OFFICIAL ORGAN OF THE WISCONSIN STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY
Madison. Wisconsin, September, 1920
Successful marketing begins with production. The product must be of good quality and something for which there is a demand. When these conditions are fulfilled the marketing question is more than half solved.
The small producer, however, has a special problem. He cannot compete in the wholesale market with those who sell in large quantities. The solution of his problem lies in offering an unusual product or one of such good quality that he builds up a select private trade among those who arc willing to order in advance so as to secure better goods than can be purchased in the open market. Due to persistence and originality women often succeed where men fail. It is for the benefit of women who have something to sell but do not know how to find a market that the following suggestions are made.
First, what have you to sell? Think about this carefully. Butter, eggs, poultry, fruit and vegetables both fresh and canned, maple sugar, candy, cake, jellies, marmalades, and handiwork of many kinds—all these are salable. First-class food is always in demand, and handiwork also, but the public demands that even necessities be of this year's model. Leftovers can be bought at the bargain counter.
Second, quality is a large factor in successful marketing. Do not be satisfied with making a product as good as your neighbors. Make it better so that the customer who has once tried it will continue to support your efforts by mail orders. For example, the better class of buyers prefer a good cake once a week to a cheaper one made of substitutes every day.
Third, label and pack neatly. Original labels attract attention to the product itself. The package or container should have an individuality of its own. It should speak to the eye of the shopper so that he turns away from similar articles of a different make. A catch trade mark is an asset to anyone’s business Take the word “kodak,” for instance, it is now used as an accepted word for a small camera, whereas it was originally a made-up word used by the Eastman Company as a trade mark. While the outside appearance makes the first sale, quality secures permanent customers.
Now the product is ready for market. Sometimes there is a good market in a nearby village or city. One’s own doorstep, if located on an automobile road, is a good salesroom. Fresh fruit, cold drinks, sandwiches, etc. can be sold to tourists conveniently by placing a booth or even a table near the road. An unusual sign will arrest their attention and bring them to your door. A tearoom or gift shop may become a lucrative business. Supply the needs and desires of the passersby and they will buy.
A market is not anvays to be found easily. The woman who has not time to go far afield in search ol' customers must depend upon some intermediate agency. Suppose she sends needlework to a woman's exchange. She may wait a long time and finalh’ have the work returned unsold. This is discouraging unles; the Exchange takes the time to tell her why her consignment did not sell and suggests what she might make that would sell, whereas a mail order clientele from a small beginning may develop into a large business.
The Woman’s National Farm and Garden Association with headquarters at 414 Madison Avenue, New York City, sells members’ product.; on commission at its Christmas Sale and helps members build tip a mad order business through the medium of a quarterly folder which is given wide distribution.
The Association began to hold Christmas Sales soot, after it was organized in 1914. City women came to depend upon these sales, visiting the Association rooms before going to other shops in search of Christmas gifts. They found a collection of unusual articles which could not be secured in any one shop elsewhere. These sales were of benefit to the seller as well as to the buyer for through them products are introduced to the public in a more intimate way than would be possible in a regular shop where the saleswomen do not take a personal interest in the consignors. The New England Branch of the Association at its Christmas Sale held in Boston last year sold twenty-four hundred dollars' worth of members’ products in two days, although some of the members had sold all their surplus previous to the sale through advertisements in the Branch Bulletin.
The National Association has issued the first number of a folder listing its producing members. This folder is to be printed four times a year and will be mailed to five thousand possible buyers. Its object is to bring the producer and the consumer together, eliminating the services of middlemen as l'ar as possible, iinly members of the Association ran advertise in the folder and they pay three dollars a year for a four-line insertion. The consumer who wishes to receive the loider regularly pays a two-dol-lar membership fee. which also includes a subscription to the monthly Bulletin.
A high standard article is the aim of tile Association. Whenever possible, samples of goods must be submitted to the Sales Committee before they can be advertised. The Association, while assuming no responsibility, endeavors to protect both producer and consumer. It cannot guarantee the financial standing of the buyers nor uniformity in the quality of goods, but it takes ■ very precaution in making up its list of advertisers and possible purchasers. Consumers are asked to report if the goods bought are unsatisfactory in any wav, and producers if customers prove unreliable.
The Sales Committee is preparing a traveling exhibit which will include lace filet, guest towels, bureau scarfs, underwear, aprons, children's dresses, and jelly glasses packed in an attractive box or basket. This has been planned for the benefit of women who do not have an opportunity to visit city shops and see for themselves what is demanded by the public. It will bring to the remote homes of the many women who spend their winter months in doing fancy work, samples of articles that are salable, artistic in coloring and design, of good material and beautifully made.
The marketing problem is most serious at present. Production is not keeping pace with demand. We know that the man power of Europe has been greatly reduced but do not realize that in our own country approximately six million men have been lost to labor by death, emigration and decreased immigration. Waste must be eliminated if the world is to be fed and clothed. Much food is wasted or lost because of the excessive cost of distribution. Look at the food wasted in the country because there are not enough laborers to gather it. or because the cost of harvesting and transportation takes away even a reasonable profit. Look at I lie food brought to our cities which is allowed to spoil at the wharves or the railroad terminals. Even with decreased production there would be enough for all if the unnecessary waste were eliminated and if available supplies were sent where needed.
A word should be said in regard to prices as compared with the quoted city prices. The small producer has no overhead charges, such as rent for shop, many deliveries to the same family daily, telephone order.-, that take valuable time to put up and deliver, and the immediate making good of damaged or unsatisfactory articles. In consequence the small producer must sell her goods below the current market price as she is saved the expenses mentioned above and the commission charge of two or more middlemen which must be paid by the city shops. This is not belittling her output but giving the consumer the advantage she should have for ordering by mail in advance from the producer rather than ordering by telephone from a nearby retail shop.
Boards or paper are good materials for bleaching celery at this time of year. Dirt is apt to cause decay of the stems.
Rosa rubrifolia is one of the best of lawn shrubs throughout the summer. Its purplish leaves give a needed color to the lawn in late summer.
It is time 1o order tulips, hyacinths and daffodils for Autumn planting, (let a good supply of these this year for the garden and window.
Why try to put all of the Howers in the garden in one vase. Use discretion and do not crowd. Often one rose or one Hower is more effective than a dozen. (Jive each individual plenty of room to show off and do not mix colors.
Why not take pains to pick up the papers and trash after that pleasant picnic lunch along the highway or on a lake front? Be thoughtful of others and you will have a better time.
(‘lit out the old currant canes and all old raspberry canes as soon as the plants are through fruiting. Burn this trash at once. It is a splendid nesting place for insects and disease.
My Neighbor’s Garden
Going home on the street ear with my neighbor the other afternoon I noticed that he had a lot of flower catalogues in his pocket and that he was studying another with his usual intentness. I interrupted him by asking him what he was so much interested in. He replied “Bulbs. Dutch bulbs.”
To draw him out I asked him in what way bulbs from Amsterdam or Rotterdam were better than those from any other dam. lie looked at me as if he thought I hadn't gotten the old joke just right, and added by explanation, “Tulips, crocuses and hyacinths.”
I didn’t tell him I hardly knew one of these from another, and asked him if I couldn’t come over in the evening and get him to help me in making up an order. I knew nothing would please him better, and so when he invited me to come over early I went.
I told him I didn’t know anything about bulbs and wanted to know what to buy and why. This was enough to start him off. I can’t remember all he told me, but I was greatly surprised when I learned that the government had recently made regulations which prevent the importation of scores of kinds of bulbs and roots grown in Holland, permitting only tulips, crocuses, narcissus, hyacinths and lillies. Why these could come in and freesias, snow drops, frittillarias, gladiolus and dozens of other bulbs, as well as peonies and irises were excluded was a mystery which he couldn’t explain. He rather more than hinted at bureaucratic imbecility in connection with the ruling.
The best known and cheapest Dutch bulbs are tulips. These are of many kinds, from the short stemmed early ones blooming in April to the tall and larger ones blooming in May. They come in all colors from green to almost jet black. The finest of all are the Darwin tulips which come in almost all colors. The flowers are the size of a teacup on stems 18 inches to 2 feet in height. For massing in beds where a formal effect is desired the smaller ones are better as they can be planted closer and will be almost all the same height. For a border or small clump the Darwins are better. Breeder tulips are like the Darwins in habit of growth but the colors are of the so-called art shades, dull purples, olive greens, reds and browns. The Rembrandt’s are of the same style of growth but are curiously marked with vari-colored stripes and zigzags. By way of variety some of these latter kinds may even be included with an order of Darwins. Parrot tulips are late bloomers and have the edges of the petals notched and fringed and are of gorgeous colors mostly shades of red and yellow, but the stems are rather weak and they do not compare in effect with the Darwins. Double tulips are not as pleasing as the single ones.
Crocuses are small and rather cheap bulbs which come out earlier than tulips. They are very effective in a narrow border, or in beds of other and later flowering bulbs, where they can come up and make their show before the others come on. They are very interesting w’hen planted in the lawn. They will flower in the spring before mowing is necessary, but will only bloom once as the continual mowing of the grass cuts off the leaves and the bulbs die out.
Hyacinths are best planted in rows in the edge of the border or in masses in beds. They are more expensive than tulips but are much more interesting because of their delightful fragrance although the range of colors is not nearly as great. In selecting them for beddin" care should be used to select those blooming about the same time.
The most varied and interesting group of Dutch bulbs are the narcissi. These are limited in color to white and yellow with or without slight edgings of red or deep orange, but are very varied in form and habit of growth. They have a widely opened perianth composed of pointed or rounded segments inside of which is a corolla which may be a trumpet longer than the spread of the perianth or it may be a mere shallow cup. Frequently the perianth and corolla are of different colors and if it is cup formed the corolla is frequently edged with a red or orange. The flowers may be double and may be on a stalk, or in the polyanthus varieties as many as ten. Most of them are fragrant, especially the jonquils and poets narcissus.
