Madison, Wisconsin, April, 1920
My Neighbor’s Garden
My neighbor is a very mild mannered man, but the next evening after the March number of Wisconsin Horticulture came out I found him wrathy.
“I don’t know just what I said but I didn’t talk the blankety blank nonsense you put into my mouth. If you can’t do better than that you'd better quit! etc.! etc.!”
I had to lay it all to the makeup man, and had to show him that if you cut out and transposed you could really get some sense out of it, before he would really talk to me, and I could see all the evening that his feathers were not quite back in their usual places, although one can't lie really angry and talk flowers at the same time.
I told him that I wanted to know something about annuals and biennials, and when I told him that I would look over the proof myself he consented to talk.
Of the annuals, my neighbor tells me, the aster holds first place. It grows from one foot to three feet in height and can be had in all shades except the yellows and the reds which incline to orange. They should be started in the house or in a cold frame and transplanted to their permanent places as soon as the plants are 3 inches high if the weather is warm.
Get several varieties and types. The tall, late branching varieties will be most satisfactory, but you will want some earlier ones. Consult the flower catalogues for descriptions. The larger varieties should have plenty of room say eighteen inches square, but the others may be much closer.
They do best in rather rich soil but must have plenty of moisture. Wood ashes and lime help them. They are subject to but one serious disease, the cause of which is unknown. Diseased plants devel-ope unequally and part of the plant has a yellowish color. When the first symptom appears, pull the plant up and burn it. It is not proved that the disease is contagious, but it may be.
If you have a trellis or fence you should plant nasturtiums along it—the tall or climbing varieties of course. Nothing will give you so great a crop of beauty for so little pains. Get mixed seed from a good dealer. If you are very fond of nasturtiums and can’t think of anything else to plant you can put in some of the dwarfs, but they do not compare with the taller ones for beauty or range or color.
Sweet alyssum and candytuft are low-growing white-flowered plants which are good for the front of the border. They do not need to be started inside.
The English daisy is not an annual and is best treated as a biennial. It is not quite hardy here, though self sown plants usually survive the winter. You will get the best results by sowing the seed in midsummer and wintering in a cold frame, and transplanting in the spring. In this way the plants will be well budded when set and there will be a constant succession of blooms all summer long if you give them enough water. The plants are low and can be set in the front of the border close to the grass.
Another perennial best treated as a biennial is the foxglove. This has a tall growing spike along which are ranged several rows of bell shaped flowers, white and purple usually with spotted throats. Three winters out of five they come through, and the other two you lose them unless you winter them in a cold frame and transplant early. Seed sown in a cold frame in May will produceplants which will send up fine stalks the following summer. They grow from three to five feet in height and should be set well back in the border with the larkspurs. The plants need about fifteen inches square.
The canterbury bells are biennials but do not winter any better than the foxgloves and should be grown in the same way. Ail plants wintered in the cold frame should have room enough so that they will not be crowded ami should be transplanted to their permanent positions early. Pansies can be grown in the same way.
If you have a spot where the sun seems to fairly cook things you can make it a beauty spot by sowing portulaccas, either the single or the double kinds. Sow as soon as the ground is warm, covering the seed very lightly. California poppies can also be grown in exposed spots, and Shirley poppies anywhere. These will sow themselves year after year and for a month or more each year will furnish a riot of delicate colors. Another plant which will sow itself year after year is the calliopsis, generally called coreopsis, with single bright golden and brown blossoms, and delicate finely cut foliage.
Of marigolds there are a great variety, if we include the calendula. They are all yellow, ranging from pale lemon to deep golden brown. Calendulas grow about 2 feet in height and require about a foot square each. African marigolds are rather too coarse for a small garden. They are 3 to 4 feet tall and rather sprawling. The French marigolds are only about a foot high, but are constantly covered with bright yellow and golden brown blossoms from August first to frost. If they are started in the house you will get blossoms somewhat earlier than if sown in the open.
Annual pinks are very interesting and of easy culture although rather difficult to start. They’ grow only a foot or so in height and are of all sorts of combinations of pink and white with deeply cut and fringed petals. Start in the house in cold frame or in the open.
The annual phlox comes in a great variety of shades of red, pink, purple, lilac and yellow, all combined with white. It grows about two feet in height and may be grown singly but is most effective in masses.
If you want a vivid mass of scarlet from the first of September till frost you can get it from salvia or scarlet sage. Sow the seeds early’ in the cold frame or in the house and transplant as early as danger from frost is past. Give plenty of room, cultivate freely and fertilize heavily.
Snapdragons must not be omitted. They come in all shades from a red that is so deep that it looks black to the palest pinks and yellows nearly all with white shadings. The tall varieties are the most pleasing. They grow up to two feet in height and if the first flower stalks are pinched back will form bushy plants a foot or more in diameter. Sow early in house or cold frame.
A flower not very well known, but one which desires to be, is the salpiglossis or painted tongue. It grows about two feet in height, has trumpet shaped blossoms with rather irregularly rounded lobes. The texture is velvet-like with various combinations of crimson, rose, purple and scarlet generously combined with gold. The seed should be sown early in the house or cold frame and transplanted.
Petunias come in all shades of purple and reddish pink, often wonderfully doubled and twisted. They are creeping rather than erect and are fine for window and porch boxes. The seed is rather difficult to start and should be covered very lightly. Start early in the house and transplant only when danger of frost is past. If you want double plants save the puniest seedlings.
Zinnias are now to be had in all colors except blues, and of all sorts of shapes. They are of easiest culture and may be started in the house or in a seed bed out of doors. They are stiff, but the range of color, and lasting quality of the flowers have made them very popular. They grow up to two feet in height with a spread of about the same.
You can best grow seeds in the house by taking a shallow box two and a half to three inches deep and not much more than a foot wide. Fill this to the top with a finely sifted mixture of one part or less of garden soil, one part of sand and one part or more of leaf mould. Press this down with a board so that the top is about half an inch below the edge of the box. Make shallow trenches about twice as deep as the diameter of the seed to be planted. Sow the seed in the trenches covering the seed not more than their diameter. The trenches for most things need be not more than an inch apart. Make a record of what is in each row. Cover the earth with a piece of sheeting as big as the inside of the box. Set the box level and then very gently pour water upon the cloth until the earth is thoroughly saturated. Cover the box with a piece of glass, put in a sunny window, on top of a radiator if you can. Keep the cloth moist. As soon as the sprouts raise the cloth, tear out a strip so that the little plants will get the light. Don’t keep the cover glass on after the plants are well up. Transplant to other boxes, pots or the cold frame as soon as there is a leaf or two.
What more my neighbor may have told me I don’t recall but I remember that he told me that he hadn’t mentioned one-half the things that he could, and that he purposely left out some things of great beauty which the amateur will surely try, and in which he may succeed once or twice by sheer luck, but in which he is much more likely to fail.
In parting he said that if I didn’t see the proof and keep him from being thought a candidate for Mendota, he would advise me to plant cardueus onopordon, whatever that may be.
Planting That Nursery Stock
J. G. Moore and F. A. Aust
Extension Service of the College of Agriculture Th? University of Wisconsin
Nursery stock which is worth buying is worth proper planting and care. Even if the nurseryman has guaranteed to replace stock which does not grow the first year, it. is to the advantage of every planter to care properly for the plants. Even if the plants are replaced, the grower is out the time spent in planting and the greater loss—one year’s growth and development in the plant.
The first rule looking towards success is, ‘1 Get the plants as soon as possible after they arrive at your station.” This does not mean waiting until it is convenient to get them. Thousands of plants are lost annually by allowing them to remain longer than necessary in the express or freight office. Even though the nurseryman has agreed to deliver the stock, it is usually advisable for the purchaser to get his own order, as theer is often considerable injury to the plants due to delay or to the methods used in making the delivery.
