Madison, Wisconsin, March, 1920
William Toole. Sr.
In the discussions following lhe reading of the paper on Native Shrubs before the Wisconsin State Horticultural Society last winter a member asked for instructions how to propogate these native shrubs because as he said it is often the case that wild plants and shrubs are not in suitable form for removal and are very difficult to transplant. If we would increase our supply of native shrubs, we must have stock from which to propogate, and our source of supply must be either from the wild, a private collector or the nurseries.
Our material for increase may be sprouts from the roots for convenience called suckers—layers, grafting on other stock, or seeds. We naturally look first to the wild for our supply, and by careful searching we may secure plants of most kinds which are young enough to be handled successfully.
Some kinds bear transplanting more readily than others depending on the root system. If we can secure with our shrubs a supply of fine fibrous roots and keep them in a live condition to and through the time of planting success is assured if the work of planting is properly done. In taking up plants or shrubs soil about the roots is of value only so far as it may preserve the fine roots in good condition. With suitable packing material'one can keep the roots in good order even without much soil adhering. If making a collecting trip one should be supplied with burlap and paper or other wrapping material also, sphagnum moss, partly decayed leaves or other packing material.
If roots are found to be dry at lime of planting all dead material should be cut away to live wood, as the freshly cut surfaces will heal over while dead material will extend decay.
I like to sprinkle roots with wat-ter and then shake fresh earth over them at time of planting. This is better than smearing them with thin mud as is the practice with some. Of course there should be pruning of branches in proportion to loss of roots at planting time but the amount of pruning may be overdone. Dormant buds are sometimes very slow in developing. Too many leaves overtax the powers of the newly forming roots to furnish moisture yet some leaves are needed to assist the roots in their work.
1 prefer early spring for shrub planting but planting in the Fall may be safely done with careful work and a protecting mulch applied for winter protection. We must not expect our shrubs to bear too sudden changes, so they should be given good soil about the roots even though the rest of the soil is not so good as desired. Most kinds of plants have great powers of adaptation; special kinds of soil are not always so necessary as is often supposed. For convenience it may be sometimes necessary to collect and heel in the shrubs in the fall to hold for spring planting.
Tn such eases the roots should be as carefully handled when heeling in as if being planted. Positively avoid any dry freezing of the roots, and mulch for winter protection. There are times when it is desirable to move shrubs in the summer time and this can be successfully done with proper care in saving the roots.
Many kinds of shrubs produce sprouts from the roots and young bushes can readily be produced from them. All having such tendency can be. increased from root cuttings, and some kinds like Su-maehs are easily increased in that way. Of those having the tendency to produce sprouts or suckers are Sumach, Hazel the Viburnums, Dogwoods or Cornels, Bladdernut, Prickly Ash, Wahoo or Burning Bush, Wild Currants. Sweet Fem, Spireas, Shadbush. Snow Berry, Coral Berry, the ornamental Raspberries and others. Most of these could be increased by twig cuttings and layering as well as by suckers. Of course all may be increased by seeds. Nat-sure’s means of dissemination of the various kinds is through seeds, and some kinds respond readily to planting while others are very slow in germinating. I have found the Nine Bark as easily raised from seeds as any of the garden plants. Seeds saved dry through the winter and planted in the spring come up abundantly. Sumachs and the Elders come readily from seeds. I once sowed seeds from Cut Leaved Stag Horn Sumach, and raised a nice lot of plants. There were no cut leaved specimens among them, but they all showed more of the characteristics of the Smooth Sumach than they did of the Stag Hom species. Sheep berry seeds planted in the Fall came up readily while High Bush Cranberry did not respond. Thorn apple seeds are very slow to germinate, I don't know how slow. Mine are still dormant. I would like to grow the Crataegus from seeds to see if one might get several species—the product from one shrub. I shall some time try the hot water treatment on Thornapple seeds, to see if their germination can be hastened the same was as with the Honey Locust.
I once treated Honey Locust seeds according to directions with splendid success. The seeds were gathered in the Winter and in Spring at time of planting boiling water poured over them. They were allowed to cool gradually and soak for several hours before planting. The seeds all grew. The seeds of fruit-bearing shrubs may be well planted in the Fall or stratified and left to freeze out of doors for spring planting, as is done with apple seeds. 1 find that some kinds start so early in the Spring it is difficult to handle them so prefer Fall planting with a mulch to prevent washing and baking of the surface. The mulching material should be such that can be readily removed in the spring without disturbing the seeds.
1 have had such good success in raising Sweet Briar Rose from seed. 1 infer that our native roses might be increased in the same way but they are easily increased by suckers, root cuttings and division. Some like Leatherwood and Hajne-melis, might probably be more readily increased by layering than from twig cuttings, and in quantity most readily from seeds. There are some kinds which are dioecious, that is having the staminate and pistilate flowers on separate plants thus making it necessary to plant lx>th kinds to secure fruit or seeds. This is the case with the Winter Berry and Virgin’s Bower Clematis also to some, extent with the Celestins or Climbing Bittersweet.
There are books w’hich explain in detail various methods of propagation of trees and shrubs. Probably as good as any is the Nursery Book by Prof. L. H. Bailey. It could probably be secured through Secretary’ F. Cranefield. I give as follows a list of some of the most important kinds of native shrubs, suggesting methods of propagation suitable for each kind.
Prunus Virginiana. Choke Cherry. Seeds—suckers.
I’runus Pumila. Sand Cherry.
Physocarpus opulifolius. Nine Bark. Seeds.
Purpleflowered Raspberry. Salmonberry. Suckers.
Pyms arbutifolia. Red Chokeberry. Seeds—suckers.
Pyrus Melanacarpa. Black Chokeberry. Seeds—suckers.
Rhus—The Sumachs. Seeds—
Ribes—The Currants and Gooseberries. Twig cutting—layers— suckers.
Rubus odoratus—R-pariflorum. suckers.
Rosa.—The wild roses are readily propagated from suckers, also seeds.
Spiraea Salieifolia. Meadow Sweet. Seeds—cuttings—division.
Salix. The Willows are all easily propagated from twig cuttings.
Sambueus Canadensis. Black Elder. Seeds—twig cuttings.
Sambueus raeemosa Red Elder. Root cuttings.
Taxus canadensis. American Yew-Ground Hemlock. Seeds— probably layers.
Viburnum opulus. High Bush Cranberry. Layers—twig cuttings.
Virburnum lentago. Sheep Berry. Seeds—twig cuttings, suckers.
Viburnum Dentatum. Arrow Wood. Seeds—twig cuttings, suckers.
Viburnum Acerifolium. Maple leaf Virburnum. Seeds—twig cuttings, suckers.
Xanthoxalum Americanum.— Prickly’ Ash. Seeds—suckers—root cutting.
Amorpha Caneseens. Lead Plant. Seeds, twigs, cuttings, layers, suckers.
Acer Spicatum. Mountain Maple. Seeds, layering.
Alnus incana. Speckled Alder. Seeds, suckers.
Amelanehier, Canadensis and oblongifolia. Shad Bush, June Berry or Service Berry. Seeds. suckers, layers, cuttings, grafting.
Crataegus. Thorn Apple in several species. Seeds, sown in Fall; twig cutting, grafting, root cut.
Corlyus —- Americanus, Hazelnuts. Seeds, suckers, root cut.
Betula. Glandulosa & Pumila. Dwarf Birches. Seeds.
Carpinus C'aroliniana. Blue Beech. Seeds.
Ceanothus Americana, Jersey Tea. Seeds, layers, twig cuttings.
Cephalanthus Oecidentalis. Button Bush. Seeds, layers, twig cuttings.
Comus or Dogwoods, several species.
Diervilla lonieera. Bush Honeysuckle. Cuttings, suckers.
Direa Palustris. Leatherwood. Seeds, layers, twig cuttings.
Euonymus Atropurpureus. Wahoo, Burning Bush. Seeds, cuttings, suckers.