The sooner bulbs are planted after being received the better. They may be planted as late as December but are better planted in October. The earlier they are planted the better root growth will they make and the earlier will they flower.
All the Dutch bulbs above described are hardy except some of the polyanthus narcissi and all require about the same treatment when planted out of doors. If the soil is heavy it should be deeply spaded and lightened by the addition of sand. It should be rich, but no fresh manure should be used, and even well rotted manure should not come in contact with the bulbs. The soil should be well drained and if not it is a good plan to bed the bulbs in sand half an inch or more around each bulb, and then fix the bed so that there shall be no surface water standing over them in winter. Rather than plant the bulbs in holes, it is better, if they are in beds or rows, to remove the top soil to depth at which the bulbs are to be planted, then to prepare and manure the subsoil, then to place the bulbs in position pressing lightly into the soil, base down, and then replace the top soil over them carefully so as not to displace them.
Crocuses are best planted two to two and a half inches deep; early tulips two and a half to three inches deep; Darwin tulips six to eight inches deep; hyacinths from four to six inches deep depending on the size of the bulb. The depth given is from the bottom of the bulb.
In buying bulbs get named varieties. They cost more but are better in every way. Get first sized bulbs as they give longer blossoms. In making your selection remember that it is not always the most expensive bulbs that give the best results. The old reliable sorts are generally the cheapest and are easiest to cultivate. They are proven to be satisfactory or they would not be still on the market.
While all these are hardy it is well to give them slight winter protection. Straw is best but corn stalks, leaves or almost any sort of dry rubbish will do, especially anything which will hold the snow. Whatever is used should be removed in the spring as soon as the leaves begin to come through the ground.
Although all these bulbs can be forced, i. e., made to blossom in the house, hyacinths and narcissus do best. The material for forming the flower is stored in the bulb and requires little or nothing except what the plant will derive from air, water and light. It must have a good root growth, however, and the principal conditions of successful forcing is a good root growth. Any sort of soil if it is not too compact will be sufficient, or, in ease of hyacinths even clear sand, pebbles or water. But in all eases the bulbs must be kept cool and in the dark till there is a good root growth, when they may be brought into a light room. If in pots they should not be brought into the light until the roots begin to show through the hole in the bottom of the pot. When this stage is reached the flower stalk or the leaves will have begun to show above the soil. They should not at first be exposed to direct sunlight, but should be brought into it gradually.
Tulips and crocuses should be planted in pots, the tips half an inch below the top of the soil. Hyacinths and narcissus should be just covered. As many can be put in a pot as it will hold and not have the bulbs touch each other. The top soil should be packed firmly as the roots may otherwise force the bulb up into the air. Hyacinths may be grown in special hyacinth glasses. The paper-white (polyanthus) narcissus is best grown in a shallow bowl in water with sand and pebbles to keep it in place.
The bulbs can be placed in a cool cellar or closet to make their root growth, but it must be dark. It does not matter that it is cool and it may even freeze without injury to the bulb. Ti.ey should be kept damp all the time. Perhaps the best results are obtained by leaving them out of doors in a cold frame covered with four to six inches of wet cinders. If potted early and protected from frost they may be brought in by New Years and will blossom in February. They can be kept in the dark in a cool cellar and brought up to the light in succession. Don’t forget that they must have a cool dark place in which to make their root growth if you arc to be successful.
Florists sell a prepared fiber in which bulbs may be grown, but it is just as messy as dirt and no better. It is mostly for flatdwellers who can’t easily get garden soil.
Tobacco preparations applied to house plants tend to discourage aphis and other insects.
Careful packing of fruit or vegetables always pays in better prices paid for the product.
Mulch autumn bearing strawberries with straw or lawn clippings to keep the fruit clean.
A bright, clean, attractive package helps the sale of fruit and vegetables. Anything that appeals to the eye helps the sale.
Thoughts on Racine Convention
The Slimmer meeting held at Racine is a thing of the past, but it will be present in the memory of one who attended for many a day. I really wondered why Raeine was chosen. What was there to see in onion and cabbage fields.’ Well I found out—am a wiser and humbler person.— What 1 didn't know about onions and cabbage would fill a book. We mel in the Assembly Hall of the Commercial Club, were warmly welcomed tho we were tardy, by a committee of Raeine ladies. Do you know 1 think in the language of Howers Raeine will be Pansies. The Door is open. The Hostess greets you. beautiful flowers, smiling faces, wily I began to feel at home immediately. Luckily we only missed a little of the splendid talk on roses by II. F. Koch of Wauwatosa. lie i surely a genuine lover of roses, and is very tolerant of other gardenol’s ’ opinions for he kindly listened to some of our stories, answered our questions, generally helped us all. You see he has really grown and loved his garden. The Peony and Iris speaker, Mr. Kenning, was the same. Their gardens—the flowers they loved—that’s the secret they gave to us. “If you have a garden, love it.’’ We want you to have a garden; we ’ll tell you about ours.” After the meeting closes the groups of interested people gather about the speakers. The flower lovers instinctively gather together telling their troubles and successes. So do the fruit and vegetable growers, and, while to my notion if they would talk right out in meeting we would all get more out of it, yet we sure can enjoy this tliot, each of us took bom.- with us the best, our particular need was satisfied. The afternoon session was good also. Mr. Hauser of Bayfield who displayed a most beautiful collection of l’errennial and Annual Garden Howers, kindly introduced th.mi to us by their proper names; we surely enjoyed this. Mr. Hauser deserved the vote of thanks given by the Society for doing his best to make these meetings beautiful.
Tile Discussion on berries and cherries was led by Mr. Rasmussen and punctuated by Mr. Birmingham whose cherries tasted as good as they looked. The leader of this part of the session said he wanted to stir up some opposition. From stray bits of conversation heard afterward, guess he succeeded. Tliot again we’d be there a week instead of two days if we talked things over in the meetings as we do afterwards. I should just liked to have asked one question that afternoon, or rather, I should like to be shown, a batch or breed of chickens that you could let run in a garden and not have all your pet plants scratched out. Mr. Kern gave us some “facts” about Sparta. I guess he's right, they aren’t coming back, they are speeding past, altogether too many car loads of fruit for me to grasp so quickly, and besides when you can raise a paying crop of strawberries, fill your barn with hay, corn crib full of corn and then fill a silo from a single tract of land all in one year—well, we sure won't forget that Sparta is on the map while Mr. Kern is living there. Dr. Fracker talked on insects. When Dr. Fracker talks we listen. Got to. Bugs our pet abomination. I have several bugs I'm going to present to him; heard him say he didn't know the name of one by the description given: am not so particular about the mime but hope he will know what to give them so as to exterminate the family, root and branch, for. while not numerous in my garden, they do about as much damage as a gossip in a neighborhood. Mr. Monteith spoke on the control of onion and cabbage diseases. He is certainly a good speaker and doesn't waste words but 1'11 be honest for once. I thot it rather—well—dry. but I sat up and took notice next day when shown a field of cabbage where the disease had been conquered by sowing a disease resistant strain of seed. Hats off to our University men, I don't believe these Professors are the kind we heard about. When you don't know what else to do with a boy, make a professor out of him. In the evening we w nt to Washington park. Tile Masque given by Friends ot our native Landscape made u.~. all, I think, go back to our happiest days for we also dreamed dreams and saw visions. We were in a mood to appreciate the practical, sensible remarks given by the speakers afterwards. Come to think of it, they were principally remarks on our duty, yours, mine, not the other fellow's. What can you and I do to help along? The Ghosts that came to me were the companions of my childhood. The Spirit that went with me was the Spirit of Understanding. Regrets, surely—we fail sometimes—but up we look and when we all lift together, the others’ burdens are lighter—and we are all happier.
It is not I can give you a resume of the speakers’ remarks. You should have been there. Every time you miss a convention, you miss eomething worth while.
Thursday we went to visit the onion and cabbage farms. We drove miles and miles through Racine's and Kenosha's famous fields. We saw onions and cabbages, store houses, garden tractors that seemed almost human in the work they could do, more onions and still more onions. I still see them. I discovered many things I didn’t know about onions and cabbages—also I discovered other things. When we rested for a brief period for lunch, as friends sat and talked together, I heard one man, practical, common-sense. businesslike, admit he was addicted to day dreams, builds air castles. lie elimbs the hill to success and success means what? Satisfaction. T have done o hat I set out to do, 1 have given the best,that is in me, my soul is satisfied. Did he say all this in answer to the question, what is success! There is no secret he declares. Success is Satisfaction. How can I interpret?—because I. too. am a dreamer of dreams, and my soul is not satisfied, so I have not reached success.
When I walked and talked with the workers in the onion fields, I discovered another thing. Two little boys from Chicago who were clipping the onion tops interested me. "Isn't that hard work?’’ I asked. "Uh hull,'' one of them answered, but, taking up a hand full of dirt, he let it run slowly through his fingers, "it's more fun to work in this dirt than to live in Chicago.” We were friends instantly. I could understand. To me the dirt was clean and good fun too. Sure the work was hard, but if you love it, it's
fun. Please God they may take this feeling through life towards their work. If the ‘‘look up” not down, can be kept before them their reward will surely be satisfaction. When I read of Racine and Kenosha producing so many car loads of onions and cabbages I will understand as I never have before. There the .fields lie before us; there the men, women and children worked. In God's great out doors they were. I didn’t see one sullen discontented face. What a memory to take with you. Tired and yet they are happy. So was I. The convention is over and I am glad I went. Are you? E.
Dandelions May Be Eradicated
Experiments conducted at the Geneva, New York, Experiment Station during the past eight years show that dandelions may be eradicated from lawns by spraying with iron sulfate solutions at relatively slight expense and without material injury to the grass.
