis. I see the Lilies snowy white against the heaven blue of Delphinums. The Hollyhocks like tall sentinels they stand. I see the vari-eolored heads of Phlox—bending gently to gaze at their humbler sister Phlox Subulata. I see the Lilacs,

Honeysuckle, Mock Orange, the rosy pink of the Almond. I see the Roses, pink, white, red, yellow. I see them every where. I can even smell them they are so near, so real. The Dahlias, Gladiolus, Asters, Snapdragon—all my garden friends—and still I see the faces of my friends amongst them. Flowers and friends are inseparable to me— where one is the other must be. And still some see only Dirt. I wonder sometimes what do you see? All this—what more—just Dirt. Did you ever fill your hands with the soft warm dirt and let it run slowly through your fingers? Did it not speak to you a language that thrilled your soul? It isn’t dust Dirt to you and I—its all the things I have said and more. Its understanding, contentment, happiness. You are, as one who knew said, “Nearer God’s heart in a garden than anywhere else on earth.” In just Dirt I learned to know and love my garden, to know— really know and understand my friends. Just Dirt lightened many long weary hours of pain; helped the sun to shine thru the dark dreary days when to me it seemed as tho it would never shine for me again—and still some say its Dirt—just Dirt.

The Ballade of the Ganieflsh

Where the puddle is shallow, the weak fish stay

To drift along with the currents flow;

To take the tide as it moves each day With the idle ripples that come and go;

With a shrinking fear of the gales that blow

By distant coasts where the Great Ports gleam,

Where the far heights call through the silver glow

“Only the game fish swims up stream!”

Where the shore is waiting the minnows play,

Borne by the current’s undertow1; Drifting, fluttering on their way, Bound by a fate that has willed it so; In the tree flung shadows they never know

How far they are from the old brave dream.

Where the wild gale’s call from the peaks of snow.

"Only the game fish swims up stream.”

Where the tide rolls down in a flash of spray,

And strikes with the might of a bitter foe,

The shrimp and the sponge are held at bay,

Where the dusk winds call and the sun sinks low;

They call it Fate in their endless woe As they shrink in fear when the wild hawks scream

From the crags and crests where the great thorn grow,

“Only the game fish swims up stream.”

Held with the current the Fates bestow

The driftwood moves to a sluggish theme.

Nor heeds the call which the far isles throw

“Only the game fish swims up stream.”

—John Trotwood Moore.

Less human cussedness is what we need.

And that’s my creed!

Less wish to make some other heart repent,

Or make it bleed.

Less will to muddy some one’s crystal stream

Because we’re queer,

And don't want anybody else to dream

When we can cheer.

That’s my desire!

More of the heart love that so truly warms,

By nature’s fire.

Less spilling other people’s peaches just because

We spilt our own;

Less growling like the dogs do when they pause

By some stray bone.

Less human misery when we have less,

Of these I cite.

And more glad heartedness and joy to bless

Lives lived aright.

—Author unknown to me.

I too am a lover of verses, these two I am sending and the Twenty-third Psalm are the helpful ones. They fit my particular need.

And please Mr. Editor Johnnie went away. Didn’t say a word, just went. Will let you know when he conies back. Will “E” do for this time?

The Poppy of Flanders Field

Prof. Cady of Minnesota who writes the many timely reminders that appear in odd corners of Wisconsin Horticulture has the following criticism of the American Legion in a recent issue of the Minnesota Press Bulletin:

"Evidently there were no gardeners at the national meeting of the American Legion which adopted the “red poppy of France’’ as its official flower and urged its members to wear it on Armistice Day, November 11. This means that artificial flowers must be used as no poppies are in bloom in Europe or this country on that date. It is unfortunate that a more serviceable and lasting flower was not chosen. Who wants to wear or use imitations? Surely not American Legion men.’’

We cannot agree with you Brother Cady. I have no doubt the boys knew full well that poppies do not bloom in November, neither do any other flowers that would appeal to them as much as the poppy even if artificially produced. Ask the boys, Brother, if a chrysanthemum, rose or carnation even the most beautiful florists’ creation would mean as much to them as even a paper poppy, for they have not forgotten the poppy strewn wheat fields of France where they fought nor have they forgotten that,—

“In Flanders fields the poppies blow

Between the Crosses, row on row

That mark our place; and in the sky

The larks still bravely singing fly Scarce heard amid the guns below.’’

A Batch of Garden Troubles and the Remedies

A woman who lives in a summer resort community in a northern county derives much revenue from her garden but these things trouble her:

Mildew on green peas after the first picking altho the vines are full of pods. Will Bordeaux help applied in the flowering stage?

Prof. R. E. Vaughan handles the subject fully as follows:

“This disease on peas is not uncommon in the northern pea growing sections of the country. As a rule, it is not serious enough to require any preventive measures for its control. In cases where the mildew is severe, the vines should be sprayed with Bordeaux mixture. In making small quantities of Bordeaux mixture, I would suggest using four ounces of copper sulphate dissolved in about a pint of hot water. After dissolving, this should be diluted until it makes one and three-fourths gallons. The dissolving and solution should be made in a wood pail or stone crock, as the copper sulphate is injurious to tin or iron. Next, take four ounces of fresh stone lime, slake in hot water and dilute to one and three-fourths gallons. This solution should be strained through a cheese cloth, after which the two dilute solutions should be poured together and strained, making two and one-half gallons of what is known as Bordeaux mixture. This mixture should be applied to the pea vines with a spray pump which will deliver a fine spray.

In ease you feel that it is too difficult to make up Bordeaux mixture, since you are using so small an amount, it may be better for you to buy some of the prepared Bordeaux mixture powders or pastes and dilute them according to the directions on the package. These preparations are usually not as efficient in sticking to the vines or in controlling the mildew as are the home prepared mixtures. Furthermore, they are more expensive, but where small quantities are to be used, the added convenience of the prepared article frequently offsets the other points.”

Hermann Christensen says:

“I have not tried the varieties of raspberries mentioned nor have I heard of any one who has. They were introduced last spring, if I remember correctly, so there has not been much time to test their merit. With regard to the asparagus, it is probably either not well fertilized or else not properly cultivated. It may be affected with the asparagus rust which quickly reduces the size of the stalks. If new planting is made, plants of the Washington variety should be set. This is a rust resistant variety originated by Prof. Norton of the Agricultural Department of the U. S. It is very vigorous and has large stalks. This is about all I can say on the subject.