Care for Plants Carefully
Another source of loss is in not caring properly for the plants between the time they are received and the time of planting. It is of no advantage to get the plants promptly from the station if they are brought home and dumped in some out-of-the-way place until planting time. The roots may dry out or heat. Either is seriously injurious and makes success with the stock doubtful. It is desirable to open the package at once and determine the condition of the plants. With small plants, which are tied in bunches, such as strawberries or other herbaceous perennials, the centers of the bunches should be examined.
What is done with the plants will depend upon their condition and the length of time before planting. If heavily rooted plants whose roots are in good condition are to be set within a day or two, they may be left in the package, care being taken that the packing material be kept moist. If the planting is to be delayed several • lays, or if the number is so large that planting will require considerable time, then they should be removed from the package and “heeled-in. ” If the roots are very dry it is desirable to soak them in water for 15 or 20 minutes or more before heeling-in.
Heeling-in is temorary planting. If possible select a place protected from sun and wind.
Dig a trench about 12 to 18 inches deep, depending on the size of the root system, one side slanting at an angle of from 30 to 45 degrees. Place the roots in this trench and cover with earth, packing the dirt so that all parts of the roots are in contact with the soil, but not so tight as to break the roots. Where large numbers of several varieties are to be heeled-in, it is a good plan to put each variety in a separate trench.
Before heeling-in herbaceous perennials such as strawberries the packages should be opened so that the plants can be spread out and their roots brought in contact with the soil. The trench may be shallower than for the woody plants.
Preparing the Plants for Planting
Different classes of plants demand somewhat different treatment at planting. With herbaceous plants, such as strawberries, phlox, and larkspur, the questions are those of root and top pruning. The amount of root pruning of such plants depends largely upon the size of the root systems. If the plant has a good root system from one-third to one-half of it may be cut off without injury. Large amounts of foliage are of no advantage to the newly set plant because they are really a drain upon it until the root system has become somewhat established and has begun to send out new roots. All badly injured and dried up leaves should be removed and if more leaves remain than the roots can properly sustain, further reduction should be made. The reduction will need to be heavier if the soil and atmosphere are relatively dry than if they are moist.
The objects in pruning the roots of trees to be planted are to insure smooth wounds which heal more readily. Roots which have been badly injured in digging or shipment should be removed. A long root remaining on the tree may be cut back to correspond more closely in length to the other roots. Only in such eases should there be any more reduction of the roots than that necessary to secure the above objects. Top pruning of fruit trees, should preferably be left until the trees have been planted, as more time can be taken to size them up and determine which branches are the most desirable to leave for foundation branches. It is easier to determine this after the tree has been set.
How to Plant
The size of the hole should be large enough to admit the root system without crowding. Where the soil is heavy and compact increasing the size of the hole beyond that actually needed will give the root system a better chance to develop. The general rule is to set trees 3 or 4 inches deeper than they stood in the nursery. Shrubs may be planted slightly deeper than in the nursery. Herbaceous perennials should be set deep enough to cover all the roots but not so deep as to cover the crowns. Some herbaceous perennials which produce growth from buds arising below the surface of the soil, as in the case of poenv, funkia, and bleeding-heart may be planted deeper.
The chief essential in planting any plant is to have every part of the root system in contact with the soil. This requires fine soil and care in compacting it around the roots. Haste in filling in the soil certainly makes waste in planting.
Many newly planted herbaceous plants die from being “hung.” “Hanging” is the packing of the soil around the crown of the plant while the roots are suspended in the opening made for the plant. It occurs when the soil has not been properly crowded in against the roots. Be sure to have good contact between the roots and the soil.
Water Usually Not Necessary at Planting
The application of water in setting plants is usually unnecessary except when the soil is very dry. As commonly used it does more injury than good. Watering herbaceous plants set in very bright weather will lessen the necessity for reducing the tops as much as would otherwise be necessary. Two common errors in using water in planting are applying it to the surface of the soil after the planting has been finished and in using it in too small amounts. If water Is to be used it should be applied in sufficient quantities to thoroughly moisten the soil for some distance around the roots. It should either be poured into the hole before putting in the plant or added when the hole is partly filled so that the upper layer of soil used in filling the hole will not become compact and permit large moisture losses later. Usually the soil moisture condition in Wisconsin in the spring is such that the use of water in planting will be unnecessary.
Mulch to Save Moisture
During the hot, dry days of summer there is need of preventing the soil surrounding the roots of newly set plants from drying out. In the wood lot, shelter belt, commercial orchard, and small fruit plantation this is done by cultivation. Where it is practical to do this probably no better protection can be given. In ornamental plantings when it is impossible to employ this method the litter mulch is practically indispensible. Lawn clippings, grass, marsh hay, manure, or other material which will make a loose cover may be used. Manure is not as desirable for trees as other materials, but it can be used if they are not readily obtainable. With the herbaceous perennials, frequent shallow hoeing will usually be found most effective.
How to Top Prune Newly Set Fruit Trees
In pruning a one-year whip all that is necessary is to cut off the top sufficiently high to bring the head at the proper height, after allowing 12 to 15 inches for distribution of the branches. If the tree be branched, the number of branches left and their position depend on the character of the top desired. In Wisconsin the inodified-leader type is preferred. This means that in pruning, the central leader or the branch making the upright growth from the center should be cut back leaving it long enough to give rise to about two well-spaced branches the following season.
To many main branches are usually left. For the apple, four to five branches are sufficient. In pruning the cherry and plum, some growers prefer one or two more foundation branches which are cut back more severely than when a lesser number is left. If too many branches are left at the start, the top becomes too thick, necessitating the removal of one or more branches later on, which is undesirable.
Avoid V-shaped crotches, and have the 'branches distributed along the trunk rather than coming out very close together. Cut back somewhat the branches left in order that the new branches may be forced out nearer the head of the tree. The foundation branches of apples are usually left from 10 to 18 inches long, the upper branch being the longest.
Some growers prune cherries and plums very similar to apples, while others prefer to cut the branches practically to spurs, about 6 to 8 inches long, leaving the upper branch about 12 to 15 inches long.
R. E. Vaughan and J. C. Walker. Extension Service of the College of Agriculture The University of Wisconsin
The onion is an important truck crop in Wisconsin. It is a ready cash crop and is adapted to intensive cultivation. The acreage varies from 1,000 to 2,000 acres in different years, with yields around 500,000 bushels.
Onion smut is causing serious loss in some fields, taking over 50 per cent of the crop. Unless checked by preventive treatment it will drive many growers to seek other less profitable crops.
Onion smut is caused by a fungus, a microscopic plant, which lives in the soil. During the winter the fungus rests in the shape of rough black spore balls. These are so small that a microscope must be used to see them. When spring opens the spores germinate, just like seeds, and send out fungus threads which bear a quantity of secondary
Smut on Onion Sectiling
The young onion plant when it starts from the seed is very small and tender and cannot keep the fungus threads that come from the secondary spores from entering and growing in the leaves. After penetrating the young onion plant the fungus grows very rapidly and often kills the seedlings. The first symptom of the disease is the appearance of dark spots in the leaves. Then the plants wilt, the dark spots fContinued on page
Bees are a safeguard to horticulture. Of all insects which pollinate flowers the honey bee is tlie most important because its business is to visit flowers and it is always “on the job.”
We know that bees visit flowers for two main purposes, to gather nectar and to gather pollen yet, how many of us have ever thought of the relationship between the flower which furnishes these substances and the bee which so eagerly seeks and gathers them. When Nature’s secrets are learned we find that this relationship is most complex. The character of every part of a flower is so designed that the visiting bee may surely and quickly effect fertilization, to the end that the fruit or seed may develop. Flowers have three characteristics supposed to exist for the attraction of bees; showiness, fragrance and the possession of nectar. Many flowers have all of these characters and very rarely is one found having none of them. Some very showy flowers lune little fragrance and vice versa. Many flowers with little or no nectar are rich in pollen, while flowers which secrete nectar in abundance as a rule have little pollen. Although pollen exists primarily for the fertilization ot the flower, bees use it readily for food. It is certain that bees are able to detect the odor of flowers from quite a distance and they are attracted by showy colors. Memory also is an important factor in taking them direct from hive to flower and back again.