Ordinarily, four or five sprayings are required, the .first being made in May just before the first blooming period; one or two more sprayings at intervals of three or four weeks; and, finally, one or two in the late summer or fall. During the hot. dry weather of mid-summer it may be advisable to discontinue spraying because of danger to the grass. A blackening of the lawn following each application soon disappears if the grass is growing vigorously. Spraying should be supplemented by the application of fertilizers and by the seeding of grass in the spring and fall of each year. With proper management, it is necessary to spray only about every third year in order to keep the lawn practically free from dandelions. Some of the common lawn weeds are also killed, while others are only slightly injured by the spraying. Unfortunately, white clover is killed.
To prepare the spray solution, dissolve from 1.5 to 2 pounds of iron sulfate (also called copperas and green vitrol) in one gallon of water, using a wooden or earthenware vessel. A gallon of the solution will cover about 375 square feet of lawn. The best results are secured when the solution is applied as a fine, mist-like spray well driven down among the foliage. For small lawns a compressed-air sprayer, knapsack sprayer, or bucket pump with brass cylinder and equipped with a line nozzle will be found satisfactory. Fairly satisfactory results may be secured with the use of a sprinkling can. The spray solution should be prevented from coming in contact with walks, building foundations, and one’s clothing since it leaves a more or less permanent brown, rusty stain.
Those contemplating the use of tin-' spray or those interested in the experiments should write to the Station, Geneva, New York, for Bulletin No. 46fi, which may be had free of charge.
Save a few choice apples for the Winter Meeting. If you can’t bring a barrel bring a peek. Have you a pet seedling ? Bring it so all can see it.
Published Monthly by the Wisconsin State Horticultural Society 12 N. Carroll St Official organ of the Society,.
FREDERIC CRANEFIELD, Editor. Secretary W. S. H. S., Madison, WIb.
Entered as second-class matter May 13, 1912, at the postoffice at Madison, Wisconsin, under the Act of March 8, 1879.
Advertising rates made known on application.
Wisconsin State Horticultural Society
Annual membership fee, one dollar, which includes fifty cents, subscription price to Wisconsin Horticulture. Send one dollar to Frederic Cranefield, Editor, Madison, Wis.
Remit by Postal or Express Money Order. A dollar bill may be sent safely if wrapped or attached to a card. Personal checks accepted.
Postage stamps not accepted.
J. A. Hays..............................President
F. Cranefield, Secretary-Treasurer......Madison
J. A. Hays..............................Ex-Officio
F. Cranefield ...........................Ex-Officio
1st Dlst., W"m. I.ongland..........Lake Geneva
2nd Dlst., R. J. Coe................Ft. Atkinson
8rd Dlst., E. J. Frautschi..............Madison
4th Dist., A. Leidiger ................Milwaukee
6th Dlst., Jas. Livingstone .........Milwaukee
Sth Diet., H. C. Christensen...........Oshkosh
7th Dlst., Win. Toole, Sr...............Baraboo
8th Dist., J. E. Leverich.................Sparta
9th Dlst., L. E. Birmingham.....Sturgeon Bay
10th Dist., Paul E. Grant............Menomonie
11th Dist., Irving Smith ................Ashland
BOARD OF MANAGERS
J. A. Hays, President................Gays Mills
The Summer Meeting
The next important event is the winter meeting which will be held in January 1921. Extraordinary efforts will be made to stage the best fruit show ever staged in Wisconsin not excepting state fair or world exposition shows. We have the goods this year and we will show them. Premiums may be doubled or trebled over those of last year.
The summer meeting was a success from every viewpoint, those who attended know this to be true, enjoyed every bit of it and profited greatly. Those who stayed at home will get an outline of the proceedings in the 1921 annual report which will be available about September of that year. Everybody who attended felt sorry for the stay-at-homes, the ones -who could just as well have come but didn’t come, at least most everybody.
A member who did attend and felt it worth while tells about it on this page.
Fire Blight on Apples and Pears
It appears in June, July and August; kills the young shoots causing the leaves to turn brown as if scorched by fire. On pear trees the leaves usually turn black. Quite frequently it kills young pear trees and infrequently kills young apple trees. On older, bearing apple trees it usually causes no serious or permanent injury.
It has been studied by scientists for half a century and none has discovered either prevention or cure. Spraying does not help. If your trees blight, let them blight, you can't help yourself anyway, and when the blight gets thru it will quit. Cutting out the blighted twigs during the growing season is worse than useless, it spreads the disease. Cutting tools may be disinfected with formalin or corrosive sublimate after each cut which is also useless. Surgeons and dentists have learned that such slipshod make-believe “disinfection” does not render instruments sterile, only boiling serves.
These rambling notes on blight embody the best thought and practice of very many practical Wisconsin fruit growers: If they do not agree with the teachings of plant pathologists so much the worse for the pathologists.
Premiums Awarded at the Summer Meeting, Racine, Aug.
Display Dahlias, 1st, Mrs. S. II-Hausche; display pansies. 1st, II. C. Christensen; perennial Phlox, 1st, Mrs. C. E. Strong; Gladioli. 1st, J. F. Hauser, 2nd, Mrs. S. II. Hansche, 3rd, Dorothy Hansche; Annual garden flowers, 1st. J. F. Hauser, 2nd, Mrs. Walter R. Brunker; Herbaceous perennials, 1st, J. F. Hauser. Also special premium of $20.00 awarded this exhibit.
Snap beans, 1st, N. A. Rasmussen; Lima beans, 1st, Walter R. Brunka, 2nd, Rasmussen; Cranberry beans, 1st, Rasmussen; Two cabbages, 1st, Rasmussen, 2nd, Brunka; Six onions, 1st, Rasmussen, 2nd, H. C. Christensen, 3d, Brunka, 2nd, Rasmussen; Three Cucumbers, 1st, Rasmussen; Three muskmelons, 1st, Rasmussen; Six tomatoes, 1st Brunka, 2nd, Rasmussen ; Six beets, 1st, Brunka, 2nd, Rasmussen; Six carrots, 1st. Christensen, 2nd, Rasmussen, 3d, Brunka; Two egg plant, 1st. Brunka.
Class III—Garden Exhibits
Display by boy or girl under 16 years of age, 1st, Norman Han-sehe.
The Apple Crop
Doctors disagree and it is not therefore unreasonable to expect that crop reporters will also disagree.
The Crop Reporting Service of the State Department of Agricul-
ture, the State Division of Markets and the U. S. Bureau of Markets have all been guessing at the Wisconsin apple crop for several weeks.
Here are two forecasts. Wisconsin Co-operative crop reporting services.
Madison, Wis., August 17, 1920 commercial apples:—The Wisconsin commercial apple crop prospect declined 25,000 barrels during July, states Joseph A. Becker of the Wisconsin Cooperative Crop Reporting Service (U. S. Bureau of Crop Estimates and Wisconsin State Department of Agriculture) in his August apple estimate. Dry weather during July checked growth of the fruit and caused an unusually high dropping of windfalls.
The production is now forecasted at 157,000 barrels, compared to 182,000 forecasted a month ago, 126,000 barrels produced in 1919 and 114,000 in 1918. Condition of the crop declined from 65 per eent of a full crop on July 1 to 56 percent on August 1. Condition in Door county is given at 74 percent; Bayfield, 87; Crawford and Vernon, 67; Sauk, 40; and Richland, 40.
Shipments from apple centers will be 10 percent greater than last year, according to reports of apple correspondents of the Service.
The Division of Markets says:
APPLES:—The production of apples is forecasted at 3,676,000 bushels, compared to 2,700,000 produced in 1919 and 2,811,000 in 1918. Condition was 76 percent, compared to 65 a year ago and a 10-year average of 60.
United States: Apple production in the United States is forecasted at 213,187,000 bushels, compared to 147,457,000 produced in 1919 and 169,911,000 in 1918. Condition on August 1 was 70.4, compared to 52.2 a year ago and a 10-year average of 55.4.
From these reports it is reasonable to conclude that the crop is larger than that of 1919. Will prices be lower? Perhaps. Maybe. As Sing Tong Lee might say “no can tell.’’
Strawberries at Sparta
Sparta for a number of years has been known as a great berry section, but not so many know or realize to what extent are berries grown on one of our farms. This farm is the Leverieli Fruit Farm at Angelo, where, on Tuesday of this week alone, 564 crates of strawberries were picked and marketed. This is probably the largest number of cases ever picked by one grower in this district, if not in the state of Wisconsin, in a single day.
Some of the pickers are earning on this farm at the rate of about six dollars per day. There were all told about 125 pickers in the field from children seven years of age to grownups who earned more than $275. The payroll on this farm Tuesday amounted to considerable more than $300.
One of the largest day’s sales of strawberries in this section was recorded Tuesday when the Sparta Fruit Growers’ Exchange shipped five earloads. Five cars were shipped one day last week, but at a time when the total sales were slightly lower than those of Tuesday.—Monroe County Democrat, June 24th, 1920.
Apples in England
The following quotations are from an article on fruit growing in England in a recent issue of the Christian Science Monitor.
Apples can be grown successfully all over England and many parts of Scotland, those districts which overlie the coal measures and those which have become great centres of industry are not so well suited as the counties which are purely agricultural and possess large rural areas of medium loams. The great apple county of the country is Kent, and especially that district of the county known as the Weald. The soil is of a stiff calcareous nature, in some places shallow and close to the chalk. This latter class of soil gives excellent results in a moist season, but is apt to get. very hot in a dry one. Then Hereford, Somerset and Devon are counties possessing an ideal soil for apples, and the color of the fruit from these is brilliant, due to the red sandstone formations on which the soil lies and of which it is partly composed. At present, in these three counties, the bulk of the apples grown are old-fashioned cider varieties, for every farm makes its own cider, and the culinary varieties are termed “pot fruit,’’ signifying that the fruit is used for cooking or dessert purposes and not for cider. They are gradually being exploited, Hereford leading the way, and the results which are being obtained with the modern culinary and dessert varieties are beyond the most sanguine expectations of the pioneers.
Continued on page 14
The second Beekeepers’ Chautauqua was held at Madison August 16-20 on the university eamping ground. The fact that interest in beekeeping is growing was clearly shown by the large attendance and the interest of those present. The result cannot be other than better beekeeping in Wisconsin.