Continued on page 74

Wisconsin horticulture

Published Monthly by the Wisconsin State Horticultural Society 12 N. Carroll St

Official organ of the 8odety.

FREDERIC CRANEFIELD, Editor. Secretary W. S. H. S., Madison, Wis.

Entered at the postoffice at Madison, Wisconsin, as second class matter. Acceptance for mailing at special rate of postage provided for in Section 1103, Act of Oct. 3, 1017, authorized July 15, 1918.

Advertising rates made known on application.

Wisconsin State Horticultural Society

Annual membership fee, one dollar, which Includes fifty cents, subscription price to Wisconsin Horticulture. Send one dollar to Frederic Cranefleld, Editor, Madison, Wis.

Remit by Postal or Express Money Order. A dollar bill may be sent safely if wrapped or attached to a card. Personal checks accepted.

Postage stamps not accepted.


J. A. Hay8..............................President

F. Cranefleld, Secretary-Treasurer Madison


J. A. Hays..............................Ex-Officio

F. Cranefleld ...........................Ex-Officio

1st Diet., Win. Longland..........Lake Geneva

2nd Dist., R. J. Coe................Ft. Atkinson

3rd Dist., E. J. Frautschi..............Madison

4th Dist., A. Leidiger ................Milwaukee

5th Dist., Jas. Livingstone .........Milwaukee

5th Dist., H. C. Christensen...........Oshkosh

7th Dist., Wm. Toole, Sr...............Baraboo

Sth Dist., J. E. Leverich.................Sparta

9th Diet., L. E. Birmingham.....Sturgeon Bay

10th Diet., Paul E. Grant............Menomonie

llth Diet., Irving Smith ................Ashland


J. A. Hays, President................Gays Mills

The Convention Program

The making of a program is not a simple task. It’s a complex task. One problem is to draw the largest possible number of people to the convention and to provide something of interest for each. After the plan is outlined to your satisfaction you begin looking around for “building material” and that is where your troubles really begin. You want the best but you sometimes have trouble in getting it. This year we have been remarkably fortunate in that respect and altho there are a few blanks in the program as here presented, assur-Continucd on page 69


Tuesday Forenoon—11 o’clock

Illinois, Iowa, Indiana and Northern Illinois societies.

This short session is arranged wholly as a get together and get acquainted meet. We want everybody to know everybody else. Be on hand for this session, it is interesting.

Tuesday Afternoon—2:00 O’clock

Everybody’s Garden

Papers limited to 15 minutes, 10 minutes preferred.

If Mr. Everybody should happen to be present at this session he surely cannot fail to be impressed with the fact that everybody is working for him. The report of this session should furnish material for a high class manual on gardening.

C. Kroening.

Best One: Three Ways of Training Tomatoes and the Best Way; Other Useful Information About Tomatoes—-Henry T. Sheldon.

of Each; Succession Crops—Wm. Longland.

A Short Course in Apple Judging conducted by Prof. J. G. Moore: One to two thirty, daily. All who take part must register on Tuesday.

Wednesday Forenoon—9:30 O’clock

ing in Douglas Co.—P. A. Peterson, sixteen years manager of Poplar Orchard.

Co., amateur and commercial—Otto Drews, Supt. Manitowoc Trial Orchard.

(4) Paper by H. H. Swain, Sec. Indiana Hort. Society.

None are excluded from the business session altho only members may vote. The papers which follow will interest every member.

Wednesday Afternoon—2:00 O’clock

This Is the commercial orchard session but no amateur can afford to miss it. We all want to know how the man who is raising fruit for a living gets the goods; it’s a good way for us also, none better. Largely home talent but that' is because there is none better anywhere. We are negotiating with a man who knows more about dusting than any one else in the country. If we land him we will let you know.

  • (1) Off Year Apple Bearing—R. H. Roberts.

  • (2) Buds: A Demonstration—A. L. Schroeder.

  • (3) Marketing Wisconsin Apples—M. B. Goff.

  • (4) Spraying—Paul Grant.

  • (5) Hardy Fruits, M. E. Dorsey, Minnesota.


Wednesday Afternoon—2:00 O’clock

Roll Call—Responses—Items of interest—If a recipe, bring copies for distribution.

Community Clubs—Mrs. N. A. Rasmussen, Oshkosh.

My First Year’s Experience on a Berry Farm—Mrs. J. E. Leverich, Sparta.

The Gladiolus—Mrs. F. B. Sherman, Edgerton.

The Old and the New—Mrs. M. E. Brand, Madison.

Woman’s Opportunity in Local Affairs—Mrs. C. E. Strong, West Allis, Wis.

Mrs. E. L. Roloff, Pres.

Mrs. W. A. Toole, Sec.

Thursday Forenoon—9:30 O’clock

  • (1) Some Roses Worth Growing and How to Grow Them—James

Livingstone, Milwaukee.

  • (2) The Peony; royal yet humble and friendly. A flower for the

palace or the cottage—A. M. Brand, Minnesota.

  • (3) The Gladiolus, no capricious queen but steadfast and loyal—

Elmore T. Elver.

  • (4) Our Native Trees—Wm. Toole, Sr.

  • (5) Evergreens for the Home—D. Hill, Dundee, Ill.

This session deals exclusively with flowers and ornamental plants. Mr. Elver is a Madison amateur who knows about "Glads” and1 can tell what he knows in an entertaining’ way. We all know Mr. Toole and know that his talk on trees will be worth while not only as an entertaining topic but as a contribution of value for our bound volumes. Dundee, Ill., is the home of evergreens. That’s something we all want to know about, evergreens, and who can tell us better than "Hill”?


Continued from page 68

ance is given that these will all be acceptably filled. There will be no subtractions and it is quite certain there will be several additions. For instance we will have representatives from Illinois, northern Illinois and Indiana whenever the presidents of these societies get around to naming them. Further it is not at all unlikely that one or more very well known men from other states who have been invited may accept. On the whole the program as here given may be taken as about seventy-five per cent complete.

The same is true of the Women’s Auxiliary program. Difficulty in getting replies to invitations has perplexed the offlcers of the Auxiliary also.

While no mention is made of the evening programs this does not mean that there will be none. Oh, no, no, Mike, by no means not so.

The comments which appear in connection with the program may or may not prove illuminating, at any rate they are there.

At the past three annual conventions we have had about one hundred people in attendance each year who were in no way connected with the society as officers, committee members, delegates or on the program. This is somewhat encouraging but we ought to have five hundred. The program costs lots of money, it’s for you; will you take advantage of it?