The nectar gathered by bees is a small part, of their worth to the farmer and fruit grower of Wisconsin. Their great value lies in the fact that they continually distribute pollen and thus effect cross-pollination. Moreover they continue to visit flowers of the same kind until all the nectar has been gathered, passing by other species in their path. This is an advantage to the flowers and therefore to the farmer because it means rapid cross-fertilization with little waste of pollen; and an equal advantage to the bee and the beekeeper for it makes possible the rapid gathering of nectar all of one quality.
In studying Nature we learn that many species of plants, although having in each flower both male and female elements, i. e. stamens and pistils, are unable to fertilize themselves and must await the visit of some bee or other insect. The reason for this apparent defect is to make cross-fertilization more certain. Flowers have many intricate ways of preventing pollination with their own pollen. In many plants, buckwheat, rye and some legumes for instance, each flower must be fertilized by pollen from another flower and with nearly all plants pollen from one plant produces better fertilization on other blossoms of the same kind than it does in its own blossom. Certain types of plants notably the legumes are almost entirely dependent upon bees alone for the pollenization of their flowers. We find certain others, among them the clovers, growing naturally only where bees are found. It has been found that in growing clover for seed, the production of seed per acre decreases as the distance from an apiary increases.
The value of the bee, or better the absolute necessity of the bee in pollinating fruit blossoms, was clearly brought out by an experiment at the California Experiment Station. An attempt was made to discover why prune trees in certain localities bore heavily while trees in other localities bore no prunes or at best a very light crop. Two French prune trees were enclosed in two large insect proof tents of mosquito netting before the 'blossoms opened. A hive of bees was placed in one tent during the blossoming period. All insects were excluded from the other tent during the same period. When the petals had fallen the tents were removed. Bees worked readily in the tent in which they were confined. Counts were made of blossoms in the two tents and in the rest of the orchard. The fruit maturing from every thousand blossoms counted was as follows:
Average orchard set, 35 prunes.
Tree confined with bees, 180 Tree confined without bees, 10 prunes.
The results of this experiment aroused great interest among the California fruit growers.
In Oregon bees have been fount! to be a vital necessity in certain sections where cherry growing is the principal horticultural industry. A serious problem presented itself in securing a proper set of fruit. Although few growers complained that the trees did not bloom heavily enough, it frequently happened that not enough cherries matured to make a profitable crop.
After conducting experiments over a period of years it was brought out that the importance of bees as agents in cross-pollination cannot be over-emphasized. Cross-pollination is essential in nearly all varieties of cherries and it will not be effected, no matter how heavy the blooming, unless bees are present in numbers to carry pollen from tree to tree.
There is little doubt but that many cherry orchards at present bearing light crops could be made to bear much heavier ones regularly if bees were kept in the orchard.
Thus the absolute dependence of many plants upon insects for pollination is shown. To what extent failure of certain crops to mature in “off’’ years may be due to lack of sufficient bees or to unfavorable weather for nectar gathering during the short blooming period, can only be surmised. It is well known however that some such failures have been overcome when bees were introduced.
Aside from certain wild plants and trees not important from a standpoint of the fertilization of their blossoms by bees, some of the principal trees and flowers depending largely or entirely upon bees for pollinating their flowers are: apple, cherry, peach, plum, pear, raspberry, currant, gooseberry, grape, clover (white, sweet, alsike, crimson), alfalfa, buckwheat, vetch, cow pea, rape, encumber squash and melon. Some of the above plants are visited mainly for their pollen.
G. D. H.
Is cultivation necessary in a bearing orchard?
If this question means is tillage necessary for fruit production then the answer would certainly be no. If the question involved is the advisability of tillage in a hearing orchard then the answer is not so readily reached.
There are three more or less distinct systems which may be used with propriety in managing the soil of a bearing orchard: sod mulch, definite mulch and tillagecover-crop. The sod-mulch system is having the orchard in sod, cutting the grass occasionally and leaving it in the orchard. The definite mulch differs only in that the cut grass is piled under the trees as far out as the spread of the branches and enough additional material from other sources added to effectively prevent plant growth under the trees. In the tillage-cover-crop system the orchard is tilled during the early part of the season and between June 15 and Aug. 1 a crop which makes a rapid growth, called a cover crop is sown to remain on the orchard usually until tillage begins the following spring.
Experience shows that no system is best under all conditions. The chief effects of the various systems in comparison with each other may be summed up as follows.
The sod mulch hastens fruit production, and increases the amount of fruit the first few years but if continued will reduce the yields and retard the development of the tree. It is the least favorable system as regards its general effects upon the plants and fruits. Although it does produce higher colored fruit this advantage is usually offset by loss in size and quantity. The sod mulch favors both insects and diseases except fire blight and makes the production of good fruit very difficult. Its chief advantage can probably be said to be its adaptabiilty to steep or very stony sites where tillage is not feasible.
The “definite’’ mulch favors maximum development of the plant and ranks second in earliness of production and quantity of fruit produced during the early bearing period of the trees. This comes about through the fact that it is the best conserver of soil moisture causing relatively late growth of the tree. This one fact makes the advisability of using the definite mulch in Wisconsin very doubtful. It has the same disadvantages as the sod mulch in regards to insects and diseases.
The tillage-cover-crop is ordinarily considered the best system everything considered for the average Wisconsin orchard. The only points in which it does not equal or surpass the other systems is in earliness of production, high color of fruit and its relation to fire blight when compared to the sod mulch. The greater production, more ready control of pests, and general effects upon the plants seem to warrant its use whenever the character of the site will permit.
J. G. Moore, College of Agriculture.
“At the office of A. Grossen-bach & Co., commission merchants, it was said that no Wisconsin apples were handled and nothing was known regarding the crop in this state. “It does not pay to handle fruit from these ‘barnyard orchards’ as we call them,” was said. “The trees are not cared for and the apples are wormy and poor in quality. The farmers want us to go out after this fruit, pick it and do all the work and the stuff is not worth it. No commission house in Milwaukee handles such apples. They are peddled out by the farmers themselves or by hucksters.”—The Sentinel.
Attention has been called to the Rural Planning Law in former issues of Wisconsin Horticulture. This most excellent law. enacted by the legislature of 1918 -19 provides no appropriation for its administration. While this is unfortunate in a way it is fortunate in another way; many men and women in Wisconsin will now give of their time and efforts to further the plan of conserving our natural beauties and such services are invaluable. The talk at our January convention by Prof. F. A. Aust outlines some of the things that we all can do.
If we attempt to confute the benefits that may accrue to Wisconsin on account of this act, using the smallest and meanest measure that can be employed, the dollar and cents rule, we can readily see how it can be made to pay; in attracting tourists; in adding to the value of farms in the older communities; in attracting settlers to the newer sections and in many other ways. However, we do not live by bread alone. There are better things in life than money and among these is an appreciation of nature's choice gifts and a capacity to enjoy them.
By dedicating a waterfall, a “view from a tilltop,” a woodland where wild flowers may grow undisturbed, the borders of a lake, rural parks and playgrounds, not alone to the present generation but to posterity, we will add more to the real wealth, the satisfaction, the happiness of the people of our state than by any other means.
The Rural Planning Law aims to accomplish this and should, therefore, have the wholehearted support of every citizen of our state.
In the administration of the law I am convinced that it should always be kept in mind that the law is for all of the state and not for any particular part of it.
Here is the Dollar for 2 more years’ subscription. It is worth $10.00 and I never could see how you could furnish a monthly like our Wis. Horticulture for 50c a year, including book.
I have a farm of 80 acres in Lincoln county and have reserved 5 acres of this for orchard, small fruit and garden. Have about 70 young trees (apples, plums, cherries and even a few pears—Flam-ish Beauty). Some of the appi-and cherry trees are 5 years ol. and they look fine. Years ag you wrote me that we could no: raise cherries in Lincoln Co. I>u: you should see them and be astonished. I have the early ami late Richmond, Montmorency aid Wragg, all are doing .fine especially the Wragg. The trunk i> about 3 in. in diameter.