Dr. Phillips and Mr. Demuth of the U. S. Dept, of Entomology were the principal speakers. The former spoke on bee behavior and the latter on the resulting beekeeping practice. Dr. Phillips in his general introduction said that all beekeeping practice must be based on bee activity, the response of the bee to the various factors in its environment. Beekeepers of today use "rule of thumb" systems which may or may not be good, but which fail when new factors appeal- in the environment. So it is necessary for the successful beekeeper to understand bee behavior.
The discussion of bee behavior and the resulting yearly management were taken up in chronological order. The beekeeping year was divided into Part I. Producing Energy and Part II, Expanding Energy. Part I has three periods, Pall, Winter, and Spring. During all of Part I three things are necessary, food, room, and protection. Food in the fall must be adequate, in the winter of choice quality, and in the spring, abundant. Nowhere do do beekeepers fail as much as in providing sufficient spring stores. There are four basic factors in honey production; (1) Howes in bloom and secreting nectar, (2) honey-gathering weather, (3) colonies five times their normal strength, and (4) colony morale, or dominance of the storing instinct. Although man may somewhat establish new- honey plants, yet the first two factors are chiefly controlled by nature with which he must go 50-50 in taking care of the last two to produce a crop of honey. Plants plus weather plus excessive population plus colony morale equals honey crop. This is the beekeepers crop formula. If any factor is zero, the result is zero. The purposes of tin* seasons briefly are these. In the fall a large force of young bees must be reared, in the winter their vitality must be conserved, in the spring brood rearing must be raised to its peak as the honey flow starts and in the summer the colony must be so managed that the storing instinct is kept dominant.
Dr. Phillips discussed bee diseases giving the causes, symtoms, and treatments. He also explained the relationship between European foul brood and honey flows and made it clear that the beekeeper who kept good Italian bees and practiced good beekeeping as explained in the lectures had no need to fear European foul brood.
Mr. Demuth told how the honey producer could raise bis own queens by the method of Dr. Miller or by using a swarm box. No one has a better opportunity than the honey producer to select good breeding stock. lie who does not rear queens misses the poetry of beekeeping.
In discussing the factors influencing nectar secretion. Dr. Phillips brought out the importance of a beekeeper’s knowing something about the conditions of soil, temperature, and moisture under which different honey plants secrete nectar. This knowledge is invaluable in locating an apiary, and by it the yield of an established apiary may be increased.
Besides the speakers mentioned there were several others. Both Mr. E. R. Root and Mr. Kennith Hawkins mentioned the difficulties experienced this spring in sending package bees from the south. They believe the difficulty had been solved experimentally by shading the bees and using a new chemical sugar without dextrine in the mailing cases. Mr. Root further remarked that their bees would be built up for the honey flow on honey alone, because he believed that sugar fed bees did not have as much vitality.
What the state fair has done in the past year for Wisconsin beekeeping was explained by Mr. Gus Dittmer. The prize money has been increased about $900 so this year it is over $1200, and if the beekeepers would only do their best, to make a big display, the beekeeping department might have a separate building in the future. Besides nowhere else is there given such a good oppor-
tunity for advertising Wisconsin honey.
Dr. S. B. Tracker exhibited 3 maps showing the foul brood distributions in Wisconsin, the extent of the clean-up work, and the counties wanting and having had inspection work. Prof. II. F. Wilson spoke on “The Future Education of the Beekeepers.” The writer told of building up the Sheboygan Co. Honey Producers’ Association.
Ivan Whiting, Plymouth, Wisconsin.
Few lx ekeepers fullj' realize the importance of conditions during the months of August and September which effect the wintering of a colony of bees. To a large extent the condition of the colony during Au • gust and September determines whether the bees winter well or not in Wisconsin. Beekeepers often make the mistake of counting the hives which contain bees in the fall, then again in the spring and compute the difference as the winter loss. It is entirely unfair to charge up to winter loss any loss of colonies of bce.s which were not normal colonies in the fall. We cannot lose that which we do not have and of course should not charge to winter the loss of colonies which were not normal in the fall. No one would think of blaming the winter for the, loss of colonies that have been queenless since the first of August and which have only a few old bees left in the fall. Neither would any one think of blaming the winter for the loss of small nuclei. Yet many beekeepers blame the winter for the loss of colonics wdiieh are abnormal both as to age and number of bees in the fall. Too many beekeepers expect the winter packing case or the bee collar to winter their bees for them in spite of the conditions of the colonies in the fall and when failure results, the particular method of winter protection is blamed for the loss. During another year if the colonies are in a better condition in the fall and some other method of winter protection is used', the credit for the better wintering is usually given to the particular type of winter protection then used instead of being given to the better condition of the colony in the fall where the credit belongs. It is well for the beekeeper to remember that the condition of his colonies on the first of October may be of greater importance than the particular type or winter case or the particular type of cellar that ho uses and that to be able to judge as to the merits of the various methods of winter protection. it is necessary to take into consideration the condition of the colonics on October first. The amount of brood that is reared after the middle of August determines the size of the winter colony or at least determines the number of bet's which can live until spring since the bees reared previous to this time are too old to be expected to live through the winter.
NECESSITY OE I NINTERRVPTEI) BROOD REARI N<»
In some portions of Wisconsin there is no fall honey flow ami unless the conditions of the colony are unusually favorable but little brood is reared during this time ■which of course is only another way of saying that unless conditions are unusually favorable most of the bees of the colony are too old to live through the winter and replace themselves with young bees the next spring. When there is no fall flow’, therefore, only those colonies which happen to have' the most favorable conditions during August and September arc able to have a sufficient number of young bees to go through the winter safely. It is therefore extremely important to sec in those locations where there is no fall flow’ that the colonies have conditions favorable for the continuation of brood rearing in sufficient amount to insure a good winter cluster of young bees. Colonies having old queens usually reduce brood roaring during August and September too much for safe wintering and colonies that do not have an abundance of honey in the hive during this time usually fail to raise a sufficient number of young bees for good wintering if there is no fall flow’. In no case should there be any interruption of brood rearing from queenlessness after the middle of August for every day that a colony is queen less means just that much loss in the rearing of the bees which should form the winter cluster. Colonies that are to be requeen -cd should be requeened early enough that the new queen will begin to lay not later than about the middle of August and if requeening is necessary during this time a laying queen instead of a virgin queen should be introduced in order to reduce the period of no egg laying.
Rtqueening may be done w’ithout interfering with fall brood rearing if it is done after brood rearing ceases. If the queens are young ami if sufficient honey is left in the hive during August and September, the colonies usually rear enough bees foi winter even during a dearth of ncctai. A beekeeper whose location does not furnish a fall honey flow should therefore be sure that his queens are young and that an abundance of honey is left in the hive to induce brood roaring sufficient for safe wintering. When the honey is extracted at the close of the clover honey flow', leaving for the colony only the little honey that is in the brood chamber, strong colonies of bees frequently almost cease brood rearing entirely just at the time when the bees for winter should be reared.
Beekeepers of Wisconsin have been losing thousands of dollars by extracting too closely thinking that the bees have a sufficient amount of stores to tide them over until a hope for fall flow or until time for winter feeding. In localities whore there is a good fall flow, however, the bees usually rear an abundance of young bees for winter without any especial attention on the part of the beekeeper except to sec that every colony has a queen. A little attention at this time to provide favorable conditions for brood rearing in every colony goes a long w'ay toward uniformly strong colonies the next spring. Be sure that none of your colonies are compelled to reduce brood rearing below’ the danger point from now until broml rearing cases the latter part of this month.
G. S. Deniuth.
Of all tic- i.l-; the bc< ■!<<*•• j ;i; g industry suffers from, there is. ceding to the views of the W'ritcr. none more detrimental than the one known as price cutting.
It seems that honey, at one time pronounced a lit food for the gods, fate has now decreed to go tl; rough the land a beggar, striving in vain to gain the attention and popularity it deserves and once enjoyed in older days. But the most discouraging feature of the deplorable situation is that so many honey producers are satisfied to work for little or nothing, just as long as they can got rid of what they produce. And after they have sold their crop they declare they could have sold a who!-.' lot more if they had had it. wlnn in reality it means that they could have given away a whole lot more.
A careful account kept for- the last twenty-three years shows the average crop surplus per colony is 4 0 lbs. and the last ten year period ending in 1917 and' including that season, shows that it costs 30c per lb. to produce honey in this section of the country. But the price of labor and commodities, excepting honey, have increased some where around from 25 to 50 per cent since 1917, which makes the cost of honey production considerably higher than above stated.
It is true, the methods of honey production are also improving, but never-the-less the cost of production is far above the selling price. Why, it is ridiculous to pay a hired man $5.00 per day for an eight hour day, and the beekeeper work sixteen hour days at $2.50 per day, and in addition furnish a $5,000 equipment!
The Chippewa Valley Beekeepers Association at a meeting held at Chippewa Falls, Wis., on the 22nd day of June decided to try and improve conditions locally at least, by conducting a honey advertising campaign. and agreed to institute a honey cooking, baking and candy' making contest awarding premiums as follows: $3.00 each for the first prize on the best article cake (any' kind) cookies, pie, beverage and candy. $2.00 for the second prize, $1.00 for the third and 50c for the fourth.
The money to carry on this campaign is obtained by the beekeepers of this association by a 2c per colony assessment on fall count of colonies. The contests are to be held in different parts of Chippewa county, Wisconsin.
A. C. F. Bartz.
Aug. 4—Average honey- crop. Beekeepers are asking 25c wholesale and 30c retail for extracted honey. We have no comb honey on sale. There are 2 tons of extracted and 500 pounds of comb honey in this county. Reporter. J. E. Cooke—Baraboo Valley Bee. Assn.
Aug. 7—The bees are not doing much at present. Our beekeepers are asking 25c per pound for extracted honey. Reporter, J. S. Sloniker— Clark County Bee. Assn.