The Convention Fruit Show

Enough fruit has already been entered to completely fill the

Thursday Afternoon—2:00 O’clock

Please don't get nervous about going home but stay to the end of this session, it is the best of the lot, that’s why it is put last, to hold you.

For several years past the Secretary has maintained that farm orchards, as commonly kept, are a nuisance and really ought to be dug out or otherwise eliminated. Prof. Moore thinks otherwise; says we have them with us, at present a liability, why not make of them an asset. Says he has done it and will bring evidence, on legs, to prove it.

Arno Meyer is a college graduate but that should not be held against him. He has been raising the dickens, and apples, in old Sheboygan Co. orchards. You ought to hear him tell about it.

S. L. Brown does not like the title of “tree surgeon” or even ‘‘tree doctor” —he just fixes trees but they stay fixed. Refuses to talk more than ten minutes.

For the very last we have saved the very best, Dr. M. E. Dorsey at the head of the Minnesota Fruit Breeding Farm, where the Latham raspberry originated and from whence soon will come some monstrous plums.

Don’t you think you ought to stay?

  • (1) What Shall the Farmers Do With Their Orchards: A Sympo

sium on the Farm Orchard, led by Prof. J. G. Moore. Three speakers, possibly four, whose names will be announced later will follow Prof. Moore.

  • (2) Young Men in Old Orchards—Amo Meyer.

  • (3) Wounded Trees and How to Treat Them—-S. L. Brown.

  • (4) Paper by Mr. A. W. Brayton, Illinois.

  • (5) Making the Hubbard Squash Behave—Prof. M. E. Dorsey, Min



The following cash premiums are offered for exhibits at the annual convention, Madison, January 11th, 12th and 13th, 1921:




4th 5th


Best 25 plates, 5 plates each,

5 commercial varieties for

Wisconsin--          ----






Best collection of apples, one

plate each not to exceed 10







Best plate of each of the fol-

lowing varieties:





Ben Davis, Fameuse, Gano, Golden Russett, Grimes Golden, Jonathan, King, Malinda, McIntosh, McMahan, Newell, Northern Spy, Northwestern Greening, Patten, Pewaukee, Plumb Cider, Salome, Seek-no-further, Scott Winter, Tolman, Twenty Ounce, Utter, Wagener, Wealthy, Windsor, Wolf River, York Imperial.

rotunda but some of it will have to go in the adjoining corridors for enough always comes in at the last minute to make a good display. It amounts to this: the best apples ever grown in Wisconsin will be shown and more of them than ever before shown at a convention. However let no one fail to bring or send fruit for fear there will be no room, the Capitol is quite a big building. If you will please send in your list of entries early the entry cards will be all ready for you when you arrive which will save time for you and others.

All fruit must be in place by two o’clock Tuesday. Please be on hand Tuesday morning and get to work. If you stand around half the forenoon talking to the other fellow about the fish that got away or the apples you didn 't bring you may be ruled out. I hate to talk to you thia way William but its for your own good.


In addition to the regular program a sort of extension course in horticulture will be put on in the rotunda and connecting halls.

Prof. Fracker will have an excellent exhibit of injurious insects, specimens of affected plants, etc. and an attendant who will explain.

A nursery company will furnish samples of good nursery stock, both trees and small fruit, and another nursery will demonstrate root grafting.

Sick and ailing house plants will be shown with someone present to tell how to make them well. Also how to propagate house plants including the rubber tree.

Displays of insecticides and

(4) Best tray of any of above named varieties except Golden Russett, Malinda, Newell, Northern Spy, Patten, Plumb





Cider, Tweny Ounce, Utter—


Best 5 trays of any of the fol-ing: ----------------------







McIntosh, Northwestern, Wealthy, Tolman, Wolf River, Fameuse, Gano, Salome, McMahan, Seek-no-further, Windsor.

Best 10 trays of any variety in 5 tray class _






Separate samples must be

furnished for each entry.

(7) Any other standard variety, properly labeled with variety name. Ten prizes of $2.00 each will be awarded under this prize number. Any exhibitor may enter a maximum of five plates under this prize number, but each must be of a different variety.

Trays shall be packed “diagonal pack.”

The following score card will be used in judging apples:

Trueness t0 type ------------------------ 10 points

Size ____________________________________ 15

Color ___________________________________20

Uniformity __________________________________25

Freedom from blemish ___________________30

Total -------------------------------100 points

Apples to be exhibited in trays 18 x ll>/2 inches and 3 inches deep. Trays will be furnished.


Best collection, not less than 10 entries,

1st, $5.00; 2nd, $3.00; 3d,







Blood Turnip Beets

______ $1.00

$0.75 $(



White Turnips

_______ 1.00




Yellow' Turnips

______ 1.00





______ 1.00




Chantenay Carrots

_____ 1.00




Short-Horn Carrots

- - 1.00




Winter Cabbage _

______ 1.00




Red Cabbage _

_______ 1.00




Chicory    _                      _

______ 1.00




Ears Pop Corn _

_ 1.00



Continued on page 75

fungicides, baskets, etc., by dealers.

Quite likely there will be other things to attract or perchance, distract your attention.

Apples, Grapes and Plums For La Crosse County

and grapes would you recommend?               L. C. G.

Ans. We cannot recommend either Delicious nor Golden Delicious for commercial planting until further trial, either in La Crosse county or elsewhere. Of the others named no experienced Wisconsin apple grower would plant Stayman, Black Ben, Grimes Golden or Jonathan for permanent orchard. None will live long enough to be profitable. King David is worthless for Wisconsin and Senator is doubtful.

(3) Cherries and grapes for La Crosse county arc best confined to the home garden. For plums any of the natives such as De Soto, Hawkeye, Forest Garden, etc., with a few of the Hansen hybrids.


Conducted by the Department of Economic Entomology College of Agriculture

Our Lady Beetle Friends

The following is representative of a large number of letters received each fall, and especially this year:


“I am sending, under separate cover, several bugs, and would like to know what kind they are. They are found on screens and clustered in cracks around the doors.

“Are they in any way connected with the buffalo bug or carpet beetle? In the house they are often found on the windows.”

“Yours truly.”

The above inquirer certainly did better than the man who found “that his roses were suffering from insect attack; he saw little, convex, black-spotted, reddish beetles clambering busily up and down the stems, and he set to work to pick them off one by one and drop into a tin cup with petroleum in the bottom. When he had a full pint, he showed them proudly. But the more little round beetles he picked off, the more rapidly wilted his roses, and for the wholly sufficient reason that he was collecting and killing ‘lady birds’ that were making a fight against the hosts of tiny inconspicuous green roseaphids that were sucking the sap out of the rose-stems and buds.”