Hamamelis virginiana. Witch Hazel. Slow to germinate, slow, to root. Seeds, layers.
Ilex Verticillata—Winterberry, Northern Holly. Seeds, suckers.
Juniperus horizontalis, Juni-peius communis—depressa. Seeds, cuttings in fall, probably layering.
Lonieera. Honeysuckles. Seeds, layers, cuttings.
Myrica aploniafolia. Sweet Fern. Seeds, layers, twig cuttings, suckers.
Now the chemists tell us that lettuce, spinach, etc., furnish us certain elements which are important. in the nutrition of human beings, especially children. Some folks have thought that lettuce was a luxury and not of much value at that. This is just another reason for growing and using more vegetables.—LeRov Cady. associate horticulturist. University Farm, St. Paul.
J. E. Leverieh, Sparta
(Continued from February) Winter Covering.
As soon as the ground is frozen, we cover with straw, using two ton per acre. We also cover the old bed with straw or clover hull-ings, and sometimes have used coarse manure applied with the spreader, which is a very good covering. When covering we are very careful to place the cover just thick enough to hide the vines from view. Great care must he exercised not to cover too thick, as it will smother the plants in the spring if left on too long, and also be too bulky a mass to tread between the rows when they are uncovered.
The covering is left on in the spring as long as the growth of vines will permit without injury to them; the weather decides the time. A great many of the plants will grow through the straw if it has been put on properly. However, we go over every row about the last of April and rake off all surplus straw, and it is placed and tramped in the path between the rows. This acts as a mulch and is very beneficial in ease of a dry spell during the picking season.
The past year we had no rain during the picking season, but, our berries showed very little effect of the dry spell as they were thoroughly mulched.
The Picking Season.
It is at this time, that great care and judgment must be used. We have now succeeded in growing an excellent stand of vines, and have a fine show for a crop of strawberries. Right at this time many of the growers fail. They are not able to get them picked on time and as a consequence have an inferior grade of fruit to market, the berries being too ripe and soft.
We, however, have been in the game so long, and fully realize the task we have before us. We are engaging pickers the year round, and when the season starts, we are equal to the task of getting them picked, and to market in good condition. We pick one half of the field each day. If we find that we are liable to get behind with the picking, we never wait until that is a stern reality, but get busy and hunt up a few extra pickers that can usually be secured for a few days if we hustle around and find them.
We have a set of rules printed on the tickets for the pickers to follow in regard to picking, etc., and we always employ a field superintendent, who does nothing but see that these rules are enforced, and above all things, knows that the berries are picked reasonably clean from the vines. If not they will be too ripe the next time they are picked. We pack in sixteen quart cases, immediately after they are brought to the packing sheds, and do not discriminate between the top and bottom of the cases. They are packed just as they come from the field and are equally as good on the bottom of the ease as on the top. We are in the business to stay, and therefore aim to satisfy all customers. Berries that are to be shipped should be about three-quarters covered, depending on the stage of the season.
In short, we employ every possible means to get the berries to market in good condition, as we know the efficient manager of our Sparta Produce Exchange, Mr. Kern, cannot get the top price for our fruit unless we have done our part and he has the class of fruit that the trade demands and will safely carry to distant points.
Care of Bed After Picking.
As soon as the crop is harvested the field is mowed and the vines are left on the ground to act as a mulch. NO BURNING FOR US. The machine is set to cut 3 inches high. The field is also clipped again a month or s>> later, this time the machine is set to cut five inches high.
Soon after the .first mowing, we use a springtooth sulky cultivator, which is regulated by taking the inside and outside teeth off from each gang. The gangs are made rigid by fastening a 2 4 between them at the proper place. This makes the center of the teeth about four feet wide. It leaves the old row about three feet wide. We have tried all kinds of tools with which to do this work, and so far have found nothing that even commences to equal it. The continual spring of the teeth appears co clear them from vines, mulch, etc., that all other cultivators we have tried will collect. After cultivation, we level with an iron harrow, the way the rows run, the harrow let down fiat.
This is all the labor we put on an old bed. No hand work is done in any manner. We have tried out many different plans in earing for the old bed, but have found, that from a financial standpoint, this plan gets us the money, and that is what we are after.
Now. before I close I will say a few words in regard to varieties. We have fruited about all varieties ill trial beds. Our main crop is produced from Warfield, Dunlap, and Pokomoke. The Warfield has been our old ‘'standby,-’ and we stick to it. About one-half of our total planting is Warfield. Senator Dunlap is good, but does not yield as well as the Warfield. The Pokomoke is fine to look at, but a little inclined to be soft when it reaches the Dakotas. It is also a poor plant producer, but it is a heavy vielder. There is not much foliage. and the berries are exposed to the sun, and in hot. weather, may sun scald.
We thoroughly try out all new varieties in our plant bed, not one year, but several years, before we feel safe to plant them in our regular field. At the present time we have some ten or more varieties in our plant bed, testing them out. However, 1 am not going to recommend any particular varieties, for, I believe every section and kind of soil has the berries best adapted to that location. What I have said in regard to varieties, applies to us at Sparta, and possibly may not be the varieties for other sections of the state.
In conclusion, let me say, that the growing of strawberries for commercial purposes, on a large scale, and for profit, requires lots of work and means long hours and some worry, during the picking season. If the prospective grower is not willing to accept these conditions, I would advise him to stay out of the business. But, if strawberries are looked after in the right manner, there is much pleasure to be derived, and profit to be gained.
I am not seeking converts for our plan. I have related to you
G. H. Townsend.
The raspberry survey made by the Horticultural Department of the University shows that the raspberry acreage has declined to possibly one-fifth what would have been an ordinary acreage a few years ago. The cause: Winter-killing, anthracnose and other pests, cellar stored plants, scarcity of labor and the high price of other products that could be quickly grown. When Europe produces the bulk of the food it requires the crop profits of red raspberries will be higher as compared with vegetable or other crops maturing the same year they are planted. Considering these facts a good many people ought to plant red raspberries and would do so if assured of success. If any particular variety stands the winters and yields big crops that is a good variety to plant. In Minnesota the “King” practically displaced all other varieties until the coming of the Minnesota No. 4—both iron clad hardy in Minnesota. In Michigan the commercial growers are now cultivating the “King” in preference to all other varieties. If the Marlboro and the Cuthbert do better in your community or on any particular soil plant them but as the “King” has proven such a reliable crop producer in cold climates the trend of commercial growers is to the “King.”
Here is red raspberry crop insurance.
Plant the “Early King” raspberry as soon after the plants can be dug as possible. A plant does not lose its moisture rapidly in cool how we have managed to produce berries, and it is my hope that some person may profit thereby. weather and does not need deep covering necessary to late planting which are often damaged from beating rains packing the ground over the plant. After plants are started sprinkle nitrate of soda around the plant without touching it and keep free of weeds and grass. Pinch off all fruit blossoms the first year. The second year if on clay loam soil use two hundred pounds to the acre. If on sandy soil use complete fertilizer. Give shallow cultivation as soon as plants start. Cultivate until the ground is in fine condition— usually two or three plowings close together—and then drag until a dust mulch is produced. Repeat after each heavy rain or rainy period and mulch the rows heavily with straw the middle of June and keep the plants down in the middle of the row'. If planted six feet- apart keep the rows not to exceed fifteen inches wide and cut out all small canes where there arc large ones that will overshadow them. In early Spring cut back canes to the large buds—one-third of the height—more or less. Cut back weak canes standing alone more than strong ones. This method will insure four to five thousand pints to the acre at a cost including planting and cultivation to bearing of approximately one hundred dollars an acre, not including picking.
In starting a raspberry patch every fifth row’ should be planted double. Where plants do not make a vigorous start the extra plants should be taken up carefully with a spade and set where there is likely to be poor growth or no growth at all. A perfect stand and high vigor the first year is the key of raspberry success.
Pruning may be done now on warm days.