Aug. 11—Condition of honey' crop in this county is fair. Average yield of white honey' in this locality is 33 pounds per colony. The country is drying up and the growth of vegetation is at a standstill at present. Unless heavy rains come at once there can be no fall llow. Beekeepers are asking $.3.00 for 10 pound cans, $1.60 for 5 pound cans, 54c per pint; and 35c for comb honey wholesale. Price to consumer is $3.50 for 10 pound cans, $1.80 for 5 pound cans, 65c per pint; and 40c for comb honey’. 60 pound cans are selling for $16.50 with not less than 6 cans at 25c. Reporter, Emma L. Bartz--Chippewa Valley Bee. Assn.
Aug. 10—Condition of honey crop about normal but some colonies below normal. Extracting nearly finished. Fine, clear, heavy ripe honey’ being marketed, protecting the consumer as well as the beekeeper. Beekeepers are asking 40c to 4 5c for comb honey in case lots; extracted, 30c to 40c, depending upon the quality' and size of container. The joint county’ and local field meet held at G. M. Ranum’s apiary’ was one of the most enthusiastic gatherings of the season. There were 54 present each one giving and taking with the best beekeeping spirit. Prof. Wilson and J. Hambleton gave very interesting talks. The next meeting will be held at the apiary of C. Felton, early' in September. Reporter, Robert I,. Sie-becker—Dane County' Bee. Assn.
Aug. 7—Average crop about 100 pounds per colony in this county. Beekeepers are asking 40c for comb honey No. 1, and 35c lor comb honey No. 2. Extracted honey' is 30c retail and extra charge for container. Reporter, Edward Hassinger—Fox River Valley Boe. Assn.
Aug. 6—Condition of noney crop very good in amount and quality. Beekeepers are asking 25c for extracted and 35c for comb honey. There are 100.000 pounds of extracted and 2,000 pounds of comb honey in this county. We had a good attendance and unusual interest shown at a county picnic held July’ 28. Many’ plan to attend the Beekeepers Conference at Madison. We are making plans for a county exhibit at the State Fair. Reporter, Geo. W. Davies—Grant County’ Bee. Assn.
Aug. 7—Condition of honey crop fair in quantity and good in quality. Won’t average over 50 pounds per colony and probably much less as most beekeepers do not know how to control swarming. Beekeepeis are asking 30c to 35c for extracted and 35c to 40c for comb honey. Reporter, W. R. Abbott—Jefferson County’ Bee. Assn.
Aug. 12—We have had the best honey’ flow during July this year previous to 1913. Boes are still working on sweet clover which is the best we ever had. At the summer meeting held at the apiary of J. E. Brown on July 24. Dr. S. B. Fracker explained the new marketing law. Beekeepers reported a good honey flow and a good demand for honey. C. D. Adams was elected president and H. V. Wilson, South Milwaukee, secretary’ and treasurer for the ensu ing year. Reporter, C. D. Adams— Milwaukee County Bee. Assn.
Aug. 11—Condition of honey crop very good. 50 colonies stored as much as 100 in 1919. Honey flow in this locality closed last few days of July. There will be no fall flow. Beekeepers are asking 35c retail and 40c wholesale for comb honey. Reporter, Martin Krueger—North East Wis. B. K. A.
Aug. 6—Condition of honey crop fair to good. Basswood yielded practically nothing. Crop would have been much better if we had received more rain. Beekeepers are asking 35c for extracted and 40c to 45c for comb honey retail. There is a carload1 of extracted but little comb honey in this locality. We had a nice meeting at Merton. Reporter, C. W. Aeppler—Waukesha County-Bee. Assn.
Aug. 10—The honey crop is good here this year. Beekeepers are asking from 20c to 30c for honey. We have from 8,000 to 12,000 pounds of extracted honey’ here but little comb honey. Reporter, L. E. Cass—Vernon County Bee. Assn.
Aug. 12—White and alsike clover were not so abundant as usual but gave a very good yield. Only a few of the bassw’oods bloomed this year and no surplus has been reported in this vicinity. Beekeepers report an average crop. Extracted honey is retailing at 30c per pound. We have no comb honey for sale. It is impossible to estimate the amount of honey on hand. A large part of the year’s crop has been sold. Reporter. A. H. Seefe’.dt—Washington County Bee. Assn.
Aug. 6—Condition of honey crop about the same as last year. Honey is sold at 30c retail and 25c wholesale for extracted. Comb honey* is 35c wholesale and 40c retail. The clover flow has been getting greatly-reduced by lack of rain and hot, dry weather. Reporter, W. A. Sprise— Wood County Bee. Assn.
August 23—The main honey flow-closed about August 1. There is little prospect of fall flow due to lack of rain. The quality of the crop is excellent. Honey in this county is selling for 25c wholesale and 30c retail. Our annual meeting at Lewis Francisco’s home was a big success. The officers for next year are President, Ralph Gunzel; Vice Preident, Lewis Francisco; Secretary and Treasurer, I. C. Painter. Peter Vanish is on the Executive Committee. We are preparing for an exhibit at the County and1 State Fairs. Re porter, I. C. Painter — Marathon County- Bee. Assn.
The following members have not been receiving Wisconsin Horticul-
Do you know that nearly every dealer who extracts wax from old combs for beekeepers or for his own use to make into bee comb foundation uses an extractor of the Ilershi‘er type?
This is because it is the most efficient wax extractor on the market which will handle quantities of old combs or cappingsat one time. Less than one per cent of wax is left in the slumgum.
The Hershiser wax extractor tank may be used to head or liquify extracted honey as it holds four 60-pound honey cans. Many beekeepers use it to drain cappings and to work wax into big cakes.
Sold by Distributors of Lewis “Beeware.** Write for Free Booklet on This Press. Early Order Cash Discount 8% in September
KX MVU AMD AMAMAM MUIPMCNT
WHERE YOU BUY YOUR
MAKES THE FINEST.
Branches? and Distributors Everywhere
ture. Will you please check them on your mailing list.
1. J. H. Gentz, Bowler, Wisconsin.
2. E. A. Bar’.ement, Green Bay. Wisconsin, It. F. D. 9.
3. J. Dietz. Twin Lakes, Wisconsin.
4. W. Hansen, 1546 S. 11th St., Sheboygan. Wisconsin.
A few new members in several more counties will place them in the honor division.
1. Dane Co.......... 62 members
2. Fond du Lac Co. . . 4 8 members
3. Milwaukee Co.....46 members
4. Sheboygan Co.....44 members
5. Waukesha Co.....42 members
6. Marathon Co......35 members
7. Winnebago Co.....34 members
8. Grant Co.........32 members
9. Chippewa Co......31 members
10. Richland Co......30 members
11. Langlade Co......28 members
12. Brown Co......... 26 members
13. Shawano Co......25 members
14. Manitowoc Co.....23 members
15. Jefferson Co.......21 members
16. Price Co.......... 20 members
17. Sauk Co.......... 21 members
18. Wood Co.........20 members WISCONSIN STATE BEEKEEPERS’ CONVENTION, DECEMBER 1, 2, AND 3, 1920.
The Wisconsin Beekeepers’ Conference and Chautauqua was held at the University Camping ground August 16 to 21. The meetings were well attended, there being more than a hundred at some sessions. In all 187 people registered, representing 32 counties and six other states as follows:
County No. of Total No. Col-
Beekeepers onies repre-
Should send for our booklet on the new MODIFIED DADANT HIVE. The hive with a brood chamber sufficient for prolific queens. OUR CATALOG IS FREE.
1. Dane .......
2. Sauk .......
4. Grant ......
5. Milwaukee . .
6. Fond du Lac
7. Jefferson ....
8. Winnebago . .
9. Columbia . . .
0. Walworth . . .
1. Green ......
DADANT & SONS
20. Brown .....
21. La Crosse .
2 4. Green Lake.
2 5. (’lark ......
2 6. La Fayette .
2 7. Barron . . . .
28. Eau Claire .
29. Rock ......
3 0. Dodge .....
31. Outagamie .
3 2. Marathon . .
Total number of
Total number of
Colonies . .
Beekeepers From Other States
District of Columbia ............ 2
Texas .......................... 1
Ohio ........................... 1
New York ...................... 1
South Dakota .................. 1
New State Association Members
23. Arthur Rosenow, Rt. 2, Oconomowoc
2 1. George Karow, Cable
2 5. Albert Butters. Rt. 1, Waldo
26. Win. Holbrook, Rt. 1, Waldo
2 7. Arthur B. Hanson. North Lake
2S. F. J. Coyier, Platteville
2 9. Ora Go vie r, T.an caster
30. Dan Hoffman, Lancaster
31. W. A. Johnson, Lancaster
32. Anthony Schmidt, Lancaster
33. John Schilling. Jr., Rt. 5. West
34. G. Kappel, Menomonie
35. Claude Moll, Rt. 2, Ashland
36. H. G. Schmid, Potter
37. Chas. Denton. 411 S. Main St.,
3S. John Schauf, Twin Bluffs
39. Rev. Hicks, Box 305, Madison
4 0. E. H. Randolph. Walworth
41. A. F. Ackerman, Plymouth
4 2. Chas. Wilson, Montello
43. Aug. Heuer, Fairwater
4 4. G. M. Lunde, Madison
45. Dr. E. H. Weber. Lake Mills
4 6. Sy Bros.. Rt. 1, Kiel
4 7. James Voskiul, Oostburg
IS. Mrs. (C. Conger. Greenbush
4 9. L. H. Bishop. Camp 5, c o Stone
& Webster. Belden, California
50. E. M. Starks, Deerfield
51. M. Weyer, Cross Plains
52. M. p. Woodworth, Oshkosh
53. C. A. Walker, Plainville
54. John McHone, Sylxan
55. Will J. Flatten, Green Bay
56. Dr. T. H. Ragatz, Prairie; du Sac.
57. J. I. Groves, Viroqua
58. H. A. Stevens, Valley Jet.
59. Mrs. Peter L. Jacobson, 346 Scott
60. Miss O. Leavitt, 1413 Mound St.,
61. Mrs. E. Ray Stevens, 1908 Ar
lington Place, Madison
Apples in England
Continued from page 9
TOO MANY VARIETIES
In the past the British apple grower has suffered from an overabundance of varieties and the state has done nothing for him in the way of testing, so as to eliminate the doubtful and useless ones. No large experimental stations exist in Britain to compare with those in Canada and the United States of America, and all the information possessed by the Board of Agriculture has been culled from outside sources.