Many persons are more or less familiar with lady beetles but the majority are not acquainted with their life, habits, and histories, and do not, therefore, recognize them as friends.

The common adult lady beetles are all quite easily recognized by their convex elongated hemispherical shape and their distinc-


Two lady-bird larvae are feeding upon the aphids and toward the tip of the leaf Is one which has alreay changed to a pupa.

five colors, usually red with black spots. The one most seen around the windows in the fall and frequently mistaken for the carpet beetle is red with two black spots on the back, for that reason called the two spotted lady-bird.

Both adults and young are beneficial as they feed upon the aphids or lice so comninn on most plants.

The larvae are alligator-shaped and may be as long as three-quarters of an inch. The body is often covered with warts or spines. They are very active and are often seen running around on foliage infested with plant lice. When they become full grown they fasten themselves by their “tails” to leaves or stems; contract and change to the pupal or resting stage. Later the adult beetles appear.

For these reasons protect the lady bird beetles as they are among the farmers best friends.

Charles L. Fluke.

Important Insects of the House-Hold

There are three species of roaches found more or less commonly in houses, stores and factories. The small brown roach, Croton bug, or water bug however, is by far the most important of the three. This disagreeable insect is fond of warm damp locations and breeds quite rapidly. It nearly always remains hidden during the day time, coming out in force at night to devour any food or refuse which is available. On account of its agility, its freedom from enemies, and its habit of keeping well hidden except at night this small household pest has been able to maintain itself against constant, although often ineffective warfare on the part of the housewife.

As far as known roaches do not carry disease germs and they do not breed in food as do many insects but they polute much food, cause a “roachy” smell about the kitchen, and may bespeak an untidy home.

Many are the so called reme-

dies used against roaches in the past but recently there has been found a material—sodium fluoride—which will, if properly applied, soon rid the average home of this insect. Even heavily infested restaurants and kitchens have been practically freed from the roach by the persistent use of sodium fluoride. This material should be mixed half and half with flour and spread in a band on tables, shelves, sinks and along edges of the floor where it will not interfere with work and still be in the path of roaches when they emerge at night. Every two or three days it may be swept up and new bands laid. This material is very slightly poisonous to human beings and may be used undiluted if only a few roaches are present. It is nearly as effective and much cheaper however diluted with flour. It may be secured at drug stores.

The way in which roaches are killed by this method is interesting ; In walking through the powder to get to their food some of it clings to their feet, then when the feet are cleaned by being drawn through the owner’s mouth (a daily practice) some of the poison is accidentally taken into the insect’s stomach and death results.         G. D. H.

Cosmos Bulbs?

The following item in the November number prompted a friend to inquire, “Where can I get some Cosmos bulbs 1 It’s quite a bother to plant seeds every year. “Gladioli, dahlias, cosmos and other tender bulbs should he lifted before the ground freezes and stored in the house basement where they will not freeze.’’ He was enjoying a little joke at the Editor’s expense because “cosmos” slipped by instead of,—well come to think about it, what else? The original copy is lost and we will ask Mr. Joker or anybody else to supply the name of a third tender bulb, summer flowering, that should be dug in the fall and stored.

77o. 7                 2


Plan now for the Orchard

you will put out next spring. Also the shrubs and ornamental plants around the home. We have a complete assortment of all the leading sorts to select from. Circular showing many of the leaders In colors “free for the asking.”


Fort Atkinson, Wis.


Crates, Bushel Boxes and Climax Baskets

As You Like Them

We manufacture the Ewald Patent Folding Berry Boxes of wood veneer that give satisfaction. Berry box and crate material in the K. D. In earload lots our specialty. We constantly carry in stock 16 quart crates all made up ready for use, either for strawberries or blueberries. No order too small or too large for us to handle. We can ship the folding boxes and crates in K. D. from Milwaukee. Promptness is essential in handling fruit, and we aim to do our part well. A large discount for early orders. A postal brings our price list.

Cumberland Fruit Package Company

Dept. D, Cumberland, Wis.

The Hawks Nursery Company

are in a position to furnish high grade Nursery Stock of all kinds and varieties suitable to Wisconsin and other northern districts.

Will be glad to figure on your wants either in large or small quantities.

Send for book riving experience of many growers and full details.

The Skinner Irrigation Co., 237 Water St., Troy, Ohio.

Wauwatosa, Wis.


Continued from page 67

Mr. Rasmussen replies: “There are at least two distinct strains of Bantam corn, the large and the small, the latter being of far better quality. If Mrs. ---- bought

her seed she evidently got the large kind; if she has grown her own then other corn was too near.

Do not prune roses or ornamental shrubs until spring or late winter. Extra wood helps to protect the plant over winter.

Calla lilies can be grown in the house and take the place of the Easter lily in late winter and early spring. Try some of them.

Upper photograph: —Average yield from unfertilized tree, Ben Davis variety.

Lower photograph: —Average yield from fertilized tree, Ben Davis variety.


Why you should fertilize youi orchard--

Orchard Fertilization Experiment—1918

Everett Craig, Mt. Healthy, Ohio Variety: Ben Davis.

Variety: Rome Beauty. Average Yield per Tree


Figs refer to diameters of apples.


Figs refer to diameters of apples.

Snapdragon make good cut Hower plants for the garden if they are planted early. They may be lifted and grown for a time in the home early in winter.



No Fertilizer.

Sulph of Ammonia. 4 lbs. per tree.....


Below in

4 5 bu

7.0 bu

2.5 bu.



i.o bu

Above in

0.25 bu

7 5 bu

2.5 bu

5 5 bu

2.25 bu.

Total Picked

Fertilizer Treatment

Above iK in.

Total Picked

b.75 bu.

17 0 bu.

10.25 bu.

No Fertilizer.

Sulp of Ammonia 4 lbs per tree...

0-375 bu

0.25 bu


o 125 bu

i -o bu

i .obu

5.0 bu

b J75 txa

13 5 bu.

These tables give a very clear idea as to the value of fertilization in orchards. Fruit growers should study the results carefully, and draw their own conclusions as to why they should fertilize their orchards.


Plant some of the Darwin tulips in your garden this year. Clora Butt, Farncomb Sanders, Gretchen and Europe are good sorts.