Of apples I raise the commo, sorts like Duchess, McIntosh. Wealthy, Dudley and some better kinds like Stayman Winesap. Delicious, Yahnke, Scott Winter, etc.
Of Plums: Prof. Hansen ’> Hardy Plums, like Sapa, Waneta. Hanska and the common American sorts, also 1 Prune (4 yr. old . Lost during the last 5 years 4 apple trees, 2 plums (1 Prune and 1 Am. Plum) and 2 cherries 1 Richmond and 1 Montmorency . This is not so bad, is it ?
My orchard is protected on tin-west and north by heavy woods— south slope. This perhaps is tin reason of my success.
S. J. G.
This excellent work by Prof. Beach in two cloth bound vol unies is published by the New York State Department of Agriculture and offered for sale. a< long as the present edition lasts, at the absurdly low price of $2.25 for both volumes postage paid.
This is the best guide to th’e identification of varieties known to the writer. The title is somewhat misleading as these two volumes contain complete descriptions of hundreds if not thousands of varieties and include practically every apple grown in
the United States. Every apple grower whether amateur or professional should have these books. Send $2.25 to the Commissioner of Agriculture, Albany, N. Y.
Grafting Plum Trees
I have a half acre of seedling plums and wish to graft in some kind of a good market plum so as to make it a profitable bearing orchard but most of the plums recommended for northern Wisconsin are not satisfactory market plums. Can you recommend a good market variety for me to graft in to my seedlings.
H. R., Chippewa Co.
Small seedling plum trees not over an inch in diameter at the base may be successfully grafted by using a saddle or whip graft. Cut off one or two inches from the ground and use one eion wrapping .firmly with strips of cloth which have been dipped in melted grafting wax. As to varieties suitable, such kinds as De Soto, Hawkeye, Forest Garden and Surprise should prove both hardy and profitable in Chippewa county.
Influence of Stock on Graft
Will a tender variety stand our winters any better on account of being grafted on limbs of a native seedling? II. R.
A much discussed question and most anybody is liable to invite trouble by giving a positive answer. Practical horticulturists in Minnesota claim increased hardiness for tender varieties when “top-worked” on Hibernal.
Wood Ashes For Apple Trees
A Waukesha county member asks if wood ashes may be used to advantage as a fertilizer in orchards.
Wood ashes contain much potash varying, according to the wood, from 15 to 40 per cent. Ashes will therefore prove a valuable fertilizer either for young growing trees or older bearing orchards. A very light application will be sufficient.
Some Garden Questions
I am going to again send you a series of questions and assure you that I greatly prize my membership in the society for the good I am receiving in this way.
In the matter of hot beds, how deep do you recommend the manure in Waukesha County? When the manure has spent itself and the period of usefulness of the hotbed has passed, can this used manure still be utilized as fertilizer for truck garden purposes? Is it possible to follow an early crop of sweet corn with a planting of dry bush beans and still have them mature? In the ease of limited acreage where intensive cultivation is practiced would you say that a good quality of pie pumpkin and squash can be grown successfully if sown between rows of field corn at the time of last cultivation? Can watermelons of a good quality be grown in Waukesha County with any measure of success? I have read that it is not advisable to plant sweet corn near popcorn. Does this same advice hold true in connection with the planting of field corn near sweet or popcorn, and if so why, if any other reason besides the improper crossing resulting in the seeds in each variety ?
S. F. II., Waukesha Co.
In general terms the life of a hotbed is in proportion to the depth of manure, the deeper the longer it will last. The depth of manure varies from 1 to 2'/2 feet.
The spent manure from hotbeds has lost none, or but little, of its value as a fertilizer if it was properly handled but the gardening season will be so far advanced by the time the hotbed crops have matured that there will be little opportunity to use it except for late plowed land or for mulching.
Many market gardeners use the spent hotbeds for growing melons, celery or head lettuce. Wisconsin’s growing season is not long enough to mature a crop of navy beans planted after sweet corn. Plant snap beans, beets, rutabaga or yellow globeturnips or celery.
Pumpkins may be grown successfully in rows of field corn but must be planted earlier than the usual date of last cultivation of the corn. If planted in the hills soon after the corn is up there will be but little interference in cultivation. Squash will not succeed as well requiring more sunlight. The quality of sweet corn will not be seriously affected, if at all, by planting alongside field corn. Neither will the resultant seed be affected unless the blossoming periods of the two coincide which rarely happens in the case of early maturing sweet corn and field corn.
HAVE YOU SIGNED UP IX)R SPACE ON THE CAMP GROUND FOR THE SECOND ANNUAL BEEKEEPERS’ SCHOOL AND CHAUTAUQUA MADISON, WISCONSIN, AUGUST 15-21, 1920?
The New Constitution and Directory
A copy of the revised constitution and directory has been mailed to every member of the State Association. If you have not received your copy, write to the Secretary.
CONCERNING THE STATE FAIR
T^ast month, copies of the 1920 State Fair Premium List, for the Bee & Honey Department, with circular letters, were mailed to all the members “OVER 600,” of the Wisconsin State Beekeepers Association.
In addition, personal letters were written to all of the officers, and directors of all of the County Local Beekeepers Associations, and to all of the individual exhibitors, who exhibited last year and in the past.
In addition to this, all of the letters received have been answered, and follow-up letters written to those not having responded', in all over 125 personal letters have been written.
The result so far is most promising. We are reasonably assured at this time of about 19 large exhibits—10 the old familiar exhibits, as some let-county Association, 7 individual and 2 Commercial, and the corresponding individual entries, numbers 5 to 29.
We are in receipt of a number of letters from beekeepers, advising us of their intention of making entries for numbers 5 to 29.
As it is advisable to have the names of all beekeepers who intend to make these entries, they are urgently requested to write the Superintendent at once, and they will then hear from him al the proper time, with entry blanks, and everything will be arranged' in proper shape, to the satisfaction of both the beekeeper and the superintendent.
We are confidently looking for not less than 25 large exhibits. Some of them will be a radical change from ters w’ould indicate at this time, and the Superintendent has been obliged to add number 43 to the premium list, providing for an INDIVIDUAL GENERAL EXHIBIT, with $25.00, $20.00 and $15.00 as premiums, which makes the total of awards now offered by the State Fair, $1,144.00, for this department.
The superintendent wants it understood, that these articles in HORTICULTURE are especially intended for the general beekeepers, and not for the large exhibitor, with whom he keeps in touch by personal correspondence.
This does not mean, that correspondence with you is not solicited, on the contrary, it is urgently requested, just give the superintendent a chance to get in personal touch with you. If you are interested in the entries from 5 to 29 do not fail to write at once, to GUS DITTMER, AUGUSTA, WIS.
Where beekeeping is of secondary importance to the owner with a small home apiary, the bees should be well cared for—out apiaries should be left to the commercial beekeeper, who can devote more time, money and a system suitable to his conditions. The latter can afford to branch out with several apiaries. He must know what and where to find good pasture—sheltered locations for each apiary, good roads easily reached by auto truck, and where the land owner will grant a rental permit for term of years-The beekeeper with a system of management to suit his conditions can thus make out apiaries profitable. After some years of comparing returns from comb and extracted taken from my out apiaries. I found extracted honey far more satisfactory. All hives and supers are of one size (10 L. frame). I select a location where the bees do not bother the owner of the farm, get a rental contract for term of years and then erect a good building as bee house over an ideal bee cellar.
In this bee house are all necessary supers, queen excluders, bee escape boards, honey extractor, storage room and' supplies. Some beekeepers prefer to haul home all extracting combs and after extracted to haul them back. This system has some good features; less capital is invested and the equipment is centralized. Not long ago I inspected a series of apiaries of five hundred colonies kept on this plan. I^ast spring disease broke out in one apiary, and by fall was more or less distributed to all, because all combs from the out apiaries were run through one extractor and
hundreds of supers of combs were more Or less interchanged.