(The following story about grafting first appeared in the Dec. 1912 issue of Wisconsin Horticulture and was reprinted in February 1917. Here it is again. It is not by any means the best story that could be written and is not intended to be more than a brief outline of the art of grafting; just enough to cover questions asked and to create a desire for further knowledge.)
The art of grafting is a simple one although often invested with mystery by the uninitiated.
Fig. 1. (A) A good grafting knife: (B) Cion used in root grafting, must be new, current season, growth; (C) Root used in root grafting, the larger rootlets should be removed.
Simply stated, the possibilities of grafting are about as follows :
You can go into your orchard next spring, saw off a few limbs from the old Hibernal apple tree. graft on some twigs of Wealthy and in a couple of years have a new top in the old Hibernal tree bearing Wealthy apples.
If you have a pet seedling apple and want fifty or one hundred trees, get some straight one-year apple roots, these are grown especially for nurserymen from any old kind of apple seed, cut the roots into three-inch sections, splice to each a twig from your seedling tree and you have root grafts that will produce orchard size trees in two years. There are many other possibilities, but these 'two are the most practical.
All orchard trees are grafted or budded and budding is one form of grafting, because there is no other way to get fruit trees true to kind or name. The nurseryman knows the whole story and so do many of our readers, but for the benefit of any others who would like to try grafting an attempt is here made to tell how in simple words.
A part of it is written, a part told by pictures and the remainder left to the intelligence of our readers.
In the language of Goff ‘ ‘ Grafting consists in placing together two portions of a plant or of different plants, containing living cambium in such a way that their cambium parts are maintained in intimate contact. If the operation is successful growth will unite the two parts.”
Root grafting: The materials for root grafting consists of twigs of new (1919) growth which may be cut any time from December to April and kept from drying until wanted and seedlings or stocks which may no doubt be had in limited quantities from any nurseryman. (These grew from seeds planted last spring). The tools: a sharp knife and some twine or candle wicking soaked in grafting wax. Cut the roots into pieces of about three inches in length and the twigs (cions) five to six inches. Make a sloping cut
Fig. 2. Showing method of making root graft.
or cleft on both root and eion as shown in the picture (Fig. 2) and in such a way that the two can be united smoothly in a dove-tailed joint. The final operation consists in tying the parts with the waxed cord.
One very important point not mentioned so far is to have the cambium or inner bark of the cion in contact with the inner bark of the root when the two are fitted together. Make the joint so that it is smooth and even on one side, for only rarely will it be possible to make root and cion fit on both sides. The very thin layer, called cambium, lying between the bark and wood, is the only active trowing portion of either cion or root and the only part where growth can start, therefore these must be in contact in at least one point. Don't try to find this cambium layer, because you can’t, but just see to it that you have a good fit on one side of the joint and let it go at that.
When the root grafts are finished, pack in damp sawdust or sand in the cellar until next spring and as soon as the ground can be worked plant in deep mellow soil, down to the top bud of the cion. Don’t stick the root only in the soil, leaving most of the graft in the air, but bury until only an inch is visible.
Cleft grafting: For materials you will need a saw, butcher knife, mallet and cions of the same kind described in root grafting. but no roots. For cleft grafting any limbs from one to six inches in diameter may be used: saw these off at least a foot from the trunk and split as shown in Fig. 3; cut two cions each of about three inches and cut the lower ends wedge shaped, but
Fig. 3. (1) Showing methods of insert
ing cleft grafts. (2) A good type of grafting chisel.
much thicker on one side. Insert cover the cleft and tips of cions with grafting wax. This is not shown in the picture, but unless it is done failure will result.
Now this is about all we need to say, the principles are here, the details can be worked out. The grafting wax mentioned is made by melting together four parts resin, two parts beeswax and one part tallow. When melted, pour into a pail of water, grease your hands and have an old fashioned candy-pull.
Grafting is lots of fun; try it.
Apple trees in certain sections of Wisconsin are troubled with
This apple eaten by the oblique—banded leaf roller. Note the parent moth which has just emerged from the pupal skin in the cavity.
two species of leaf rollers, pests which eat the opening buds in spring and often eat large irregular holes in recently set fruit. Nests of the unfolding buds are made by the worms and some years if they are not cheeked, they threaten prospects for good crops.
One species is called the fruit tree leaf roller, the other which is the most common in Wisconsin, of the three broad oblique dark brown bands which cross each fore wing of the adult moth.
The larvae of the fruit tree roller are about % of an inch long, light green in color, with the head only, light brown. The larvae of the oblique banded roller are a trifle larger, darker green, and have a distinctly dark head.
When disturbed both have the habit of hanging suspended in mid-air by means of a fine silky thread.
These rollers spend the winter as eggs which are laid in the fall by the parent moths on the bark of the twigs in small, flat, light brown or grayish patches; each patch containing about 150 eggs and are covered with a water proof gummy substance to protect them from the weather.
The fruit tree leaf roller has only one generation a year, while the oblique-banded roller has two broods each season.
Spraying Checks These Pests
The most efficient control of these worms consists in a spray of a miscible oil, one part in 19 parts of water, applied to the trees while they are dormant. If a miscible oil is not available a spray of 10 per cent kerosene emulsion, well made, will aid. Both of these sprays kill the eggs. If the eggs are not treated, arsenate of lead, 3 lbs. to 50 gals, of water, should be applied soon after the buds begin to open and another when the blossom buds in the cluster separate and show pink. A thorough application is necessary as the young larvae are very difficult to kill. The best spray is the one which kills the
these as shown herewith, keeping in mind the cambium story, and
is called the oblique-banded leaf eggs, roller, named from the presence
Charles L. Fluke, Jr.
ciety and to the cause of horticulture thru many years. There is not a youngster in the list and there is not likely to be one from the very nature of the case. Honorary Life Membership is a degree conferred by the Society at the Annual Convention and is an expression of appreciation by the members.
For many years this honor roll contained ten names but death cut it down to three in 1916. In that year the Society conferred the honor on William Toole, Sr., and in 1920 added three more names. The complete roll appears below :
This is positively the last call for memberships at the old rate. Fees mailed Wednesday, March 31st will be entered at the old rate, fifty cents, but any remitted after that date must be at the new rate, one dollar for annual membership. Any member now on the mailing list may pay two years in advance at the old rate and many are taking advantage of this offer.
Life membership at five dollars is altogether too cheap but the gates arc wide open until April 1st. Either have the blank on page — signed by a fellow member or have him send in your fee. The life membership is a select circle and we must maintain this rule.
The Highest Honor We Confer
Our Honorary Life Membership roll is a small one and does not grow rapidly. In this list arc the names of members who have rendered eminent service to the So
On September of each year Wisconsin Horticulture is a year older. September, 1919, marked its ninth birthday. Each three year period a few sets are bound and of these a limited number are offered to members. Five copies, only, of the latest bound volume each containing all issues from Sept. 1916 to Sept. 1919, well bound in “boards” with so-called leather corners and back with an excellent index are now available for distribution but instead of selling them at cost as in the past it is proposed to give them away.
As long as they last a copy will be sent free, postage paid, to any resident of Wisconsin who sends in ten new two-year, members with one dollar for each, if the letter of
remittance Beal’s a postmark March 31st or earlier. After that date our fees for membership go up and two dollars must be sent for each two-year membership. No renewals accepted, these must be New members each for two years. It is as easy to get a dollar for two years as fifty cents for one year, try it. If you find, however, that this guess is wrong we will compromise; two one year will be taken as one two year. If it happens that there are any unsuccessful applicants some sort of consolation prize will be sent.
An index has been prepared for Vols. 7, 8 anti 9 Wisconsin Horticulture and a copy will be sent free to any member on application to the secretary. For members who are keeping their back numbers of the paper these will prove valuable. There are also a few copies of the Index for the two preceding volumes, 1910 to 1912 inc. and 1913 to 1915 inc. available and these will be sent on request. der to place the business both amateur and commercial on a dignified and stable basis. Let’s all join. Who else has two dollars?