Nitrogen (usually termed ammonia) is the most important fertilizer element in fruit production. It is ammonia that promotes the vigorous wood growth so necessary for the formation of fruit spurs and fruit buds.

Arcadian Sulphate of Ammonia applied about two or three weeks before blossom time (100 to 150 pounds per acre) will invigorate the fruit buds and increase the amount of fruit set. It will also tend to overcome off-year bearing of the apple.

Arcadian Sulphate of Ammonia is for sale by all the larger fertilizer companies or their agents. Be sure you get Arcadian.

For information as to application, write to Desk 17






Kickapoo Valley W^RUITIDISTRICTEI) Our Specialty: Planting and Developing orchards for non-residents A few choice tracts for sale. If interested, write us.

The Jewell Nursery Company Lake City, Minn.

Established 1808

Fifty Year* Continuous Service




Continued from page 71

6 Red Onions _            _______

________ 1.00



6 Yellow Danvers Onions

_____ 1.00



6 White Onions__

________ 1.00



G Onions, Large Type_____ __ __

______ 1.00



G Winter Radishes

_______ 1.00



6 Parsnips

_______ 1.00



6 Peppers__

_ ___ 1.00



Hubbard Squash

______ 1.00



3 Heads Celery

_______ 1.00



3 Chinese Cabbage




6 Salsify ____ —  _  _

_____ 1.00



Sweepstakes awarded pro rata


Rules of Entry for All Exhibits

A Complete Stock of Fruit, Shelter and Ornamental Stock i n Hardy Varieties for Northern Planters.

Agents Wanted

Members or others unable to attend the meeting may send fruit to the secretary, who will make entries and place fruit on exhibition. Transportation charges must be prepaid.

Nursery Stock of Quality

for Particular Buyers

Have all the standard varieties as well as the newer sorts. Can supply you with everything in

Fruit Trees, Small Fruits, Vines and Ornamentals.

Let us suggest what to plant both in Orchard and In the decoration of your grounds.

Prices and our new Catalog Bent promptly upon receipt of your list of wants.

Nurseries at Waterloo, Wis.

All final entries must be made on regular entry blanks which will be furnished by the secretary on application but exhibitors are urged to send lists in advance even if not all entries are filled at convention.

F. Cranefield, Secretary W. S. H. S., Madison, Wisconsin.



Devoted to The Interests of The Wisconsin State Beekeepers’ Association iH. F. Wilson, Editor

Honey—The Health Food

One of the healthiest sweets known to the world—used in hospitals and recommended by physicians in special cases because of its being predigested by the bees.

Use honey every day during the winter and avoid colds and coughs.

We hope to see the greatest HONEY AND BEE exhibit ever shown in America at Wisconsin’s next State Fair. $2,200.00 in prizes will be offered. Begin your preparations now for the exhibits. Clover Honey is recognized as having a flavor and quality inferior to few honies produced’ in marketable quantities, and Wisconsin is the center of one of the clover honey regions in America. We should all be proud of this fact and prepare our honey exhibits in a manner that will make our product worthy of its high quality.

Mr. Kull, Secretary of the Wisconsin Manufacturers association recently stated before a meeting of the Woman’s League in Madison that the Bee Industry is tenth in importance among the agricultural industries of Wisconsin and that it now holds the place formerly held by the Brewing industry. IT CAN BE MADE TWENTY TIMES GREATER. HOW LONG BEFORE THIS INFANT WILL BECOME FULL GROWN?

Monthly News Reports From Local Associations

Monthly report blanks will not be sent out by this department until next March but we will endeavor to have each local secretary send in a special article concerning the bee industry in their respective districts. Items of interest to the bee industry are desirable at all times and we will be glad to print items sent in by our beekeepers.

Notice: Several requests have come to this office for bees. If any member of the association knows of any for sale, please notify the Secretary.

Beekeepers’ Short Course

University of Wisconsin

Feb. 7 to March 17, 1921.

The Second Beekeepers Short Course for practical beekeepers will be given at the University of Wisconsin in February and March, 1921.

Package Bees for Beginners

There will always be a few Apiaries for sale, but never enough to supply the demand for full colonies of bees unless the price and demand for honey drops considerably. Package bees will continue for a long time to be one of the ready sources for securing more bees in the spring.

It is barely possible that beginners in beekeeping should not attempt to start with package bees, but if one does wish to start and has no other way of obtaining bees, what shall they do? We might say, neucleil are better, but there is always the danger of disease and a careful beginner who prepares himself by reading up on the care of package bees will be reasonably sure of success. In the case of the old time beekeeper who wishes to strengthen his colonies in the spring or who wishes to increase the number of his colonies by that method, if he has not had experience with package bees, we would suggest that he also carefully read some of the articles which have appeared during the last few years in the bee journals. Package bees cannot be thrown into a hive and allowed to drift for themselves, but they must be given even more attention than established colonies.

When Package Bees Should Be Shipped

We have found that during a normal season, package bees should not be brought into Wisconsin earlier than May 1, unless special preparations are made to give the bees outside protection up to the middle of May. Weather conditions during April are always variable and cold weather with temperatures, ranging below that at which bees can fly freely, are sure to occur during the latter part of that month. Even where combs of honey with pollen are available, the bees will have difficulty in building up, unless protected by outside covering or packing. Package bees received after the 15th of May are not likely to be able to build up strong enough to get much surplus from the clover flow unless it is late in starting, but they may be divided for increase and additional strong colonies secured by fall.

Some Figures on Wisconsin Beekeeping

It pays whenever possible to study available statistics to see where we are and what we are doing, as compared with others, so that we may correct any obvious mistakes. In the statistics presented by Dr. S. A. Jones in Bulletin 685 of the Department of Agriculture there are some data furnished by Wisconsin beekeepers which may profitably be studied.

The surplus honey of the state is of high quality, for the beekeeeprs report that 80 per cent is white, 14 per cent light amber, 4 per cent amber and only 2 per cent dark. The per cent of white honey in the surplus crop is reported as greater only in four states, Michigan with 85 percent, Utah with 84 per cent, Nevada with 91 per cent and Wyoming with 100 per cent

The reporting beekeepers give the following data regarding the average yield' per colony in Wisconsin:

1913 .......

.... 60


1914 .......

.... 40


1915 .......

.... 63


1916 .......

.... 69


1917 .......

.... 56


1913-17 ....