Taking culinary apples first, probably the best six varieties are as follows: Early Victoria syn Emneth Early, Grenadier, Lord Derby, Lane’s Prince Albert, Bramley Seedling, Newton Wonder.
Coming now to dessert varieties, which are legion, the best six (’ox's Orange Pippin, Worcester Pearmain, Allington Pippin, King of the Pippins, Gladstone Blenheim Orange.
DWARFS AND STANDARD
Planters may be divided into two great classes: (1) The large grower, who has many years of experience behind him. and (2) the small man who is just starting. The former type of grower has capital to spare and lie usually goes in for extending his plantations with fruit a J one. lie plants as a rule bush trees closely, i. e., 12 ft. to 15 ft. apart, and interplants with bush fruits for a few years until the bush fruits begin to fail and the trees require more room. The bush fruits arc then cleared out and the trees allowed the whole of the ground space.
Trees on the paradise stock are usually put in at the distances already indicated. They are shallow rooters and begin cropping at an early age, often the second year after planting, if good trees (three years old) have been purchased. Apples are also planted as half standards on the crabstock at 24 ft. to 30 ft. apart and interplanted with bush trees on the paradise at 12 ft. or 15 ft. apart. The trees in the paradise after 20— 25 years’ growth and often earlier, are cut, and the whole space given to the standards which will then be in full bearing.
The second class of grower who is only beginning to grow fruit and who, having little capital, cannot afford to lie out of a crop for even the first year, must adopt a different system. He must plant so as to be able to combine vegetable culture with his fruit growing. Vegetables yield a direct return the first year and enable the starter to pay rent and keep his household going, later he may decide to abandon the vegetables to some extent, in favor of small fruit, if the land is specially adapted for such crops as strawberries, raspberries, gooseberries, currants, etc. He cannot afford a heavy labor bill and must continue to do the bulk of his cultivation by horses, or he may invest in a small motor plow. It is tin* ref ore necessary that he plant his fruit trees in lines at a considerable distance apart and utilize the space between the rows for market garden crops, other than fruit.
IS CULTIVATION BEST?
It is now generally accepted that apples do much better on cultivated land than on grass, although in the red soil counties of
Hereford. Somerset and Devon all the existing orchards of any age are on grass, and only those recently laid down by experienced commercial fruit growers are kept black and then only by some irrowers. In the old days the farm orchards contained standard trees, so that cattle could be grazed under them, and an old custom in the farming community takes a long time to break down. It is mostly in Kent, Worcester, Cambridge, Norfolk and tin* home counties, that trees of a dwarf type have been planted and the soil in the interspaces kept stirred during the season.
In Britain the planting season is long, extending from October to April, but the best results in the season, where the planting takes of December. It seldom occurs that the climatic conditions in this country are very severe before Christmas, it is usually in January, February and March that the worst weather is experienced.
The operation of grading has been very much neglected in the past, now all enterprising growers grade into three qualities. The .first and second qualities are placed on the open market, and the third is disposed of to the jam makers for conversion into jelly or pulp; the latter is then used as a base for many classes of jam. .Several firms manufacture apple grading machines, which do their work very satisfactorily and deal with a considerably larger amount of fruit per day than could be dealt with by hand, but many of the best growers who specialize in packing in boxes believe that, given intelligent workers, the old system of hand grading is still the best and does less harm to the fruit, and in any case the apples have to be eventually packed by hand from the machine.
Twenty Years of Fertilizer in an Apple Orchard
Review of Bulletin No. 4 60. New York Agr. Exp. Station.
This Bulletin contains additional records of an experiment begun in 1896 on the Station grounds, and first reported in Bulletin 339 in 19 11. The experiment was undertaken l'or the purpose* of showing the effects of fertilizers on an apple orchard. The trees are Bon Davis topbudded to Rome. The results reported in Bulletin 339 are negative, i. e., the effect of the fertilizers was neither good nor bad.
Since then, there have been eight additional harvests to judge from, and the results are not materially different. The three points factoring in the determination of the effects of the fertilizers are, yield of fruit, size of apples, and tree growth. The combination of phosphoric acid and potash and the complete fertilizer treatment have caused small increases in yield and probably somewhat more vigorous growth. Manure did not cause an appreciable increase in yield or growth, nor was the addition of nitrogen in the complete fertilizer of measurable value in growth. Phosphoric acid used alone has been of no value.
If the results continue in the present direction for another ten years, the increased yields may justify the recommendation of one or two of these treatments, but at present they are too irregular and the increases too small to show any certain financial benefit.
Save Fruit For Winter Meeting
Now is the time to save fruit for the wintermeeting. The premiums will be worth while. A straight 25 per cent increase for all tray and ‘‘collection” exhibits over last year.
In applying these conclusions in practical orcharding, it should be borne in mind that they are the result of work in a cultivated orchard on soil naturally well supplied with the plant food (‘loments. On thin, infertile soils, or in sod orchards, the results might be quite different.
The detailed results of the experiments may be had by sending to the Genova Station for the complete bulletin.
Underground Storage Buildings
Caves, cellars, or non-refrigerated buildings built partly or wholly underground come under the head of common storage. In underground buildings the temperature is likely to be fairly uniform and approximately equal to that of the surrounding earth, which, at a depth of 6 or S feet, remains constant at about 53 degrees throughout the year. Evaporation of moisture from the earth floors and earth-surrounded' masonry walls also tends to keep the temperature lower and the humidity higher than in a building built above ground. The temperature in underground buildings seems very cool in comparison with outdoor temperatures in warm weather, but is not as low as is desirable for fruit storage. If a 'lower temperature, better suited for fruit storage is to be maintained, underground buildings must be at least as well, if not better, insulated than those built above ground. Earth, even if dry, is not a good insulator, and if damp it may be quite a good conductor of heat, so that fully as much insu'lation is required for underground walls and floors as for those above ground. Somewhat more care is necessary to protect underground insulation from moisture, than is required on walls not in contact with the earth. All insulating material requires to be kept perfectly dry. as it 'loses much or all of its value if allowed to become damp. The cost of excavation must be added to that of construction. Ventilation of underground buildings is liable to be inadequate.
Generally speaking, underground buildings are to be regarded as more or less primitive makeshifts, which. whiOe they have the merit of being inexpensive and serviceable under pioneer conditions are not considered well adapted to orcharding on an extensive scale.
A flower border should have a good background of shrubs or tall flowers. This green background shows up the flowers to better advantage.
Fall Webworn Makes Unsightly Nests on Fruit and Shade Trees
About the first of August the nests of the fall webworn become conspicuous in the outer and higher branches of apple, pear, and many shade trees; the boxelder is especially attacked.
This pest spends its winter in the pupae or resting stage. The pupae are reddish-brown, about one-half inch in length, and are found inside of flimsy cocoons which are usually placed in crevices of the bark, under trash, or even below the surface of the ground.
The adults are moths which expand one and one-fourth inches and are satiny white to white, heavily spotted with black or brownish spots. They appear in June and July and lay their pale green eggs in clusters, on the upper or under sides of the leaves. The egg clusters contain 300 or 400 eggs and they are covered with the white hairs of the female moth.
Each individual egg is quite small being only about one-fiftieth of an inch wide, and under the microscope presents a beautiful thimble-like ornamentation. They hatch in a week or ten days into extremely hairy caterpillars which feed on the leaves, usually at the end of a branch, wnich they enclose in a silken web.
They feed only under cover of their web which is enlarged as fresh food is needed. They go from one branch to another spinning their webs wherever they go. As they become older they usually leave the nest at night, feeding in the open, and then return during the day. When disturbed they quickly wriggle out of the web and drop to the ground. When one branch or tree is defoliated (and this often happens in severe cases) they go to new branches or even other trees.
When full grown the caterpillars measure about one and one-fourth inches in length, with a broad dusky stripe along the back and usually with yellowish sides thickly spotted with blackish dots. In Northern Wisconsin there is only one generation a year but probably a second occurs in the southern part of the state.
HOW TO GET RID OF THE PESTS
In orchards which are regularly sprayed there should be no trouble from this pest. If the insect is generally distributed in unsprayed orchards they should be sprayed with lead arsenate, 2 pounds to 50 gallons of water. If only a few webs occur they should be cut out or burned out with a torch as soon as seen. The best time is during the day as the caterpillars are then in their nests.
Chas. L. Fluke.
White Marked Tussock-Moth
This insect by feeding, upon the leaves frequently injures orchards or shade trees, and our common shrubs such as the dogwood are also often attacked.
The larvae or caterpillars of the white-marked tussock-moth with their many hairs arranged in striking pencils, tufts, or brushes present a very characteristic and handsome appearance.
They are about one and one-half inches long when full grown and of a general dark gray color with a broad velvety black band bordered by yellow stripes on the back and a similar yellow stripe along each side below the spiracles. Their striking characteristics are dense, brush-like, cream-colored tufts or tussocks of hairs on the back of each of the first four abdominal segments, and pencils of long plume-tipped black hairs projecting from each side near the head and from the back toward the last segment of the body.
There is but a single generation a year in Wisconsin, the insect wintering in the egg stage. The eggs are white and covered with a frothy substance, usually laid on the bark of the trunks but may be found in almost any place among the trees and shrubs. The adults are moths but the female has only stubs of wings so does not move far from her cocoon.
The eggs which are quite conspicuous may be collected in autumn or winter and burned. Where practicable spraying gives good results, arsenate of lead is one of the best poisons and should be used at the rate of 2 or 3 pounds to the 50 gallons of water. This should be applied while the caterpillars are young as it is almost impossible to kill them when they are older.