In addition to the fee each of the following sent a cheerful letter :
Prof. J. G. Moore
A. K. Bassett
Janes P. Oleson
J. II. Fiebing
S. J. Sorensen
H. B. Blackman
Members who advertise in Wisconsin Horticulture find that it pays. It is not expensive. For display advertisements, the only kind accepted, rates are as fol
For one column inch one
Six or more times eontinous 60e
The paper is mailed on the sixth of the month and forms dose on 25th of month preceding.
Let us have your business, the more advertising we get the more reading matter you will get as a page of reading matter will be added for each page of additional advertising.
AN EASY WAY TO SAVE A j| DOLLAR. I
Renew your membership be- i fore April 1st or pay for two years in advance.
Since the last issue of Wisconsin Horticulture was mailed eleven members have joined the A. P. S. ranks making a total of 17 to date. This leaves 83 to go. Good for a beginning but quite a bunch to round up before enlistments close.
Reports from other states show much activity but definite information as to number of members is lacking. There are two things about this A. P. S. affair: Firstly, it is worth the price. It may be difficult for the present officers of the reorganized Association, working at present without pay, to accomplish all the good things planned in one year but they will make the supreme effort, but just as soon as a little money comes rolling in things will begin to move. This plea for members is not made alone on the basis of making good for Wisconsin—it is made with the firm conviction otf the part of your Secretary that it will be worth the price.
Secondly: Such an organization, national in scope, is badly needed among fruit growers in or
AMONG WISCONSIN BEEKEEPERS
The Wisconsin BeeKeepers Page Prof. H. F. Wilson Editor
A B C OF BEEKEEPING
For those who are planning to start with bees a few suggestions will help to avoid trouble. Do not under any circumstances accept bees, even from your best friend, unless you know that they have been inspected. See that every colony of bees bought by you or given you by a friend bears a certificate of inspection.
Why? Because bees in the brood stage are subject to disease known as fou brood and if you buy diseased bees, you will not only fail to get a crop of honey but you may lose your bees.
If you can buy a healthy colony or two of bees from your neighbor in the spring at 10 or 15 dollars a colony, that is the best way to start. Another way is to buy the hives, put in full sheets of comb foundation and leave these with the beekeeper to have him put swarms in them during the swarming period. Swarms wi.l build up nicely and give you a nice surplus of honey if started near the beginning of the honey flow.
Few beekeepers are willing to dispose of their bees at this time because of the present price of honey and so the beginner must resort to buying package bees.
Package bees come in one, two or three pound packages. Queens are not sold with packages unless ordered. It does not pay to buy 1 pound packages except to strengthen weak colonies. Two pound packages give good returns but it is more profitable to buy the three pound size. Package bees are shipped in wire screen cages and the queen is placed in a queen cage and fastened in the center of the package. Enough stores are put in each package to carry the bees to the end of their journey with some to spare. If it is not possible to let the bees out at once, pour a little sugar syrup into the cage. A little water should be given if syrup is not fed to them. If the weather is cold the bees may be kept in doors for several days without harm providing they have stores. It is best to cover them with a cloth or carpet but they should not be allowed to get too warm. 60° to 70° F.
If drawn combs are not available, full sheets of foundation will do. In either case, sugar syrup made of equal parts of sugar and water, must be fed to the bees until they can gather an abundance of nectar in the field.
Before making a start with bees secure some good bee book and read it carefully.
AMONG WISCONSIN BEEKEEPERS
Meet Phillips and Demuth at the Second Annual Beekeepers’ School and Chautauqua, Madison, Wisconsin, August 16—21, 1920.
BETTER KEEPS FOR BEEKEEPERS
Keep cooperating, join your local association. Keep your dues paid up to tlie state association.
THE STATE FAIR FOR 1920
The Bee & Honey Department
I-ast month, copies of the 1920 State Fair Premium List, for the Bee & Honey Department, with other information, was mailed to every member of the Wisconsin State Beekeepers Association.
The State Fair wants every member of the State Association to be advised of the fact, that there is such a thing, as the BEE & HONEY DEPARTMENT at the State Fair. They also want you to know the inducements they offer, as compared with past years.
They want it known, that they are willing to do anything in the way of offering inducements, to build up the Bee & Honey Department, and place it on a basis of importance with the other Departments of the Fair. Th’s is all that they can do, and it rests with the Beekeepers to wake up, and take advantage of the opportunity.
Naturally the State Association is the logical factor for promoting the interests of the Bee & Honey Industry at the State Fair. As they have increased their membership since 1916, from less than 200. to over 600, including the organizing of over 30 Local Associations, the result shou’d be in evidence at the 19 20 State Fair.
You are now in possession of all the necessary information, and the Superintendent will gladly furnish you any further information needed. He will be glad to hear from you. regard’ng State Fair Matters in his Department.
Look over the Premium List and Circular careful’y, and better write at once, if you will consider making an entry.
This does not mean that you are to make entries at this time, we simply want the names of prospective Exhibitors, so that we may have an estimate of the prospects, and he will write you later, and at the proper time. This will enable the Superintendent to have everything planned in deta l, and avoid rush and confusion at the last.
This may seem early to start this matter, but it is advisable to have a good estimate several months ahead, as it will help in planning the new building, and arranging the interior. Write at once, to, Gus Dittmer. Sup’t. Bee & Honey Dep’t.. Augusta. Wis.
The commercial beekeeper has one principal object in view and that is to make his bees show a profit. In order to make a paying proposition out of his apiaries, it is necessary for him to secure a maximum amount of honey w’ith a minimum of labor and expense. The maximum production of honey depends on several things, some of them being beyond his control. For instance, there may not be sufficient flora or the weather may not be just right in order to produce the most honey, but with these in his favor, there are other things within his control which the beekeeper must have in order to secure the most honey from his bees. Two important points to my mind are, first; strong colonies: second; the prevention of swarming. If the beekeeper does not have strong colonies, the honey crop will be of little value to him. If he does have strong colonies, he is prepared to harvest a good crop, provided he can prevent swarming. Swarming is, perhaps, the stumbling block for many commercial honey producers and more time is spent in its prevention than for probably any other one thing. The writer well remembers a trip made through Northern Michigan with Mr. A. G. Woodman, now maker of Bingham smokers. We arrived one morning in our automobile at the home of a beekeeper who usually produced a nice crop of honey. We found him in a rather despondent mood. On inquiry, we found that his honey crop had failed because of conditions that had caused practically every colony in his yard to swarm, not only once, but twice and three times. To me, it was a revelation because I had never seen and hardly heard of anything of the kind before. Using large hives as w*e do and have been for many years, swarming in the Da-dant apiaries, even during some of our heaviest honey flows, has been kept well under 10 per cent and our col-on’es which are run for extracted honey do not cast swarms on the average of more than four or five per cent. In years when the honey flow is prolonged and not heavy at any one time, we have gone through an entire season without a single swarm. This too with comparatively no manipulation during the honey crop. To the beekeeper who is us:ng or has used the 8 and 10 frame Langstroth hives, this seems almost impossible, but to the beekeeper who has used deep brood chambers in connection with extracted honey production, it is not so surprising.
Although numerous experiments were made on a large scale by Charles Dadant and C. P. Dadant, my Grandfather and Father, during the time when my brothers and myself were in school and college, we could not take it for granted that the large hives were very much better than the ordinary 10 frame langstroth. As soon as we had the opportunity, we installed in our home apiary between 50 and 60 colonies in 10 frame Lang-stroth hives. These hives were located on one side of the apiary while on the other side were an equal number of colonies in 10 frame Quinby or Dadant hives. For four or five years, these were all watched closely. There was no comparison between the results of the two groups. Each spring as we worked over the home yard, we could tell without even keeping track that there was a big difference in favor of the bees in the large hives. They came through the winter in better condition, had more bees, more honey and were ready for business much earlier than the smaller ones and w’hen it came later in the season to the production of honey, the large hives would have just as many and more supers than the small ones and the large supers of course, contained proportionate^ more honey. These same experiments had been made by our people before of course, but it seems that everyone must try it out for himself in order to be convinced.