.... 58


This five-year average is equalled or exceeded' in the reports from the following states: Florida 66 pounds. North Dakota (few reports) 69 pounds, Montana 64 pounds, Wyoming 69 pounds, Arizona 64 pounds. Utah 66 pounds. Nevada 62 pounds. Idaho 61 pounds, and California 60 pounds. With the exception of Florida, all of these states are farther to the west, thus farther from the largest consuming public.

Wisconsin beekeepers report that they sold the following percentages of their honey at nearby points, not in wholesale markets:

Of the states which exceeded Wisconsin in average yields in the years given, only North Dakota and Montana reported as large a percentage of sales in home markets, but as some of these states with large yields have commercial beekeeping better developed, this will help to explain the larger amount sold in wholesale markets. Of these states reporting larger colony yields, none reported higher prices for wholesale honey in 1917 than did the Wisconsin beekeepers.

Wisconsin beekeepers reported their surplus crops as from the following high-grade sources:

<10) Aster .............. 0.3%

<11) Goldenrod .......... 0.7%

The loss from disease is given as

1.5 per cent in 1915, 6.0 per cent in 1916 (a year of large crops) and 2.5 per cent in 1917, the average for the whole country for the three years being 2.4 per cent In 1916, when there was such a fine clover yield throughout most of the clover region, only one other state reported so high a loss from disease.

According to the figures presented it is seven months in the average year between the fall honey-flow and the first of the following spring. The average confinement in winter without flight is 3 months and 6 days. This indicates a difficult winter problem and all Wisconsin beekeepers will agree that this is perhaps the hardest problem that they encounter. The winter losses reported are as follows:

The average winter losses for the whole United States for these years was 12%, so the beekeepers of the state seem to be doing as well as their fellows elsewhere. It must be taken into consideration that in reporting winter losses, the beekeepers report those colonies that have died outright and do not show the depletion of the strength of the colonies that still live. It is, of course, recognized that every year many colonies are not able to gather the full crop because of spring weakness.

It is the opinion of the reporting beekeepers that on the average for the state, they need to leave 31 pounds of honey with the bees for the winter and following spring to bridge the long gap. Seventy-four per cent of the bees are wintered in cellars, 16 per cent are packed, 5 per cent are protected in some way not indicated by the reports and 2 per cent are wrapped in paper, making a total of 97 per cent of the bees of the state that are given some protection.

To what did Wisconsin beekeepers attribute their winter losses? This is given as follows: Failing queens, 3.0 per cent; starvation, 5.0 per cent; cold, exposure and smothering, 1.0 per cent; moths and ants, negligible; effects of disease, 0.2 per cent; poor honey and dysentery, 1.0 per cent; late swarms, 0.4 per cent; lack of young bees, 0.5 per cent; miscellaneous and unknown, 0.9 per cent.

If beekeepers in Wisconsin leave an average of only 31 pounds of honey to the colony for winter and spring, as they confess, it is rather surprising that the loss from starvation is not more than 5 per cent annually. If the beekeepers were sure that Nature would provide more honey every year at the right time in the spring, then perhaps 31 pounds would be enough, but it is seriously to be doubted whether they can be certain of this help. Wisconsin bees are fortunate in having such fine stores for winter as is indicated by the sources previously given and also from the low death rate from dysentery.

Having examined briefly and insufficiently the fact given by the beekeepers, there is another source of Information that should be consulted. The Census figures state that the following amounts of honey have been produced in the state in the years named:

1859 ......... 207,294 pounds

1869 ......... 299,341 pounds

1879 ......... 813,806 pounds

1889 ......... 3,515,761 pounds

1899 ......... 2,677,100 pounds

1909 ......... 2,153,819 pounds

It is of course evident that there will be a variation in the yield per colony in the several years of the Census that would' account for some of this variation. However, if we look at the data from all the middlewestern states we find the same decrease since 1889. The decline from the peak in 1889 was constant In all these states and not so variable as we would expect from a variation in nectar secretion. The Census figures include bees on farms but not those in towns and cities.

The year 1889 may be taken as about the peak of the enthusiasm for comb-honey production with small hives, trying to squeeze every possible drop of honey out of the broodnest into the supers, and after this beekeeping declined in many places. From the teachings of that period comes the fact that Wisconsin beekeepers aim to leave only 31 pounds of honey on the hives in the fall, instead of at least 50 per cent more than that which would be nearer correct, but still sometimes not enough. The winter loss of 10 per cent of all colonies and the weakening of the ones which still live at the end of winter is an outgrowth of the type of beekeeping of the earlier period.

It is hard to shake off the things of the past, and we would not want to forget the many good things that came from the men who have preceded us in beekeeping. However, when we see the decrease in beekeeping that has come while certain practices were in vogue and when we learn that the beekeepers of the present day are still suffering great losses, these things ought to pull us up sharply to a realization that few of us have been doing for the bees all that we should.

More winter protection, more stores for winter and especially for spring and the enlargement of the hives so that a full colony of bees may get inside are some of the things that we all need to recognize as essential. The honey-flora of Wisconsin is certainly as good as it was in 1889, except that much of the basswood is gone. In all probability the planting of alsike clover has made the state as a whole a better place for beekeeping year after year than ever before. The honeys are of the highest quality*', the yields are fine, the markets are as good as anywhere with such fine yields, and taken altogether the industry^ should have been growing since 1889 instead of declin-, Ing. Bee diseases are partly to blame, but beyond doubt the greater menace to beekeeping is the beekeeper who fails to care for his bees as is necessary to get the full crop.

Dr. E. F. Phillips.

Beekeepers Must Cooperate

Co-operation is the keynote of this decade. Man’s suspicious distrust of his neighbor is its only enemy. Forty years ago co-operation was a utopian dream testified to by the graves of granges and co-op stores. Twenty years ago the idea resulted in the formation of the trusts which even yet dominate certain lines of business. Certain firms could and did trust each other, and no one else. These firms became immensely wealthy, proving that co-operation is a money maker. At the beginning of the world’s war we were horrified at the thought of the enormity of the job before us. To raise the greatest army of the world, to finance the nation, and feed the world, but how? The business heads of the government adopted the plan originated and used by a number of the successful co-operative marketing associations and didn’t we succeed? W. J. Bryan’s prediction that we could raise an army of a million men over night was almost a reality.

Are the co-operative marketing associations going to pieces because the war is over, and’ the Wilson version of the League of Nations failed? They are not, for today the old ones are stronger than ever before and

new ones are appearing daily. The rice growers, the cotton  men  and

many others have lately joined the

ranks. The  wholesaler  welcomes

such bodies, as he is assured of a supply of standard products, dellver-ered at a fixed rate.