For extracted honey production, often a few miles may separate a good location from a failure, and it becomes a part of the owners’ duty to select such places or possibly some years move entire apiary for some special honey crop.
Wintering: There are several ways to winter bees safely in Wisconsin. Outside—with abundance of good stores, early outside protection, young queens and bees. In cellar—with uniform temperature and other conditions as above.
In putting the bees away for winter I select a time after Nov. 15th and before I>ec. 5th when on a warm day the bees have had a good flight and place the bees in the cellar on the afternoon of the same day. The hives are piled in separate tiers facing the dark part of cellar and the entrances left wide open. I always use a red light when in the cellar with the bees. With a frame bee house over this winter cellar, I place a layer of forest leaves 2 feet deep over the entire floor while the bees are in winter quarters. I also use the deep reversible bottom board' in winter and narrow side in summer. The bees in the cellar remain most of the time in a compact cluster unaer the frames and consume but little stores.
Spring: In the spring with still an abundance of good winter stores, and a young queen of last fall, there is abundance of hatching bees in every hive when taken from cellar and with plenty of outside protection to each hive, little more is needed until dan delion bloom, when another 10 frame super of all worker combs is given for expansion of the brood.
When clover bloom begins to yield nectar, a hive body of combs and foundation w’ith one or two combs of \ery young brood and the queen are placed in the lower hive. The two supers of brood and honey are placed above a wood and' wire excluder. In
5 or 9 days all queen cells above the excluder are removed (either used or destroyed) and an abundance of room provided. When this is done there will be no swarming all summer up to the close of the honey flow. The several supers above the excluder are full of sealed honey and nice lot of hatching brood in lower super at the end of the nectar flow. A few choice untested queens from reliable breeders are bought each year, some of which may prove to be good stock as queen breeders.
Three pound packages of bees put on drawn combs at beginning of honey flow pay well. In each apiary I use a steam heated uncapping knive.
6 frame extractor, an automatic honey strainer, and a few storage tanks w’ith faucets in each, so that all honey extracted in one day is at evening in 5 gallon cans ready for the consumer. A few moments ride in an auto truck brings me home for supper. Then the same work next day for another out apiary.
N. E. France, Platteville, Wisconsin.
(Continued from March)
Kidd’ng the yard of the moth is no indication that the honey house or storeroom is free from them. If the worms are found in the yard, they are almost sure to be found among stored frames. Some beekeepers pile empty extracting frames over strong colonies and allow the bees to guard them from the wax moths until cold weather comes. There is then no danger since cold weather wi'l kill the insect in its various stages. However, this is a bad practice. When we follow this plan, we are giving these l>ees much extra labor as it requires much more heat and activity on the part of the bees to care for the extra combs and space and energy is being used which should be conserved for the next spring. Colonies that ane forced to be active during the fall and winter cannot be strong colonies in the spring.
After extracting, frames should be carefully put aw’ay in empty hive bod-*es and placed in the honey house. It is a’most impossible to construct a room or building tight enough to keep out the moth and even if we did, the chances are that we would carry in a few unnoticed larvae with our empty frames or hive bodies. A week or so after storing, the combs should be ex-anfned for the presence of wax worms. All infested hive bodies should then be removed a considerable distance from the honey house and carefully tiered in columns of eight. The bottom hive body should fit tightly to the ground or upon some flat surface. An empty super is then placed on top. We are now ready to fumigate. For every 10 frame hive bodies a little less than a half a cup of carbon bisulphide is poured in a dish and placed on top of the frames. A tight cover is then clamped over the empty super. A heavy gas is formed as the carbon bisulphide evaporates and the gas settles toward the bottom of the pile suffocating all larvae and moths. If treated in the eve-n’ng, they should remain undisturbed until morning.
CAUTION: Carbon bisulphide Is highly inflammable and when proper-’y mixed with air is easily ignited. Great care should be taken to keep all fire away from it, such as cigarettes. stoves, etc. For this reason, the hive bodies containing combs should not be treated in a building In which there is a fire of any sort. If there are no fires or live stock in the building, the frames can be fumigated without moving them. Carbon bisulphide gives off a most disagreeable odor and is not pleasant to breathe. A person should work quickly and not breathe more of the gas than necessary. It is easily procurable from any drug store and sells at present for about 60c a pound. A pound will fumigate from 50 to 64 ten frame hive bodies full of combs. The carbon bisulphide gas will not destroy the eggs of the moth so it will be necessary to inspect the fumigated frames a week or two after the treatment. If larvae are then present, a second fumigation should entirely eradicate the moth. Drained cappings and refuse wax should be placed in a barrel or some other sort of receptacle and thoroughly tramped down. When pressed together, the moths will not tunnel into the wax. The top inch may be attackeed but since the worms do not work in cakes of wax, little damage will be done.
James I. Hambleton.
Two and one-half million boys and girls were enrolled in the school garden army in 1919. It s slogan, “A garden for every child —Every child a garden” is a good one and would mean much tn the country if carried out.
Many deciduous trees and shrubs have a beauty in winter nearly as effective as in summer.
Their graceful outline, bright bark, or changing buds all help to make the winter landscape attractive.
Early cabbage and cauliflower may be sown late in February in. the house for transplanting later.
Hot beds and cold frames give a chance to start vegetables earlier and gain on the weather and insects.
House plants need fresh air as much as people. It should not be given them in draughts. Tender plants show the effects of lack of care very quickly.
Apiary Inspection Plans
By S. B. Fracker, State Department of Agriculture.
One of the results of the rapid development of the bee industry the last three years has been a strong realization everywhere of the danger from bee diseases. The situation is serious in twenty or thirty counties and honey producers are alarmed in many others. As a consequence the demand for area cleanup campaigns is most flattering to the inspection service but the calls for help are more numerous than we can answer.
Such campaigns have been nearly completed' in Manitowoc, Shawano, and Langlade counties, and are under way in Calumet, Winnebago, Milwaukee, Jefferson, Dane, and Richland. Small parts of Grant, Chippewa. Waupaca, Dodge, and Waukesha have also been inspected in connection with adjoining counties and the work must be continued in these small areas also. In speaking of a completed campaign, permanent eradication of American foul brood is not meant; but the disease appears to have been wiped out for the present and local inspectors can take care of new developments.
The outlook is favorable for reduction of American foul brood in Calumet, Jefferson, and part of Dane counties to a negligible factor during the coming season, Milwaukee will give more trouble on account of the continual receipt of shipments of infected honey and there may always remain a certain amount of disease. Winnebago and Richland counties, and' other smaller areas will also take a little more time but the beekeep-el's may anticipate a rapid improvement with comparative safety after about two more years.
In 1919 complete and effective treatment was undertaken throughout all the principal areas except in Winnebago county which it was not possible to reach in time. Rechecking must be done in every case this season. Owner’s treatment is usually about 80 per cent successful and 20 per cent of the colonies may be expected to show reinfection, necessitating treatment again. In some cases where the owners were careless the disease will probably reappear extensively so the work will have to be repeated throut the apiary.
The heaviest demand for new campaigns comes from Outagamie, Brown. Fond du Lac, Sheboygan. Wood. Waukesha, Green, Barron, and Vernon counties with less pressing requests from Pierce. Juneau, and Dodge. Not more than one or two of these counties can be undertaken this season in addition to completing the work now under way.
Win n a situation becomes particularly dangerous outside of the cleanup areas, special inspectors are often srut. This is helpful when foul brood is newly introduced into a locality or when one or two badly infested yards are endangering many others in the neighborhood. The new county inspectors will also be able to help under such conditions.
The bee disease control work consists of several branches. An outline of these activities may interest readers of WISCONSIN HORTICULTURE, as few realize the amount of organization the work necessitates.
I. Field1 control of bee diseases.
A. Area cleanup campaigns.
These are undertaken a county at a time; six full time statemen are employed and they cooperate with local inspectors. Inspectors treat or destroy if the owners do not.