To secure the maximum product’on of honey, it is not only necessary to use large hives, but also to make sure to have the colonies strong for the honey crop and not be compelled to build them up on the honey crop. Our friend Mr. Demuth of the Department at Washington has given us this motto and everyone of us should keep it in m’nd at all times. Strong colonies can be reared on’y by the use of prolific queens. In order for the prolific queen to do her best, there must be sufficient stores for her and she must have sufficient room so her laying will not be restricted in the least. The prolific queen and the large brood chamber are the two points which I propose to emphasize as the subject of “The Use of Large Hives’’ is practically covered by these two points.
For a prolific queen to extend herself, she must have just as litt’e interruption as possible as she lays her eggs quite rapidly. The best authorities state that she can lay at the rate of from 2,000 to 5,000 eggs per day. and a good queen will average 3,500 eggs per day in the active season. Some experiments put the figures even higher than this. The average, however, is at the rate of something like 150 eggs per hour or about two or three eggs per minute. If the combs are large and if they are all in one hive body, she has a large circle to cover and loses practically no time in going from one frame to another. It, however, the frames are small, her egg laying circle is small and considerable time is lost. Several years ago we had in use some brood combs divided in the middle for use in mating nuclei. These combs when placed in the brood chamber had a three-quarter inch bar running through the center of them. Many times we noticed that queens would fill one side with brood and leave the other side untouched. The bar evidently disturbed the egg laying circle.
I^arge brood chambers can be secured in several ways. The long idea hive which allows the queen all the room she needs is practiced by some, but the most common method is by tiering bodies or supers, one over the other. Many beekeepers have used and are still using divisible brood chambers. In Texas, Louis H. Scholl and many others use the ordinary 5% shallow extracting supers and tier them up, allowing the queen to use as many as she can fill with brood. This answers the purpose, but as stated before, each one of those separations is time lost for the queen. If the queen has to travel over a top-bar, an empty space and the bottom bar before she can reach the next story, there is no doubt that she loses considerable time and during the breeding season, every minute of egg laying counts. Another great objection, however, to the divisible brood chamber hive, is the number of frames it contains. In many localities, there are no bee diseases but where bee diseases are prevalent, it would be a great hardship to have to go over, 20, 30 or even 40 frames in order to make sure that no American or European foulbrood ex’sted in that particular colony and when one considers having to go over several hundred colonies, the amount of unnecessary work is tremendous. The use of two 10-frame or 8-frame Langstroth bodies tiered one above the other, to secure a large brood chamber, has become quite common. This to our notion is similar to the divisible brood chamber hive as it too requires the manipulation of a great many frames. It has, however, one disadvantage that the shallow bodies do not possess. The Langstroth being a semi-deep frame has so nearly enough room for her that once the queen is established in the second story, she is slow to leave it and go back down stairs. The position of the two hive bodies may be reversed but this requires additional manipulation.
As stated before, the egg laying capacity of a prolific queen is something like 3,500 eggs per day. This is a total of 73,500 eggs during the 21 days which are required for the bees to hatch. Ten Langstroth frames which have 75,600 worker cells are not enough for her if any allowance is made for honey or imperfect cells and if she covered all of them. The extra story, therefore, is absolutely necessary if the 8 frame or 10 frame size of Langstroth equipment is used. This much added room in our opinion is entire’y too much, especially if the colony is not given sufficient protection during winter. If sufficient protection is given, then this adds considerable to the expense and the amount of labor required to winter the bees. The use of a brood chamber with large frames, in one single story, therefore, is desirable for the accommodation of a prolific queen in order to get best results and secure the largest working force at the earliest possible date. Some persons may take exception to the statement that the largest possible force should be secured at the earliest possible date. It is true that in some localities the honey flow is deferred and a big working force is not desired. However, if the average beekeeper will adopt I^angstroth’s motto “keep your colonies strong”, he will have little chance to regret it. In possibly 98 cases out of 100, there is greater chance of the colony not being strong enough for the honey flow than of its being too strong before the honey flow.
The hive with a large brood chamber lends itself very readily to the prevention of swarming. Plenty of breeding room satisfies the queen and does not render her restless. Sufficient ventilation, by means of the use of frames spaced 1 % inches apart, goes a long ways towards keeping the colony comfortable during the heavy honey flows and hot weather. A sufficient amount of honey may be stored in it for winter and still leave sufficient breeding space.
There is no doubt that the production of extracted honey, especially when the beekeeper has plenty of drawn combs, is a large item in the prevention of swarming. In our apiaries, shallow supers are used. These supers contain frames 6% inches deep. The fact that the queen does not like to lay in a small circle ordinarily keeps her from going up stairs, especially if there is no drone comb present in the super. Queen excluders therefore, are unnecessary. It is true that we keep something like one-half dozen excluders at each yard as occasionally a queen will go above and be unwilling to return. It is safe to say that during a season we do not use queen excluders on more than one or two per cent of our colonies. Tin* shal’ow super, then, really becomes a safety valve for the queen. If the lower story has become clogged with honey or for some other reason she needs added room, she does not encounter the excluder and can go up. She deserts the upper story, however, very quickly, as she does not like the small circle in which she is compelled to lay. Time and again we have noticed that when the queen went up into the supers, she would lay there just once, that is for only one cycle of brood. To our notion, this is not detrimental as the brood hatches before the honey is ready to be extracted. This no doubt goes a long ways towards satisfying the queen and keeps down swarming. The use of the excluder also prevents free circulation of air through the hive and this renders the bees uncomfortable. Even though the excluder is made with a great many openings, it obstructs more or less and is necessarily a promoter of swarming.
Large hives have disadvantages. They are not as handy as small ones to move from p’ace to place and are heavier to lift. For nomadic or migratory beekeeping, they are rather inconvenient. Still, after having practiced moving of bees for several years in succession, the writer has come to the conclusion that he had rather go to the extra trouble of moving the large hives than to use smaller ones. Crop results justify using larger sized hives. During the past season, the clover crop in our locality was practically a failure. We had counted on the clover crop as a means of increasing our colon’es and we did Increase them approximately 30 per cent. Dry weather, however, prevented the colonies from building up and it looked as though we would lose every division we had made. We are fortunate, however, in being located near some Mississippi River bottom land which produces a large amount of heartsease and Spanish needle each year. The bees from the uplands were moved down into these bottoms with the result that the colonies built up into fine shape for winter and harvested something like 80 pounds per colony, spring count. This same result might have been obtained with smaller hives but our experience leads us serious’y to doubt it and we are so well convinced that we would prefer to move the large hives at an added expense than to use smaller ones. A few extra pounds of honey will easily take care of all the expense of moving.
A great deal has been said in the bee journals during the past year or two in regard to spacing of frames. It was Allen Latham of Norwichtown, Connecticut, who brought the attention of the senior Dadant to the fact that 1% inch spacing was much better than 1%. All of our equipment is built with 1 Va inch spacing and th:s no doubt has had a great deal to do with the prevention of swarming in our apiaries, also in our success in wintering. The 1% inch spacing gives inch more space between the combs which would mean about 150 cubic inches more breathing space in an ordinary 10 frame I>angstroth hive. This extra space is also available for winter clustering and as the top edges of the combs are thicker, there is that much more honey above the cluster where it is needed. The ordinary 10 frame Langstroth hive can accommodate 9 frames if spaced 1% inches apart and to our notion, it is preferable to use 9 such frames.
Another prime requisite in keeping colonies strong, is to make sure there is a young queen present. It is true that many beekeepers have found that some queens three and four years o d are as prolific as younger queens but. in handling large numbers of colonies, we have found that queens more than two years old are oftener inferior than otherwise. In our practice, we have made it a rule not to allow a queen to become more than two years old unless we intended to use her for breeding purposes. We have never made any practical tests between queens one year old and two years old, but believe a two year old queen will do as well as a year old queen where the season has not been exceptionally long. A young queen in the hive too, is not so apt to be superseded as an older one and consequently the chances of swarming are greatly reduced.