Has the time come to co-operate? It has. It is co-operation or failure. To co-operate means that you will have to produce articles of the best possible character, take care of them with greater care, pack them by rules and ship to market by a stated time. In return you have an assured market. You get, not the top of the market, which you can hope for but once in a life time, but an average price which is higher than you could get in any other way.

Have beekeepers been successful in these associations? One of the oldest and most successful marketing associations in the United States is composed of beekeepers. Many states have honey producers’ associations which are in active operation and on a firm financial basis.

Are the beekeepers of Wisconsin rady to support State and National associations? Are they willing to let the dairy and potato men of Wisconsin set a pace that the beemen can’t follow? The beemen of every state ask your aid. Wisconsin has never failed’.

E. G. LeStourgeon.

What the A. H. P. D. Can Do For the Beekeeper

The price of sugar is going downward and that of honey will surely follow. In the general demoralization of the food market the bee men must watch well or the price of honey will drop far below its relative place with sugar and corn syrup. The manufacturers of corn syrup have already started on their campaigns to increase sales. They have an article which is uniform in color weight, and sweetness. It is packed in an attractively labeled can and is so advertised that its name is a household word. They have so distributed their stock that this syrup can be procured at almost any town in the United States. This is but one of a number of syrup firms and all are alive to the situation.

Can honey compete with such an article? We will have to admit that honey is very irregular in quality and oft times is very poorly packed in a crude and unattractive manner. Worse than this the irregularity of supply is such that today the market is flooded and next month you couldn’t buy, beg or steal honey. Do you blame the housewife who buys a can of honey this month at a very reaonable price and when she repeats the order next month, is told that the price is doubled, for not buying. Do you blame her for buying an article, though inferior, which she can depend upon for quality, supply, and price?

The individual honey producer is powerless in this situation. He can only trust to local market and luck. The Honey Producers’ associations and the American Honey Producers’ league propose to be on the ground and with their help the individual can meet the sugar and corn syrup Arms with their own methods. The League’s system of marketing will standardize the quality and package of honey. Its advertising will make known the value of Nature’s chosen sweet to the buying public, and its distribution system will render it possible to procure honey throughout the year at a price in ratio with that of sugar.

E. G. LeStourgeon.

Spread and Control of American Foulbrood

After one has passed through a siege of American Foulbrood, it is not hard to understand why beekeepers have had so much difficulty in the past.

Aside from buying diseased bees and bringing them into a disease free territory, the buying of used hives and old' combs is one of the most dangerous things a beekeeper can do. As a rule beekeepers who have old hives, combs, etc. to sell without bees, have lost their bees through disease. Old combs from such sources are almost sure to carry disease especially if there is honey in them.

Old combs from a region in which foulbrood is known to occur should never be given to disease free bees.

Second hand hives and equipment sliould never be used without first scraping and washing in hot lye water.

Spread of disease locally is caused by exposing infected honey to robber bees or through interchanging infected combs from diseased to healthy colonies. When the disease once appears in a yard, immediate measures should be taken to stamp it out. No risk, however small, should be taken in exposing a diseased colony to robbing and diseased colonies should not be opened at all during brood rearing when bees are not able to gather nectar in the field. A single drop of honey taken from a diseased colony may be sufficient to carry the disease to a healthy colony.

After the honey flow', manipulation of diseased colonies should be left until late October w’hen brood rearing has ceased. The danger is not so great then because the infected honey will nearly’ always be put in the center of the brood nest and vfill be consumed before the next brood rearing period begins.

Why Extracting Frames From Diseased Colonies Should Not Be


Many beekeepers have attempted to save dry brood-free extracting combs with the belief or hope that unless brood had been reared in them they were free from disease. Brood-free extracting frames that are absolutely dry’ and free of small drops of dried honey do not in our experience carry the disease. Careful observations show that so-called dry- combs are seldom entirely free from honey unless the colony from which they are taken has been brought near to the point of starvation.* If there is a fair amount of stores present in the brood chamber, bees clean up th*-extracting combs and usually’ but not always put the honey in a few’ cells. In many' cases a very' small amount may be left in a cell and over a long period of time perhaps five or six months or from one season to another, these tiny drops dry' out and form a very small scale w’hich does not show in glancing over the comics These small scales of dried honey may contain spores of the disease and when honey’ is again stored in these cells, the scales are softened

♦Just how the honey in the extracting supers becomes infected is not clearly' understood, but experience shows that it does. It is a well established fact that during a heavy honey’ flow the bees deposit nectar in the brood combs and later earn it to the supers, perhaps this is the explanation. and the spores liberated. When the honey from these cells is fed to the bees a new infection is started which soon spreads to other parts of the brood nest.

In an experiment carried on in 1919, eight sets of “brood free’’ dry extracting combs taken from colonies diseased with American foulbrood were given to eight two-pound packages of bees. Sugar syrup was fed to these so that they had abundance of stores up to the time of the honey flow.

In six of these, disease did not appear at all during the season. In two others the disease appeared with the first set of brood and continued to increase until the colonies were treated in July. While only two of the colonies became diseased, the per cent of disease carried was 25 per cent. Such a high per cent makes the use of dry extracting combs very dangerous.

Five sets of frames with foundation which had not been worked on but slightly or not at all were also taken from diseased colonies of the year before and' given to package bees. Sugar syrtfp was fed to these colonies until the honey flow began. No disease appeared in &ny of these colo-* nies.

Does Scorching the Hive Parts and Frames Insure Complete Disinfection?

Bees do not leave honey scattered about on the walls of the hive or on frames and will immediately gather up the smallest drop that may fall from a cell. Therefore, there is no more danger of the disease being carried on clean hive parts than on the body of the bee. If the disease is spread at all outside infected honey or combs, it would seem that the bacteria would adhere to the body of the bee and continue as a source of infection indefinitely for we know that the spores of the bacteria may live over for several years. On the other hand, in every case where the diseased brood and infected honey is removed the disease is eliminated, and we must conclude that the bacteria are not carried over on the body of the bee. The same is true of hive bodies and' frames, if they are absolutely free of honey, the bacteria are not carried over on them.

I have in a large number of tests taken the hive body, bottom board and cover from a diseased colony in the place of a clean hive, used clean frames with full sheets of foundation, and brushed the bees onto them. The percentage of successful treatment was as large In every case as with scorched hive parts. The danger of using old hive bodies lies in carrying them over until the next season and not thoroughly cleaning them of drops of infected honey which may have gotten on to them after removal from the bees.