B. Special inspections in
other localities. Requests of individual beekeepers for help are granted so far as possible.
II. Preventing distribution of dis
A. Permit or inspection re
quired for all moving of bees. Inspection made by county inspectors after the owner’s application to the Madison office.
B. Permits or inspection re
quired for all bees shipped in from outside the state.
C. Following up reports of
violations sent in by volunteer correspondents. This refers both to the regulations for moving bees and to careless exposure of infected material.
III. Educational measures.
A. Cooperation with the col
lege of agriculture in reaching, every beekeeper thru literature and bee schools with information about American and European foul brood and their control. This is especially important for the European form.
B. Demonstrations of foul
brood treatment. Usually given in area cleanup counties but occasionally arranged in other places on request.
The apiary inspection service is also cooperating with the divisions of crop estimates and of markets in developing marketing facilities for honey. But that is another story, which has been told before and will be before the beekeepers many times in the future.
The state department of agriculture is ready to develop apiary inspection and the bee disease control work as rapidly as funds are mad*- available for that purpose. Possibly some arrangements can be made in the future for charging part of the cost to the county funds. In the meantime we are stretching the state appropriations as far as they will go.
County Bee Inspectors Appointed
Final appointments of county apiary inspectors in about twentycounties are being made this month as a result of the examination in February. In many counties there were three or four applicants, while in others only one took the examination.
The county inspectors are to make inspections at the request of the state inspector at Madison and to report on the movement of bees in their localities. They will act as local representatives of the State Department of Agriculture in this work but are not expected to carry on area cleanup campaigns or to make inspections or treatments without the consent of the owner under ordinary conditions.
A new examination will probably be held in May and any counties which wish to recommend inspectors for appointment should send such recommendations to S. B. Fracker. Acting State Entomologist. State Capitol Madison, before the 15th of April. Suggestions and applications will gladly be received' also from counties in which there is no association but where honey production is sufficiently important to warrant the appointment of an inspector. Those who take these positions are paid by the day for the time actually employed. In most cases it will be only a. few days a year.
GRADING WISCONSIN HONEY
By S. B. Fracker
'.’hairman. State Beekeepers Association, Marketing Committee
Someone recently said to a state official about a suggested project, "It sounds all r:ght but there are no precedents for it’’, and the reply came back quick as a flash, "Wisconsin never has precedents to copy, she makes them.”
The beekeepers are no exception to the rule. At the last meeting of the state association the members present investigated the marketing prob'em and decided that grad’ng honey, securing adequate crop estimates, and using the services of the state division of markets would benefit the industry. It was clear that the distribution of the 4.800.000 pounds produced annually in the state could be improved. Consequently they asked the division to establish grades and the crop reporting service to make the estimates.
To follow up this request a marketing committee was appointed by the beekeepers and they drew up a set of proposed grades which were submitted to the state marketing officials. Hearings were then held on this subject at Appleton, Eau Claire, and Madison the last week of January and many beekeepers either attended the meetings or wrote out their opinions and mailed them to the director of markets.
Grades have now been defined and will go into effect about the middle of August. After that (late every section of comb honey and every can or other container of extracted honey, sold or delivered, must be stamped or labeled with the grade, and color of the honey and a number showing the producer or packeT, or else be marked “Ungraded.”
The grades established will resu’t in improving the quality and fln sh of Wisconsin honey and will put a premium on care in handling it. Too often “honey is honey”, especially on the retail market; the storekeepers buy wherever they can secure honey for the lowest price and sell for a l they can get.
Many beekeepers will sell their product “ungraded” and label it so for the next year or two. But it has been the universal experience that marking a first class product "Fancy” or "No. 1" so extends the market and increases the demand that undoubtedly all commercial producers will regis! with the division of markets and s cure the right to grade their hon within a couple of seasons.
At the business meeting held at the end of the three day bee school which came March 3, 4 and 5, Reedsville, Manitowoc County, the following resolutions were adopted by the Northeast Wisconsin Beekeepers’ Association.
“We the members of the Northeast Wisconsin Beekeepers’ Association agree
1. That we will sell our honey
properly graded under the label of the above named association.
2. That we will not sell whole
sale (except locally) to any other person, firm or corporation.
3. That we will accept the
market price received for our honey at the time we order it sold, provided that there is a market for it at that time.
The association also instructed the Board of Directors to appoint a competent person as grader for the association. The place for grading will be decided upon by the Board of Directors.
The members of the association also ordered 200 pure bred Italian queens. This is one of the most important steps taken in recent years by our local beekeepers and to my mind is the beginning of what will soon be a state-wide selling organization.
Snow nearly all gone. Outdoor bees had a few days warm enough to fly and contrary to expectations have wintered fine with just a few exceptions. It seems that many hives had a few bees filled with feces early in the winter and when those had left the hives the balance of the bees in each colony were 0. K.
Fox River Valley Bee. Ass’n., Edward Hassinger, Jr.
N. A. Rasmussen.
Initial preparation for gardens should begin when the snow is going off and with the coming of the spring rains.
See that all surface water is drained off quickly and the garden will be found in much better condition than though the water had been left to soak in or find its own course. Do not begin working too soon. When soil is in good condition for mudpies it is not fit for garden work, it should be in a loose crumbly condition.
If the garden is to be spaded ordinarily the length of a spading fork tine will be the proper depth. If new or virgin soil, turn only the top layer and about an inch of the subsoil (this can usually be ascertained by the difference in color and the sticky consistency of the subsoil), spading an inch or two deeper each year until from 12 to 15 inches has been turned and become a top soil in itself whence best results can be expected. When spading do not cut more than 2 or 3 inches at the most. Be sure it is fully turned and all lumps broken by a strike of the spade while if left for the rake it often bakes thereby involving much extra labor. Immediately after spading it should be thoroly raked and packed firm but not hard and the top should be kept pulverized until the time of sowing. If ploughed see that it is properly done and not by the cut and cover system as is sometimes used by one who plows gardens by the job. By this I mean plowing an 18 in. furrow with a 12 in. plow leaving about 4 in. covered but not turned. No amount of discing, harrowing, nor hand work can get soil thus plowed into proper condition. In most gardens if plowed in narrow lands or beds with furrows left open for paths and tor carrying off surplus water better results will be obtained; this applies also to spaded gardens as surface water should never be allowed to stand in the garden in pools at any time of the year.
Manure is perhaps the most essential factor of successful gardening if properly applied. Well-rotted manure or vegetable matter can be applied in large quantities either in spring or fall and thoroly mixed with the soil. If the soil is clay or of very fine texture, or of such nature which bakes readily and stable manure can not be obtained to supply humus enough to overcome this condition, sifted coal ashes (not wood ashes) will greatly improve the condition of such soil and can be applied in large quantities say perhaps from 1 to 2 inches deep over the entire surface but must be well mixed with the soil.
Straw manure or coarse litter if applied in the Spring and worked into the soil will be a detriment to the garden but if used as a mulch when dry weather sets in, about the month of July, on such crops as berries, tomatoes, cabbage, cucumbers, beans, sweet corn, etc., it will prove beneficial both as a protection from a drought and as a fertilizer. Commercial fertilizers ami lime both have their place in the garden but the amateur would better consult an experienced gardener before attempting to use them.
Will Nitrate of Soda take the place of barnyard manure in a bearing orchard? (Can it do any damage) part of orchard has been partly under cultivation and manured heavy for last two to five years, rest is in sod. Manure could be used to better advantage on rest of farm. What are the commercial orehardists doing?
Barnyard manure and nitrate of soda both supply the element of plant food called nitrogen, and the manure supplies in addition large quantities of organic matter together with minor amounts of phosphorus and potassium. Orchard trees usually do not respond to applications of phosphorus and potassium but the value of the organic matter in the orchard soil is unquestionable. Manure is, therefore, preferable to nitrate, but where sufficient quantities of manure are not available nitrate of soda, or other commercial forms of nitrogen such as dried blood and ammonium sulphate may be used to good advantage. Commercial or-chardists over the entire country have recently begun to use large quantities of commercial forms of nitrogen in their bearing orchards. Orchards in sod usually respond especially well.