Large hives, therefore, properly manipu’ated, reduce the chance ot swarming and allow the extensive beekeeper with outapiaries to care for a greater number of colonies with greater profit. If our work has been kept up to date, the only manipulations required during the honey flow, are to raise the entrances for ventilation and add supers for storage. There is no hunting for queen cells, no chasing of swarms, no reversing of brood chambers, in fact, none of the petty annoyances caused by colonies crowded into undersized hives.
If the commercial beekeeper is equipped with large hives containing deep brood frames, makes sure of young prolific queens so as to keep h's colonies strong, sees that there is plenty of ventilation and super room during the honey flow so as to prevent swarming, he may be practically certain of producing the maximum amount of honey with the minimum of labor and expense.
L. C. Dadant, Hamilton, 111.
The high price of butter, the great scarcity of sugar, and the a’most prohibitive prices pa!d for what little sugar can be procured, the poor* demand, and comparatively low price paid for honey, shows the unpopularity of honey, the most wholesome and delicious sweet known.
In years past, honey used to seii generally for about double the price of sugar. Today sugar sells for more, in many places than honey, w’ith all kinds of honey on the market and in many stores attractively displayed. Whereas, sugar is rarely, if ever, displayed at a grocery store.
To the writer the above mentioned conditions are not satisfactory, and would be discouraging if there was no hope for improvement. The question "how can conditions be improved?" confronts every commercial beekeeper. And, if the price of honey is to maintain a level equal to that of other commodities, the honey producers will have to get busy.
Some people try to tell us. all we have to do is to produce a big crop of honey, and then let the jobber, bottler and commission man do the rest. To the writer such advice amounts to the same thing that it would if it were given to a shoe o; overall manufacturer (altho shoes and overalls are popular) who. following such advice would manufacture the goods and turn over such portion to the jobber or commission man as they are able to find a market for; who spend such amounts as they (the jobber and commission man) w’ould deem necessary for selling such portions of the goods as appears convenient and profitable to themselves; charge the
ners. Such honey contests can be conducted in almost any village, city or metropolis. These contests may be continued year after year, without losing their interest to the public, because of the premiums they carry.
A. C. F. Bartz.
(Good for Brother Bartz. He is the first member of the association to use the association space for expressing himself. Come again. Don’t forget that every member of the association is paying for space. Send in an ar-tic’e and we will print it.)
selling expenses to the manufacturer, even tho such selling costs should far exceed the cost of production, and such goods as the jobber and commission man could not sell conveniently leave on the hands of the manufacturer. for which he h:mself might find a market, if he can.
It makes very little difference what branch of production one is engaged in. It is up to the producer to keep up a live demand for his product, with a price sufficient to cover cost of production. Honey is no exception to the rule. But having been neglected for so many years and receiving an insufficient amount of advertising, it has become a shelf warmer in most grocery stores.
Following is an outline as how* to improve and increase the demand for the product of the hive.
First: We must create strong local organizations, that wi’l raise funds by assessing themselves.
Second: We must institute local honey cooking, baking, preserving, candy making, etc., contests, adver-Vse these contests in the local papers, and pay liberal premiums to the win-
All clover is well protected with plenty of snow.
Very little honey in the hands of the beekeepers.
Market is better since the holidays and honey is moving- fast locally at 30c per pound retail.
All normal co’onies are wintering well, too early to say much about it now.
Fox River Valley, Bee. Ass’n.
Outagamie County, Edward Hassinger, Jr.
Every affiliated loca1 association is supposed to have a reporter who should send in local news items on the 10th of each month. If a reporter has not been appointed, your president should appoint one at once.
The Shawano County Beekeepers’ Association held their annual meeting on January' 2 8. Mr. R. A. Schwarzkopf of Bowler, was elected president and Mr. Wm. Hanneman, Cecil, secretary and treasurer.
The association voted to prepare a memorial for Mr. Carl Hanneman of Cecil. He was the first member of the Shawano County’ Beekeepers’ Association. He was born January’ 14, 1845 at Proving Ponnern. Germany, He came to America in 1868 and settled at Bay Boon, Winnebago county, later moving to Cecil, Shawano county. He kept bees for many years and sometimes had as many as eighty colonies.
E. S. Hildemann.
Local News Reporter for Shawano County’ Beekeepers* Assn.
Wisconsin beekeepers are living in the most progressive era that has ever come to the beekeping industry in our state. According to Mr. Joseph A. Becker of the Wisconsin Crop Reporting Service, the first estimate of Wisconsin Honey Production has just been completed by' the Wisconsin Crop Reporting Service. How often do we hear the inquiry—“What is the average colony production for Wisconsin?’’ At last we have something definite. Stil’. I wonder if we have a full report from all our beekeepers. Cooperation has reached a high standard among the beekeepers and all state officials connected with the beekeeping industry. A st‘11 highe*’ standard can and will be reached by a slight’y increased effort on the part of individuals interested in local and state affairs affecting the beekeeping industry. More and better cooperation, improved beekeeping methods and standard grades of honey will make Wisconsin par excellence in beekeeping.
The crop reporting service estimates that in 1919, 4,834,000 pounds of surplus honey was produced of which 4,008,000 pounds was extracted and 836,000 pounds of comb honey. This gives us an average for 90,000 colonies of 61 pounds of extracted, and 34 pounds of comb honey per colony. The total value of the crop reported is estimated at $1,207,730. On January 1. the average price was 24.8c for extracted honey and 32.6 for comb honey. The valuation of the bees is placed at an average of $8.50 per colony or a total of $765,000 for 90,000 colonies.
Look over these figures, brother beekeeper. They should give you cause for reflection. $765,000 worth of bees produces $1,207,730 worth of honey and we estimate the value of the colony at $8.50. Don’t you believe it would be justice to give the bees a higher rating? Would not $18.50 per colony be nearer right? 61 pounds of extracted honey at 24.8c per pound is $15.13. 34 pounds of
comb honey at 32.6c per pound is $11.18. How do you figure the value of your bees? Have you a cow on the place that will pay the same returns?
Since the wax moth is entirely dependent upon the product of the honey bee to sustain its life, it wi 1 only be found about the apiary or in the honey house where old combs and refuse wax is stored. It proves destructive when neglected but on the other hand is easily controlled when given a little attention.
The wax moth shuns the light and prefers to breed and carry on its destructive work in the dark. The adult moths move very quickly when disturbed and will dart nervous1 y a short distance in search of a dark place to hide.
The females are less active than the males and when laying eggs they seem to resent but little, disturbance or the presence of light. The fema’e lays her eggs along the edges of a brood comb preferring to lay them toward the top or sides of the frame. The time required for the egg to hatch varies greatly according to the temperature. The period will range from 5 to 27 days; a longer time being required in the spring than during the summer. Soon after hatching, the small white w’orm-like larvae begin to feed. Old brood frames are preferred to clean extracting frames a though both are readily attacked. They seem to be especially fond of pollen or betbread and cappings. As the larvae or "-worms’’ feed, they move about a great deal and always bu:ld a lined tunnel as they go, probably for protection. In a few days time, a good frame of worker brood will be
Female moth resting on comb.
nothing but a mass of dirty worm-filled webs. They continue to feed in the larval stage from 30 to 140 days depending upon the temperature and amount of food present. At the end of this period, the larva scallops out a shallow hole or trench in the side of the hive or frame, spins a w’hite silken cocoon in which the larva transforms to an adult moth. This requires from two to five days depending upon the season. The adult moths do not feed. The insect winters over either in the larval or pupal stage.
Methods for the control and eradication of the wax moth have been worked out but there are still many beekeepers who are having considerable trouble keeping them in check. It is well known that weak colonies are more susceptible to attack than strong colonies and that black bees are more susceptib’e than Italians. It is an easy matter, then to keep them out of the hives in the bee yard. Ail colonies should be kept as strong as possible, weak colonies should be united or added to medium sized colonies. A young queen will help as much as anything else, since it is altogether a case of good housekeeping. Further help can be given by c’osing down the entrance somewhat so that the bees can keep the moths from entering the hive; see that the cover fits tightly and kill the adults and larvae whenever seen.