If all hive parts and frames are thoroughly scraped and washed with hot lye water so that all particles of liquid or crystalized honey are removed, there is no danger of reinfection from this source.

Where a number of colonies are to be treated, hive bodies free of burr combs may be taken from treated colonies and used to shake other diseased colonies into if done at once.

Never use a liive body from a diseased colony on another colony having drawn combs without scraping and cleaning, and clean not only the inside of the hive but the outside and edges as well. Take special care to clean up all honey from behind the rabbets.

Scorching out the hive body is no safer than scraping and' washing unless every inch of surface both inside and out is treated. Many beekeepers carefully scorch out the inside of hive, but overlook honey behind the rabbets or smeared on the outside of the hive.

Frames Should Be Saved

It is not economy to destroy the frames from diseased colonies except where one or two colonies out of a large number are affected and the beekeeper undertakes to stamp out the disease by destroying, hive bees, and all. It is also unnecessary to scorch the frames, but they must be scraped and cleaned of wax and honey. To insure the removal of particles of crystalized honey, place them in boiling water for five minutes and dip in a second tank of boiling water.

If the frames are loose, a few extra nails will make them rigid.

Treatment of American Foulbrood

Shaking bees from combs infected with foulbrood is a bad practice and is always likely to scatter diseased honey where bees from healthy colonies may gather it. It is possible to brush bees from combs without spilling a drop of honey and requires little more time than shaking. When bees are shaken out of a hive, there is always some danger that stray bees carrying a load of honey may go into a neighboring hive.

Bees are attracted to loose honey wherever they find it even during a honey flow and a few robber bees are always to be found in the yard during a heavy flow.

When the treatment is finished, burn the brush. A brush which has been used in the treatment of diseased colonies should not be used with healthy colonies. A whisk broom or a bunch of stiff grass tied so that pieces of grass will not break off are better to use than a brush made so that the bristles dip into the cells. If a whisk broom is used get a soft one and cut out about one-half the brush part.

When and How to Treat

Do not treat bees by brushing or shaking unless there is sufficient honey coming in to keep bees from robbing. Diseased bees may be treated in the late fall after brood rearing has ceased by transferring to “disease-free” combs of honey.

Bees may be successfully treated during any period of a honey flow but the most desirable time is shortly after the beginning of the main honey flow. This period for Wisconsin is June 15 to June 20. Diseased colonies found after the honey flow is over should be treated in late October after all brood' rearing has ceased by transferring to combs of “disease free” honey. If the operator is careful in transferring the bees at that time, very little honey will be secured by robbers and this will quite likely be put where the bees will use it during the winter.

Plan your work and have your hhe bodies ready so that every diseased colony in the yard can be treated on the same or the following day. Melt up the combs and clear the hives at once.

The Immediate removal of diseased combs and honey is the greatest insurance against reinfection that can be secured. Don’t store the hives over until next spring and if at all possible do not bring a diseased hive or comb into the extracting house or store room reserved for disease free hives and supers.

If a colony is found diseased do not open up the colony when no honey is coming in from the field. One of the most fruitful sources of infection is the exposure of combs containing infected honey or exposing diseased colonies to robbers. Colonies of bees vary greatly in their propensity to rob and some colonies are continually on the hunt for stores while others remain peacefuly at home. Possibly the amount of stores has some effect but I have been unable to observe any difference between colonies having abundant stores and those with small amounts. Diseased colonies that are weak at the end of the honey flow should be destroyed at once. Do not wait until tomorrow but close up the hive as soon as the disease is found, carry


•Because the prices are moderate for the workmanship. Because the materials are the very best obtainable. Because you are assured of good service—guaranteed.

These goods marked with the “Beeware” brand are famous for giving the utmost return over a period cf years at prices which are never extreme.

Conditions this year are causing many men to change their previus buying methods. Buy cautiously, but be sure you get real quality for your money, the kind you get in “'Beeware” only.

It will poy you to write or visit your “Beeware” d istributor.

His name is on the catalog we will send if you ask for it.


To give users of Lewis “Beeware” better service and information, we announce the employment of E. W. Atkins who began work at Watertown November 1. Mr. Atkins is well known to many American and Canadian beekeepers, has worked in large commercial apiaries and for the past four years has been operating his own apiaries. After taking a degree at the Ontario. Canada. Agricultural College. Mr. Atkins served with the provincial and dominion apiarists of Canada. During the war he was in charge of bee culture extension work for the U. S. Government in Iowa, Missouri, Kansas and Nebraska. Later he has worked out of the Iowa Agricultural College at Ames for the U. S. Bee Culture Laboratory and is well acquainted with the needs of beginners and commercial beekeepers alike. Address all communications regarding beekeeping to our Service Department, Wat er town.



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G. B. LEWIS COMPANY, Watertown, Wisconsin

it into the cellar and destroy bees and combs at once. Also see that after the bees are in the cellar none escape, for bees loaded with honey fly hack to the old stand and when they do not find the old home, they will go to the nearest hive and will be allowed to enter.                    .....

The Double-Shake Treatment

A method recommended by some beekeepers is known as the “double shake method.” In using this method the bees are first shaken onto frames with starters. After about four days these are removed and the bees shaken a second time onto full sheets of foundation. This practically insures eradication of the disease if no outside source of infection exists.

Drawn Combs Used With Foundation

Among Wisconsin beekeepers there is a practice which is more or less doubtful as to its success. When the bees are run onto full sheets of foundation, one frame at the side of the hive is left out and an old drawn comb is put in its place. The idea is that the bees store the honey that they have brought with them in this comb and that by removing it the next or following day the Infected honey will all be removed. The very fact that the bees store honey in this comb makes the practice dangerous. No matter how careful a beekeeper may be, he cannot open the hive and remove the comb without inciting a number of bees to gorge themselves with honey from this comb. Thus the period for using up the disease infected honey carried by the bees at the time of shaking has been reduced twenty-four to forty-eight hours. By that time cells may be sufficiently built out on the foundation for immediate storage of the honey.


Spray or wash the foliage of house plants prequently. It will help to keep the plants in better health.

Should send for our booklet on the new MODIFIED DADANT HIVE. The hive with a brood chamber sufficient for prolific queens. OUR CATALOG IS FREE.

Farmers’ bulletins 1039 on commercial comb honey production is worth sending for—write to the Division of Publications, Washington, D. C.


Hamilton, Illinois