Is Nitrate of Soda good in place of manure in a new orchard?
Experiments with young cultivated orchards have usually failed to show any appreciable benefit from applications of nitrate of soda or other commercial fertilizers This does not apply of course to exceptionally poor soils or soils from which the organic matter has been burned out.
George F. Potter, College of Agriculture.
Lilies must have a rather loose soil. It should be well enriched preferably with well rotted cow manure. If you cannot get it, and you probably cannot get it unless you are a farmer, then you can use shredded sheep manure or some commercial fertilizer. If you use sheep manure it is best to compost it, i. e., mix it with earth or sods and let it ferment and rot, before applying it to bulbs. Whatever fertilizer is used it should not touch, or indeed be placed within an inch of the bulb.
Before planting the bulb loosen the soil to the depth of 18 inches to 2 feet for a distance of a foot or more in all directions, working fertilizer into the soil, and adding sand if the soil is heavy. Plant the bulb so that its base will be from 8 to 10 inches below the surface, except in the case of the smaller growing lilies which should be about 4 inches deep. Put an inch or more of clean sand or sphagnum moss under the bulb and bring it up on the sides so as to keep the earth away from it entirely. As many lilies make roots from the stalk above the bulb as well as from the base of the bulb the soil should be well fertilized above as well as below the bulb.
Bulbs should be planted in the fall whenever possible. Some bulbs ripen and are ready for early planting, but most of them are not ready until cold weather. Prepare your soil early in the fall. Have your dealer send the bulbs to you as soon as he receives them. If they do not come till late, protect the ground by a thick coating of leaves or straw so that it will not freeze, and put the bulbs in when they come. The first year keep the ground covered so that the bulbs will not freeze, or at least so that they will not freeze very hard. After they are established they will stand a much harder freeze. They should always be covered enough to keep them from thawing out and then being frozen again.
When the buds have formed see that they are liberally supplied with water. If the season is a wet one, spraying with Bordeaux will be an excellent prevention of blight, though it will not cure blight after it developes.
Most lilies do not like lime, so when you are liming your garden, skip them.
Like all other garden plants lilies must have food and care and the more the better. They do best where the ground is shaded, but they must have the sun upon their blossoms. They can therefore be planted among lower growing plants which shade the ground. They must have food, and a mulch serves the double purpose of keeping the ground cool and furnishing food. Coarse manure is a good mulch if not too fresh. If put on in the fall it will do no harm.
Start with the hardier and more vigorous varieties, Candi-duni, clegans, Ilenryi, regale, longiflorum and tigrinum, and add others as you acquire experience. If you can succeed with auratum you will know that you are a real gardener. B.
A small amount of liquid manure applied to house ferns once in a while during the winter will keep them growing nicely.
Keep palms and ferns clean by wiping the leaves with a weak solution of whale oil soap. This will keep down the scale.
Home plants must have a good drainage in the pots and as a rule will require more water now than at other times of the year because the air of the house is dryer.
A few flowers given plenty of room in a vase are much more effective than many crowded into a small receptacle. One nice rose is often more attractive than half a dozen crowded together.
(Continued from page 133) break open, and the black mass of smut spores is spilled about on the ground.
Some plants remain alive and give small bulbs. These usually have smut boils in the scales. In badly diseased fields, plants that grow without smut are not held in shape by neighboring plants and so grow big bull necks. These cure out slowly and are more subject to decay.
A drip of formaldehyde solution with the seed at planting kills the smut spores near the seed and allows the plants to start unmolested by the smut fungus.
Onion plants which have started four or five leaves are much more resistant against the fungus than the plants just starting. Formaldehyde evaporates soon after it is applied so that to get best effects it must be put in with the seed. If the seed is poor and the field has to be replanted, a second application of formaldehyde must be made.
Formaldehyde treatment for onion smut is not expensive. A drip attachment may be made from a kerosene can or constructed by a good tin-smith. A lever handle faucet is more satisfactory than a screw faucet for controlling the stream of formaldehyde solution. The initial cost for the attachment should not be over $10 and the cost for treatment about $5 for an acre.
On sick fields, the increase due to treatment (1913 to 1918) averaged 328 bushels an acre. The average amount of smut on the untreated fields was 47 per cent, and on the treated fields 5 per cent.
How to Control Onion Smut
1. Provide seeder with 2-gallon solution can having in the bottom %-inch lever handle faucet with 5/16-inch opening through body and key, extended handle to be operated as the seed control, %-inch drip pipe that will deliver solution on the seed before it is covered; tight fitting, or preferably screw top, cover to prevent slopping of solution.
2. Dilute the strong 40 per cent formaldehyde 1 ounce to 1 gallon of water (1 pint to 16 gallons gives the same dilution). Have this dilute solution in a barrel so it will be handy to fill the can.
3. Set lever and run seeder so that 1 gallon of solution will be delivered for every 185 feet of row. This is about 200 gallons for an acre.
4. Take special care in filling the formaldehyde can to avoid splashing the solution on the seed box or packing wheel. Adjust the drip pipe to prevent the solution from coming in contact with any of the seeder parts. If the soil tends to clog between the plow and the packing wheel remove one or both of the seed cov-
Black Smut Boils on Scales of Partly Developed Onions
erers. Thorough preparation of the seed bed will make the treatment easier to apply.
5. Larger tanks and drip attachments may be provided for the horse-drawn 6-row seeders.
An Organized Industry
The cherry growers of Door county are thoroly organized. The Fruit Growers Union takes care of marketing the fruit and the buying of crates, boxes, spray material, etc. The Fruit Growers Canning Company, organized for the purpose of taking up the slack when the outside market lagged, has grown to be one of the biggest factors for success in the cherry business. Just recently the growers have organized the Cherry Harvesting Association, a twenty thousand dollar corporation, to insure prompt harvesting of the crop. The following from the Sturgeon Bay Advocate explains:
“The Cherry Harvesting Association is to be incorporated for $20,000, about half of the stock having already been subscribed. The object of the association is to supply pickers to its members on a basis of six or seven pickers to every $100 worth of stock. The association will secure the majority of its pickers from outside, and will maintain a camp with all modern conveniences in which to quarter and board them during the picking season. It will regulate the picking price, and establish such other rules necessary for the pickers in the orchards.
“Wherever there are sufficient members who are located a distance from the central camp, to demand 100 pickers or more, camps will be established near them to take care of a sufficient number of pickers for their needs. In all probability a camp would be established in Sawyer, and possibly another in the northern part of the county.
“When the association is perfected it will take over the camp equipment now owned by the Fruit Growers Union, and that organize
tion will no longer be identified with the picking proposition. The new organization will also rent several of its equipments and quarters no>v maintained by the larger growers. It will secure its outside pickers through some organization, probably the Y. M. C. A., which has furnished pickers for the Union in the past, and of which J. W. Brandenberg had charge. It takes from 3,500 to 4,000 pickers to harvest the cherry crop.”
Endive, often called winter lettuce is a salad plant of no mean importance. Seed planted as late as the first week of August will mature sufficiently for blanching, either in the field or cellar.
It is often a good plan to take flowers from the vase at night and lay them in a box between moist papers. This keeps the air off of them and they will often come out fresher in the morning for the
treatment. This is a good treatment where one is living in a flat and has no cool place to set the vase except in a window. Flowers do not keep well in a draught or when chilled.—LeRoy Cady, associate horticulturist, University Farm, St. Paul, Minnesota.
Winter Apples For Wisconsin
Is there any good winter apple for Wisconsin commercial orchards beside N. W. Greening? How about Newell, Windsor, Lubsk Queen, Utter, Malinda, Scotts Winter? Why were these varieties dropped from commercial apple list as this only leaves N. W. Greening for winter apple in commercial apple list? Should N. W. Greening be planted with other varieties for pollination?