(Continued in April number)
I went over the other evening to remind my neighbor that the last time we talked about my garden he used up all the evening telling me about vegetables and in the matter of flowers didn’t get beyond telling me how much space to devote to them. “If you start with a strip eight to ten feet wide and sixty-six feet long you will find that this is either too much or too little. If you are not a real lover of flowers it will be too much, but if you are you will find yourself making room in your cabbage or turnip patch for flowers crowded out of your border.”
“You will get the greatest satisfaction,” so my neighbor says, “with the least effort, out of hardy perennials, that is from plants that live and blossom year after year. But even hardy perennials are not fool-proof, and need intelligent care and attention. Don't rush into novelties, but stick to the tried and tested sorts. Get advice from some one in your neighborhood who knows what can stand the climate and what cannot. Then as you get experience you can branch out cautiously and if successful you can glory in new things which no one else has.
Grade your plants according to height, putting the taller ones at the back and at the ends of your planting strip. Hollyhocks may be used to almost any extent but their period of bloom is rather short. You can get tall varieties to put at the ends and shorter ones towards the middle of the row. Other desirable tall growing plants are Bocconia, with loose sprays of delicate flowers and leaves like the bloodroot,
Boltonia with white daisy-like blossoms, snake-root, (eupatoriuin ageratoides) with white tufted blossoms, and the tall daisy (Pyrethrum uliginosum). These form clumps which increase in size year by year. For variety you can plant Astilbe Arendsii with feathery pink sprays, and hardy belladonna larkspur, bright turquoise blue, among the other clumps. All of these will grow four feet or more in height, and if the weeds are kept out and the ground cultivated and enriched they will increase in beauty year by year, though the hollyhocks cannot be relied upon with any certainty for more than one or two years. Almost as tall, is the burning bush or Dictamus with long sprays of reddish pink flowers which if undisturbed will live and increase in beauty for generations, the An-chusa with very deep brilliant blue flowers, which forms a large bush in twro or three years, and the meadow rice, Thalietrum, with tufted lavender flowers.
In front of these will come peonies, phlox and columbine. Peonies come in all shades except blues, and at all prices from twenty-five cents to twenty-five dollars or more per root. In selecting varieties remember that some are as fragrant as a rose. White and pink shades will generally be most satisfactory. The columbine comes in almost all colors, white, bright blue, bright yellow, and the long-spurred hybrids with all sorts of shades and combinations of these colors. Their period of blossoming is a long one from mid-June to August. While they are not long lived and although not as curious as the Japanese flower, are much more satisfactory in the long run in the average garden. Sweet William and the hardy pinks can be used between the clumps of iris.
In front of the iris and along the border you will place the lower growing plants, forget-me-not, blue, pink and white, rockcress, (arabis), pure white, mosspink, (Phlox sublata), and yellow alyssum (Saxatile compactum).
These are by no means all of the desirable perennials, but those namd are of easy culture and are not too particular as to soil.
Not only should these be planted with reference to their own growth, but they should be so planted that space would be left for summer flowering bulbs and tubers and for annuals and biennials, and in the front section as a rule, they are very easily raised from the seed, and when one dies it can be readily replaced. The hardy phlox comes in all colors except bright blue. About the same height is the Chinese larkspur, with delicately cut foliage and brilliant dark blue or white sprays of blossoms. All these plants grow in clumps, increasing year by year.
Interspersed along the edge of the medium sized plants you can plant the hybrid pyrethrum with finely cut foliage and daisy-like flowers ranging from white to deep purple, Platycodons or Japanese bell flowers, both white and blue, day lilies, hemerocallis, sulphur and orange yellow.
In front of these will come the iris or fleur-de-lis. Of this there are many varieties, the most common being the flag iris and the Japanese iris. These come in all colors except clear bright reds. The flag iris is profusely hardy. Ample room should be left for spring-flowering bulbs.
Dahlias and the Italian eannas can be planted near or in the back row, lilies according to their height from back to front, ami gladiolus along the middle line."
This isn't all my neighbor said of course, for he showed me cuts in his catalogues, and talked about the manifold beauties of his pet plants until I was fairly bewildered, and the end of the evening came before he had even commenced on annuals.
By N. D. Peacock, Indiana
During the last few years the development of spray equipment has been phenomenal. Through all this development the general tendency has been towards higher pressure and a. means by which the spray could be better controlled. The slow back-breaking work with the spray rod and nozzle together with the urgent need for a more rapid means of applying the spray led to the introduction of the spray gun back in 1916. Since that time many different kinds have been designed, all with some modification of the same principle. The purpose of the spray gun is to apply a large amount of material, under high pressure, in a comparatively short time and still control the spray in such a way as to reach the desired distance with a good mist and as little waste as possible. In order to accomplish this purpose certain points in construction are fundamental.
In the first place the nozzle must produce a very fine, wide mist spray or a coarse, dense compact spray which will carry a long distance before breaking up and must be able to form almost any variation between these extremes if the best results are to be obtained.
Very closely connected to this and equally important in securing good results is the means of control. This must be rapid in order to prevent waste while changing from one type of spray to another and while passing from one tree to another. The shut-off must prevent any leaking but it must be easy to operate and not excessively tiresome. The entire gun must be of substantial durable construction and able to withstand a large amount of hard use. These are the important points to be desired in a gun and although they may not all be found in a single make at present, gradual development is bringing them nearer and nearer to the proper standard.
During the past spring I tested six different makes of spray guns both as to capacity, distance they would throw the spray vertically and horizontally with the different types of spray and also their performance in the field. These guns varied a large amount in types and details of construction and therefore clearly illustrate some important principles.
In the first place I found that none of the guns gave a satisfactory spray with 150 pounds pressure, 200 pounds were necessary for good results and 250 or even 300 pounds pressure was much better. The capacity increased fairly uniformity with the pressure in all eases. At 250 pounds pressure the capacity varied from 5 to 5% Ballons per minute with the coarse spray adustment and from 3 to 4% gallons per minute with the wide fine spray adjustment according to the make of gun.
The guns that showed the greatest difference in capacity, between the coarse and fine spray adjustment, also showed the greatest difference in the distance they would throw the spray horizontally at the two adjustments.
Fine Mist Necessary.
For satisfactory results with a gun you must be able to direct a fine mist spray to all parts of the tree as you can with a rod and nozzle. With some makes of guns I found that you could make a very (Continued on page 125)
In reading over the question in regard to cyclamen, I have the impression that the writer has been trying to grow an old bulb of cyclamen. It is hardly worth while to try to grow an old bulb in an ordinary dwelling house. The results are very disappointing and in most cases a complete failure. Sometimes it is done in a greenhouse with good results, but even florists seldom try it. Seed is usually sown the latter part of August or early in September, and with good culture make splendid blooming plants for Thanksgiving and Christmas the following year. Unless one has good facilities for raising cyclamen from seed, and can give the little plants special care, it is better to purchase a few plants from the florist in the fall. When placed in a sunny position they make splendid house plants, and with ordinary care in watering, will bloom for a long time.
The best soil for either cyclamen or primula obeoniea, is a mixture of well rotted turf, well rotted cow manure and leaf mould, with a liberal amount of sharp sand and some crushed charcoal. In mixing a batch of soil very few gardeners go by any set rules. They know what is necessary for different varieties of plants and mix the soil accordingly. A suitable compost for cyclamen and Primulas could be
made up as follows: Six shovels well rotted turfy loam; two shovels well rotted cow manure, three shovels, well rotted leaf mould, one shovel sharp sand, one six-inch potful of crushed charcoal and one four-inch potful of bone meal. If the plants are being raised from seed, more sand should be used while the plants are small, or until they are large enough to go into four inch pots. In localities where the soil is light and sandy less sand should be used.