Chas. L. Fluke.
The Sauk County local will hold an all day meeting and outing Sept. 6th at Pine Creek canon, near Baraboo. There will be talks on native trees, native ferns and native flowers.
The West Allis Horticultural Society will exhibit at the W. A. public library Sept. 10th and 11th. Cash prizes are offered of all manner of things that grow in the ground or underground. In length and variety the list rivals the State Fair list and we have no doubt the exhibit will run a close second to the Fair.
If other locals will kindly advise us of their doings we will gladly publish them. It’s of interest to all.
The following cash premiums are offered for exhibits at the next annual convention:
•Best collection of apples, not less than 15 varieties, 1st, $10.00; 2nd, $6.00, 3rd, $4.00; 4th, $2.00.
•Best 5 plates (5 varieties) commercial apples for Wisconsin, 1st, $5.00; 2nd, $3.00; 3rd, $2.00; 4th, $1.00.
For best plate each of the following varieties, 1st, $1.00; 2nd, 75c; 3rd, 50c; 4th, 25c:
Ben Davis, Dudley, Fameusc, Gano, Gem, Gideon, Golden Rus-sett, Grimes Golden, Jonathan, King, Maiden Blush, Malinda, McIntosh, McMahan, Newell,
Northern Spy, Northwestern
Greening, Patten, Pewaukee,
Plumb Cider, Salome, Seek-no-further, Scott Winter, Tolman, Twenty Ounce, Utter, Wagener, Wealthy, Windsor, Wolf River, York Imperial.
* Add 25 per cent.
•Best tray of each of the above named varieties, 1st, $3.00; 2nd, $2.00; 3d, $1.00; 4th, 75e.
•Best 5 trays of any of the following varieties: McIntosh, Northwestern, Wealthy, Tolman, Wolf River, Fameuse, Gano, Salome, McMahan, Seek-no-further, Windsor, 1st, $10.00; 2nd, $6.00; 3rd, $4.00; 4th, $2.00.
Separate samples must be furnished for each entry.
Best exhibit Pears, 1st, $1.00; 2nd, 75c; 3d, 50c.
Best exhibit Crabs, 1st, $1.00; 2nd, 75c; 3d, 50c.
Best collection, not less than 10 entries, 1st, $5.00; 2nd, $3.00; 3d, $2.00.
For each of the following, 1st, $1.00; 2nd, 75c; 3d, 50c:
6 Blood Turnip Beets, 3 White Turnips, 3 Yellow Turnips, 3 Rutabagas, 6 Chantenay Carrots, 6 Short-IIorn Carrots, 3 Winter Cabbage, 3 Red Cabbage, 6 Chicory, 6 Ears Pop Corn, 6 Red Onions, 6 Yellow Danvers Onions, 6 White Onions, 6 Onions, Large Type, 6 Winter Radishes, 6 Parsnips, 6 Peppers, Hubbard Squash, 6 Heads Celery, 3 Chinese Cabbage.
Sweepstakes awarded pro rata, $20.00.
Premiums will be awarded for exhibits of Cranberries as follows : Premium list by the Cranberry Growers’ Association. First premium, $1.00, 2nd, 75c; 3d, 50c:
Bennett Jumbo, Searls Jumbo, Bell and Bugle, McFarlin, Metallic Bell, Bell and Cherry, Prolific.
One pint is sufficient for an entry. Add 10 tray premium same varieties as 5 tray $20-$15-$10-$5.
The Hawks Nursery Company
are in a position to furnish high grade Nursery Stock of all kinds and varieties suitable to Wisconsin and other northern districts.
Will be glad to figure on your wants either in large or small quantities.
F10.1 J3O.2 Flo 3
Crates, Bushel Boxes and Climax Baskets
As You Like Them
We manufacture the Ewald Patent Folding Berry Boxes of wood veneer that give satisfaction. Berry box and crate material in the K. D. in earload lots our specialty. We constantly carry in stock 16 quart crates all made up ready for use, either for strawberries or blueberries. No order too small or too large for us to handle. We can ship the folding boxes and crates in K. D. from Milwaukee. Promptness is essential In handling fruit, and we aim to do our part well. A large discount for early orders. A postal brings our price list.
Cumberland Fruit Package Company
Dept. D, Cumberland, Wls.
Begonias—Their Origin, Classes and Culture
By M. Downing, in The Flower Grower.
Named for M. Begon. Governor of St. Domingo, more than two hundred years ago. the Begonia was first introduced into this country from Jamaica in 1777.
Like many an aristocrat of our day, it commenced life an ambitious little plebeian with no particular merit on which to build a status. So much the more credit for the kingdom it has conquered, for the throne it now holds in the worldom of plantlife, for its aristocratic pedigree established through a long line of hybridizing and hand-pollenizing.
Native of Asia, tropical and semi-tropical America, these beautiful plants are found in the Islands of the Pacific and on the Greater and Lesser Antilles. Divided into three distinct classes, viz: fibrous or shrubby, rex, and tuberous, they form a most interesting study; but, coming to us as they have from warm, dampish homes, an erroneous idea as to necessarily protected surroundings for their successful growth, has imbued the minds of many flower-growers so, they fear to attempt their cultivation outside of greenhouses.
There never was a bigger mistake. We speak from our own experience. Few exotics have greater powers of resisting heat and cold, or, yield more readily to fresh-air methods. Some specimens require partial protection; hence, should be planted in sheltered angles on the east side of a house; or in half sunny locations under trees and shrubbery. Others will grow, bloom and flourish in the full sunshine.
Ordorata alba, for instance, one of the hardier sorts, can stand drouth, heat and cold to an extra degree. It is a semper-floren (always blooming) and invaluable for cut flowers.
Of course, Begonias raised in a greenhouse must be hardened by degrees to the lower temperatures found in open house or out-door cultivation. Sudden exposure to the life of free-growing, fresh-air plants, would have the same injurious effect upon them that sudden, drastic draughts of heat and cold have upon an “incubator baby.”
Another distinctive feature found in the study and cultivation of Begonias is. unlike most bloomers, the reproductive organs are found in separate flowers. For this reason, to secure seeds from most varieties—semper-florens always excepted—hand-pollenizing is necessary. However, to know how to pollenize, one must understand the construction of flowers.
FI BROS OR SHRUBBY BEGONIAS.
These are divided into several sections. The Semper-floren section is plainly marked by its upright growth hardihood, similarity of foliage in all species. The staminate flowers are more attractive than in other divisions, owing to a greater number of larger stamens to which there is a perpetual quivering. This section pollenizes its own flowers. The two sorts of flowers are grouped by nature so near each other that the constant motion of the stamens throws off the pollen which is easily caught by the pistillate flowers.
The most beautiful specimen of fibrous Begonia we ever saw belonging to this special section, was a hybrid, Semperfloren Gigantea rosea. Immensely vigorous, the leaves as big as small saucers, and the great panicles of magnificent shell-pink blossoms from an inch to an inch and a half long, made us catch our breath at the thought of nothing more charming. To this same section belong Vulcan, a dazzling red, and Vernon. a fine crimson. In contrast, comes Biiou. the dwarf, followed by reds and pinks and whites, all similar and all good for gardenborders.
Big tropical leaves, all round and shining, lying close to the soil, out of which spring long stems topped by immense panicles of feathery flowers mark another section. Ricinafolia and Rubella are among the best varieties.
To a fourth section of the fibrous belong species which send up from that base of the plant where the taproot distributes its rootlets, canes so vigorous, so straight, so stately, that one is reminded of bamboo. These shoots, if never let dry out, grow with the rapidity of Jack’s fabled bean stalk. The thick leathery leaves and brilliant showers of bloom, the rapid growth under one’s eyes as one stands and watches, make these varieties very gods whose shrines of beauty one is loath to quit.
A ten by twelve inch pot will hold food and drink enough for one of these plants three to four feet tall bearing thirty to forty panicles of flow’ers at one time. The Rubra, an old-time favorite is still holding its own by the side of Otto Heckor and President Carnot.
The Giant Tree Begonias, creations of Mrs. Theo. B. Shepherd, the pioneer seed grower of the Pacific coast, are hybrids from crossing the Rubra with Glorie de Jouy of Rex ancestry. The successful experiment was the result of many years of hunting-for, and mating-with, the right affinities, for, do you know flow’ers have affinities as well as man, and without these affinities, no hybrid can be produced. Patience, study, research, toil and care, rounding up with absolute failure, marked a road full of disappointments for years before that experiment in
1 MADISON, WISCONSIN g
| Quality j
g for Particular Buyers (
g Have all the standard varieties g g as well as the newer sorts. Can g g supply you with everything In g = =* | Fruit Trees, Small Fruits, j j Vines and Ornamentals. | g Let us suggest what to plant g g both in Orchard and in.the g E decoration of your grounds. § g Prices and our new Catalog g g sent promptly upon receipt of § g your list of wants. g
Lake City, Minn. g
A Complete Stock of Fruit, Shelter and Ornamental Stock i n Hardy Varieties for Northern Planters.
twenty-four tests (in the dropping of the petals.) told the marvelous story of success to the female wizard, whose hand had found at last and united the “soulmates" which were to give out a new line of wonderful creations.
The result of this crossing gave many fine specimens, possessing the cane hahits of the Rubra, its long stemmed flowers in huge panicles; but an extra beauty was added to the flowers in an inheritance from the Glorie de Jouy; the petals and pistils were much larger. Then, too, this Rex ancestry took on the coloring of the leaves. Lustrous and shimmering like silk, some lined with wine tints, some lighter reds, and some bearing a flush like the bloom on a young girl's cheek—oh, but they are beauties! Six years passed from the first planting of the first broken strains to the final crossing before Mrs. Shepherd had any stock for market. Of these hybrids. Fair Rosamond and Majeska are among the finest. Another successful crossing of the Rubra with a trailing sort, the Glaucaphylia-scandens. by Mrs. Shepherd. gave us Marjorie Daw. Mrs. Shepherd considered this a marvel for blooming and for rapid growth.