Plants or flowers are among the best of gifts at any time. There are few people who do not like flowers.
Don’t leave rubbish heaps about the garden or orchard. They only harbor all sorts of insects or disease and will in time cause you much labor if not loss.
A well kept and well planted lawn is essential for every home. Most any one can erect a shelter of boards or cement but some thought must be put into making that shelter a home. Comfort, convenience, and beauty ought to be found there. They are all needed if young people are going to stay long in the home. There is something wrong with a family that is willing to live among unkempt surroundings. — LeRoy Cady. associate horticulturist, University Farm, St. Paul, Minn.
THE SPRAY GIM
(Continued from page 121)
fine mist close to you or a very coarse stream which would carry 35 or 38 feet, but you could not make a good mist at a medium distance. This is a very important disadvantage because in ordinary spraying the greater part of the tree will be only a medium distance from you and that is where you want your fine mist spray. Although the gun control is important in securing the desired fine mist the amount of pressure is even more important. The higher the pressure the more the material will lie broken up and the more it will be spread. Both these conditions are necessary for rapid efficient work.
The guns I tested varied from 18 to 30 inches in length. 1 found the greater length to be a decided advantage. With the very short gun it was impossible to use them without having the spray blown back into your face. Even on very still days it was much more pleasant to have that large amount of material a little farther from you so that every flurry of air would not cover you with spray.
The spray gun is rapidly gaining in popularity among commercial growers and there is but little doubt but that it has come to stay. It is much more rapid than the old rod and nozzle and it is a great labor saver. There is still considerable difference of opinion as to the efficiency of this means of applying liquid for insect and disease control. It is however safe to sav that it requires as great skill and more care to do thorough work with a gun than with a rod. With such a large amount of material passing through the gun there is apt to be quite a tendency to hurry along too fast without covering the tree entirely.
A green or earless hand would do better and more thorough work with a rod than a gun. All of the material is applied from outside the tree and low down with the gun, while it is possible to work the nozzle of the pole entirely to the center of the tree and direct the spray downward as desired. For this reason quite probably the gun would be less effective than the spray rod in applying the calyx spray but this has not been entirely proved in orchard work. There may also be some danger that the excessive pressure of the gun may injure the tender leaves and flowers but this also lacks conclusive proof.
Not all growers can use the gun to the same advantage. For the grower who desires absolutely 100 per eent efficiency and who is able to cover his orchard successfully with the slower pole and nozzle, probably, they will be more satisfactory than the gun. On the other hand the large commercial grower who cannot cover his orchard successfully with the pole and nozzle will probably find valuable use for the gun because of the fact that it reduces the man labor about one half.
Usually slightly more material is used with a gun than with a rod but this is largely a personal matter and the difference is less than is usually considered. It is not of sufficient importance to be a serious factor.
At the present stage in its development the spray gun is a valuable supplement to the spraying equipment but it should not entirely replace the old rod and nozzle for the calyx spray at least.— .1 »iti'iciin Fritil (Iroii’er.
In many sections of Florida and (’alifornia the housewife needs only to step outside of her kitchen door to gather the grapefruit for breakfast or the oranges for dinner. This can not be done everywhere, but there is no reason why any rural or suburban housewife, even if she lives close to the Canadian border, should not have fruit of some kind growing in the back yard. This is the opinion of specialists in the U. S. Department of Agriculture, who treat in detail the subject of ‘ ‘ Growing Fruit for Home Use” in a publication under that name. It is Farmers’ Bulletin 1001 and may be obtained on application to the Division of Publications, U. S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C.
The ideal fruit garden or home orchard should contain several different kinds of fruits, represented in many cases by a considerable number of varieties ripening one after another over a long period. Large yields, good shipping quality, and attractiveness in appearance, which are aims of the commercial grower, may be made secondary to high dessert quality or special excellence for cooking purposes.
Plans for Home Orchard
The home fruit plat should be planned carefully and, in general, with a view to supplying fruit continuously throughout the year either in the fresh state or canned or otherwise conserved. In the ('older sections the winters are too severe for peaches and also for some of the other fruits named unless they are protected; while in the warmer parts apples, currants, gooseberries, and certain varieties of several of the other fruits fail because they are not adapted to the long hot summers and mild winters. One of the most important features of the plan for the homefruit plantation is the selection of kinds of fruits and varieties of those kinds which will do well in the given locality and which will serve best the purpose for which they are desired.
The location of the land on which the fruits are planted, other things being equal, should be convenient to the house. It should be well drained, since fruit trees can not thrive in poorly drained soil. The air drainage also must be good.
Cold air settles to the lowest levels, and if a site is so located that cold air settles over it from some surrounding higher elevation, the fruit blossoms are likely to be killed by untimely spring frosts or the fruit may be injured by freezes in the autumn when sites located on the sides of slopes or at points which are higher than the surrounding area escape such injury.
Most fruits can be grown on a great variety of soils, but where possible it is better to avoid light sandy soils and heavy clays. A deep subsoil, which is friable and porous enough to permit a ready penetration of the roots and a free movement of soil moisture, is desirable.
Good nursery stock of suitable kinds and varieties is fundamental to success in fruit growing. While many of the long-established nurseries sell their stock largely thru agents whose integrity is unquestioned, many other nurseries have no traveling agents, but sell direct to purchasers. It is better, as a rule, for a grower to deal directly with a nurseryman rather than through an agent.
In the North and wherever the winter conditions are severe on
One notice free.
Named gladiolus. kunderd and primalinus for hybrid or named' Delphnium.
Charles N. Brown.
Gladioli, America, Panama, Klondike, Pride of Goshen, for Myrtle, Pink Perfection. War, Mrs. Watt, ]?velyn Kirtland, Gretchen Zang, Ber-trex, or Goliath.
Flowerfarm, Fort Atkinson, Wis.
have started. Many failures result from delaying the planting until the buds have started into growth.
If the prospective planter prepares the soil where his fruits are to stand as thoroughly as he should prepare his garden before planting vegetable seeds, the subsequent growth of his fruit trees will amply repay him. Where the site selected is in sod, it is advisable to cultivate it during one season at least after the sod is plowed under, in order that the grass roots may decay before the fruits are planted.
Where the fruit plantation occupies a garden site, usually it should receive about the same tillage that is given a vegetable plat. In the popular mind this represents a high standard of excellence. Frequent tillage to maintain the surface soil in the condition of a fine dust mulch is preferable in most eases to any other method of treatment. The tillage of fruit trees should be continued until midsummer in the North, but it may be kept up to good advantage somewhat later in the South. Strawberries, as a rule, should be cultivated until the approach of cold weather.
Under most conditions the same methods of maintaining the fertility of the soil which are followed in a vegetable garden are successful with fruits. Where stable manure is available, its liberal use generally gives excellent results.
The same kinds of insect pests and fungous diseases that are found in a commercial orchard in any region may be expeeted to occur in a fruit garden or home orchard located in the same region. Therefore, in planning a homefruit plantation the grower should inform himself as completely as is possible in regard to the methods of controlling the common insects and diseases to which the fruits he is growing are subject in his locality. This information may be found in bulletins issued by Slate experiment stations, agricultural college extension divisions, the United States Department of Agriculture, and elsewhere.
The bulletin, which discusses these points at length, also gives attention to other problems that will confront the amateur fruit grower, such as seasons of planting, handling the stock from the nursery, planting, cultural methods, maintaining soil fertility, pruning and training, irrigation, varieties of fruit for different
The high price paid for apple trees this year ought to result in the buyer taking better care of the tree from the time it is set until it fruit'. Perhaps it will al; o cause some tree owners to prune and spray their trees this year. Don't expect fruit if it is not sprayed or large fruit if no pruning is done.—LeRoy Cady.
Cabbage has been high in price and scarce again this winter. Perhaps the south is not sending io many vegetables to the north as usual.
Has the corn, onion, and other vegetable seed been tested? Do it now.