Are cultivated exclusively for the wondrous beauty of their leaves. Anyone can grow them who cares to by giving them the right treatment, remembering always, the main point of this right treatment, unlike either fibrous or tuberous, viz: is never to water the leaves. Watering the leaves will gradually kill the plant. They grow’ readily in ordinary pot soil, requiring water about once every ten days. The hybrids are hardier, growing more readily. We have never tried cultivation beyond the hall and open porch.
Unlike the fibrous class, florists usually propagate Rex Begonias from leaves instead of cuttings. Any time between May and October is favorable. Fully grown leaves are selected and cut from the plants, leaving about an inch of the stem attached. With a pair of sharn scissors the leaf is all cut away to within an inch of the stem. Th;s leaves only the “heart" of the leaf. Proceed now to slit the ribs arart being careful not to separate them from the center and stem. Plant the stem, pressing the leaf-remnant close to the earth so that the little plants to spring from the ribs may be able to catch their rootlets in the ground. Keep the ground moist and semi-shaded and in a short time the “baby plants" will peep their little faces at you.
As Rex Begonias are grown exclusively for their resplendent foliage, tuberous Begonias receive the same attention for their large and brilliantly colored and delicately shaded flowers.
The Kickapoo Valley
Our Specialty: Planting and Developing orchards for non-residents A few choice tracts for sale. If interested, write us.
KICKAPOO DEVELOPMENT COMPANY
GAYS MILLS, WISCONSIN
Not until 1864 have we any definite knowledge of this special class. Then a specimen came to us from Bolivia under the ponderous name of "Bolivi-aensia.” which name completely overshadowed its plebeian personality. The next year, Bolivia sent us a better representative in yellow’ instead of red flowers larger foliage and bearing the name of B. piercii. Closely following came B. vritchii from Peru. With large round flowers of vermilion cinnabar-red, it made a splendid record for itself being pronounced a popular favorite at once. Seven years later, B. froebilli, a very beautiful variety with velvety-red foliage and large intensely scarlet flowers, was introduced from Ecuador.
From these five species all our won-drous tuberous kinds of today have originated. English and French experts have been foremost in the transformation.
LENGTH OF BLOOMING TIME.
For a period of six months tuberous Begonias it properly watered and fed are profuse bloomers, then the tubers begin to get busy for another season and the top dies. In England, tuberous Begonias are considered, with the exception of zonale Geraniums, the best all round exotics for massing in beds and growing in borders. They can be grown ordinarily, in and out of doors. For pots, boxes, or baskets, nothing is better. Single varieties hold their blooms longest. They come readily from seeds, but two-year-old tubers are more satisfactory, from the fact that they bloom so much quicker.
SOIL FOB POTS.
A strictly light soil is usually recommended for all Begonias, whereas, we use a heavy one with splendid success.
The formula for heavy soil is %ds adobe with %d sharp sand and leafmold in equal proportions. Leaf mold is the same as loam. Sharp sand is the sand that plasterers use.
Light soil is made of % leaf mold, the other half, sharp sand and barn manure used sparingly. Adobe not obtainable. any loose soil can be used with the addition of bonemeal or other c mmerc al fertilizer. The dust under an old house, especially one built close to the ground, is heavily charged with a wonderful life giving power. Apply a good dressing of this to your
SENATOR DUNLAP for summer and PROGRESSIVE for fall bearing are the two best varieties for Wisconsin. Our stock of plants of these two varieties is fine. We also have AROMA, GANDY and SAMPLE.
Write us about what you want for your fruit garden and orchard : also the ornamentals for your lawn, etc.
We are in a position to supply your needs.
THE COE, CONVERSE & EWARDS CO.
Fort Atkinson, Wis.
P. S. Fruit trees and plants of all kinds are going to be very scarce before planting time. Place your order early .
Send for book giving experience of many growers and full details.
The Skinner Irrigation Co., 237 Water St., Troy. Ohio.
plants and in a shoft time you will be astonished to see how they grow.
Liquid fertilizers applied under-standinely are valuable and tone up a plant like tonics do the human family.
Common storage buildings are these not provided with any special means of refrigeration. The term “common” storage is apparenly used in order to distinguish them from refrigeiated, or cold storage, plants. Non-refrig ?r ated storehouses arc also sometimes designated as “Air cooled,” from the fact that the ventilation with outside air is rel:?d upon to cool off the contents of the building.
Buildings for common storage are usually insulated to some extent, that is the construction is such as to hinder more or less the passage of hi a' through th? outer walls of the building. They are not usually nearly sj well insulated as buildings designed for cold (i. e. artificially cooled) storage purposes. As a matter of fact, buildings for common storage should really be ev?n better insulated than are refrigerated storehouses, for the reason that cooling by ventilation is, at best, intermittent and is frequently more or less inadequate. Temperatuns in common storage houses aie not likely to be maintained at a constant point, and usually are not nearly as low as is desirable. This is particularly true during the apple picking and harvesting season.
If the weather conditions during the harvesting period are favorable,
i. e., if the nights are very cool, the fruit in a storehouse of this description may be cooled promptly enough to effectively check ripening and decay. After the fruit is once thoroughly cooled, if the building is well insulated, it is usually possible to keep it at a fairly low temperature. It frequently happens, however, that cool nights are lacking during the harvest'ng period, or the night temperatures do not remain low for long enough periods, resulting in a considerable delay in the cooling down of the stored fruit. This de’ay in cooling may be serious through allow ng the ripening to progress to a considerably greater extent than is desirable. It also affords opportunity for the development of decay in fruits having slight bruises or other mechanical injury. Apples held in common storage sometimes hold up nearly as well as similar fruit in cold storage; but, ordinarily the fruit, on account of its condition, must be removed from common storage considerably carliet than from cold storage, and when removed is likely to have ripened up to such an extent that it goes down quickly upon being tiansferred to a warmer temperature. Various troubles encountered in storage, such as scald, etc., are usually more in evidence in common storage than in cohl storage, mainly as a result of the higher temperature of the common storage. The humidity of the house is likely to be low and the fruit may lose much of its natural luster and plumpness, or it may shrivel more or Itss. Lack of control of the tempeia-ture and humidity makes the common stoiage house somewhat questionable for tne fruit farm except under the most favorable climatic conditions.
Common storage buildings are cooled by allowing the outside air to circulate through the building whenever the outside temperature is as coal or colder than that of the air in-s.de the building. The circulation of air is usually by natuial ventilation, a number or openings being provided in the side wails at or near the lower part of the building, also ventilating openings, or veadlators, leading upward nom upper portion of rooms to permit the escape of the warm air to to the outside atmosphere. Natuial ventilation is induced by the difference in weight of air at different temperatures. Ail* when warm expands and occupies a greater amount of space than when cold, i. e. the weight of a cubic foot of warm air is less than the weight of a cubic foot of cold a;r. When the air inside the building is warmer than that outside, the colder air, by reason or its greater weight, flows in at the openings in lower part of building, and pushes out the warmer, lighter, air tnrough the openings in the upper part of the budding. Whenever the interior ot the building is colder than the outside air all openings should lie tightly closed in order to retain as much cold as possible and exclude all outside heat. If the ventilators and ventilating openings are left open when the outer air is warmer than that within the building, the flow of air through the ventilators will be reversed. The colder air w.thin the build.ng, on account of its gilater weight, will flow out through the openings in lower part of building, and be replaced by an equal volume of warm air drawn in through the ventilators at the top of building. The effect of introducing warm air into the building is, of course, to gradua.1 y warm up the con tents of the building, which is exactly the reverse of what is desired. It follows then that temperatures, both inside and outside, a common storage house, should be watched with care and advantage taken of every opportunity to ventilate the house with air colder than that inside the house. At all other tinits the ventilators should be kept tightly closed.
To cool down a large mass of warm fruit in a storage room requires the circulation of very large volumes of air. To cool the fruit at all quickly the air must be very cold Warm fruit in closed barrels, or boxes, will stand a current of air at a temperature many degrees below the freezing point for many hours without danger of freezing the fruit. This being the case it is evident that the cooling of boxed or barrelled fruit by a gent ** current of only modelatelv cool air is necessarily extremely slow. The temperature of the fruit changes far more-slow y than that of the air in the- storage room. In order that the fruit may cool with any reasonable degree of rapidity, it is necessary that the air circulation be very free and abundant. Venti’ating openings should not be small miniature affairs, a few inches in dimension, but should be of large size, the larger the better, anil all ventilating openings and shafts leading from the upper part of storeroom to atmosphere should also be very large, as straight and direct as possible, and carried up as high as is practicable. The difference in weight between a cubic foot of warm and one of cod air is very slight, amounting usually to a few thousandths of a pound with ordinary temperature differences, so that the pressure due to the difference in temperature is extremely slight. It is this pressure which produces the ar movement and. being so very slight, the flow of air is materially checked if air passages are small or crooked. Tight closing shutters or dampers should be provided for quick closing of all ventilating openings, both in upper and lowei part of building.
The venti ation, or air circulation, in some common storage buildings Is assisted by means of power driven fans. Such fans are especially useful when the periods of low outside temperatures are so short that it is desirable to take advantage of the same to the greatest possible extent and hasten the cooling of stored fruit by the circulation of larger vc times of air than could be obtained by natural venti’a-tion alone. Fans for this purpose should be of good size and adapted to the rapid movement of comparatively large vol unit s of air. Fans of the propellor type are suitable, provided the air ducts are short and straight and of large area. This type of fan is both lower in cost and requires liss power to drive than the centrifugal or blower type. They are not adapted, however, to forcing air through long, small or crooked ducts, as a veiy slight resistance n ateria.lv retards the delivery of air by these fans.
Drain tile set over each celery plant blanches it nicely. Paper or boards may be used in coo) weather, but either is apt to decay the plants in warm weather.