Newell, Windsor, Malinda and Scott Winter are good winter varieties and all are included in our list of standard varietes and also in state fair premium list.
Lubsk Queen is a “summer” apple ripening in advance of Duchess and exceedingly short-lived. lTtter ripens in September and is not a long keeper. Exact information is lacking regarding selfsterility of the different varieties of apples but is quite generally conceded that most if not all varieties bear better in mixed orchards than when planted alone.
Clean well graded fruit will always bring a good price. In a year of plenty, it will sell at a better price and quicker than will mixed lots.
How to Control the Striped Cucumber Beetle
The striped cucumber beetle is the most important of all our cucumber insect pests and attacks all forms of cucurbits. Both the adults, or beetles, and the larvae, or “worms” do serious damage.
There is as yet no specific rem edy for this insect but several measures help to prevent or lessen the damage.
Young cucumber plants grown in hills may be covered with wire screen. Complete protection is afforded at a critical time if the screen is made beetle tight.
Planting an excess of seed or planting at week intervals for 3 or 4 weeks may be the means of securing a good stand in certain years.
A spray of lead arsenate combined with Bordeaux mixture (2'4> lbs. of lead arsenate to 50 gals, of Bordeaux) is probably the best remedy known. The Bordeaux appears to repel the beetles, while the arsenate kills all that remain to eat the sprayed leaves. It is necessary to apply this spray several times in a season to protect the new growth.
Dusting is somewhat easier than spraying but is not as reliable. Tobacco dust combined with lime is an old remedy of doubtful value. Arsenite of zine 1 lb. to lime 10 lbs. has given good results.
Whether spraying or dusting it is essential for good results that the material be discharged from the apparatus in a cloud made up of very fine particles, in order to thoroughly cover all the foliage.
JOHN E. DUDLEY, Jr.
Bureau of Entomology,
U. S. Department of Agriculture.
Do you permit the dog or eat to live in the house with the rest of the family? Perhaps neither are allowed to exactly live in the house but invariably these p'*s have the freedom of the whole household. Are you aware that under proper conditions your pets have caused many homes to experience a general flea infestation and moreover that human blood is not at all to be spurned by these minute jumping creatures?
Fleas are harbored by practically every dog and cat some time during their life if not during the whole of it. No matter how well “educated” the dog may be nor the class of society it enjoys, dogs at their best, and eats too, arc never very careful in choosing their companions. Fido may have to sleep in the barn and on the other hand the velvet lap of his mistress may be his favorite resting place, nevertheless “dogs is dogs” and “eats is eats” and sooner or later Fido skips away to greet one of his own blood. In this friendly exchange of greetings Fido unknowingly brings home some new “thoughts." These “thoughts" will cause him no little worry and Fido will scratch his head over them for hours at a time. The flea, like any of us, enjoys an occasional change of menu and Fido certainly looks more attractive than the half starved cur.
The adult flea lays its eggs in great numbers between hairs of the dog or eat. These eggs are only loosely fastened and so readily fall off. Thus, many eggs will be found in the dog's sleeping quarters and eggs are constantly dropped as the dog walks about the house. In a few days the egg' hatch and become small active worms which feed, not on the dog or cat but upon dirt and rubbish found on the floor. In two weeks or less they adopt a resting stage, during which time they change from the worm stage to full grown fleas. In this condition they are brought into the world with a ravenous appetite which they satisfy preferably by feeding upon a dog or cat and it neither of these are present, they will adopt a human being as their host.
Houses and even buildings may become badly infested if care is difficult to eradicate, mattings and carpets must be removed and either washed or sprayed with benzine. Floors should be scrubbed with hot soap suds or sprayed with benzine, care being taken to reach all cracks and crevices where the larvae live. Infestation is likely to occur during a moist summer when the family has closed the house for the season. The larvae develop most readily when left undisturbed and will be ready to greet the occupants when they return in the fall.
As in most cases prevention i-easier than eradication. Dog-and eats should not be permitted
to sleep in the house. The straw, rags or whatever composes their beds should be frequently changed. The larvae are easily killed when disturbed so daily sweeping the house will insure against their being established there. Bathing with soap and water or dusting with Pyrethrum powder will rid the dog or eat of most of its fleas. The latter treatment only stupifies the fleas which should afterward be swept up and burned.
James I. Hambleton.
Everything seems to indicate that insects of all kinds have passed the winter in good shape. Now is the time to fight them to a finish. No war was ever won by the side using out-of-date weapons. Get the best of sprayers, the best of insecticides; and go after the armies of insects with determination and persistence. I You will often run ( across insects that you / know nothing about! If ( you are interested and ? wish to learn something S regarding our common in- ( sect friends or foes write ) the editor of the Insect (
Page. He will be glad to ? answer your questions. If j possible always send sain- ( pies of insects with a lit- / tie of their food plants. ( This will help us to iden- ( tify them. Wrap care- ) 1 fully. (
Address: Editor, Insect ( Page, Dept. Economic En- S tomology, Univ, of Wis., ( Madison, Wis. ?
It is time to be thinking of the spring spray program. The buds will soon be swelling and opportunities to apply the dormant spray will soon pass. Are your trees troubled with the Oyster Shell Scale? Most orchards in Wisconsin are. Lets rid our trees of this pest! Lime sulphur applied at the strength of one gallon to 10 or 12 gallons of water before the leaves appear will do it.
This is one of my best perennial flowers as it. blooms constantly from end of June to late in September. This is also known as Balloon flower as the flower before completely opening up resembles a balloon. The blue or white large star, bell shaped flowers appear in numerous loose racemes. One or two year roots will bloom the first season set out, and after that appear annually. In fall when the stalks become dry they should be cut off four or six inches above the ground. Do not pull the stalks, as the buds for next year’s blooms are at the bottom of the stalks near the root. Will make a dense branching bush about two feet high the second year which should be tied to a stake.
Wm. Pfaender, Jr.
Bertrand II. Farr, Wyomissing, Pa., in Canadian Horticulturist
The peony has been considered singularly free from disease or insect pests, and to all intents and purposes so far as the amateur Is concerned this is still true. There are two troubles, however, which within the last few years have given rise to a great deal of discussion, most of which I believe has been misleading, and since scientists at a number of experiment stations, where investigations have been undertaken, do not fully agree upon the nature of the cause of the trouble, aod do not suggest a remedy, I will simply state my own experience and conclusions, which I feel sure will tend to allay any needless apprehension on the part of the amateur gardener.
In certain seasons under favorable conditions peonies are subject to fungous attacks manifested first by black spots on the leaves; second by a blighting of the buds when half opened, or the decaying of the half opened buds at the base of the petals, deforming the flower; third, the extension of the fungous growth down the stem, sometimes its entire length, causing what is commonly called “stem rot,” which in severe cases extends down into the roots. Sometimes the stem is first affected causing it to “damp off” and wilt. The conditions favorable to the spread of fungus seem to be moist, humid weather, with frequent showers, followed by hot sunshine. It may be quite severe one season and disappear entirely the following season, and unless the roots themselves are affected, there seems to be no permanent injury, and it is only in a few sections where serious harm has been done and where I believe the same soil condition and overfeeding, which I have previously explained, has something to do with it.
Spraying with Bordeaux mixture as a preventative has been recommended. Where roots are badly affected it is best to replant them in perfectly fresh, sweet soil, free from manure, cutting away all affected parts.
The trouble is variously known as “Nematodes or Eel Worms,” “Club Roots,” “Lemoine Disease,” etc. There has been much discussion and difference of opinion regarding these so-called diseased roots. I believe it to be more a condition than a disease; a condition brought on usually as previously stated, by the excessive use of manure when the roots are newly planted and before they can properly assimilate the overdose. It is manifested by distorted, undeveloped roots, covered with lumpy knots and nodules. An unusual number of eyes are formed, sending up many stems of weak growth which do not mature flower buds. This condition can also be produced by too deep planting, the use of large divisions of old worn-out roots, or by planting in a sour, pasty soil, or anything which seems to check a healthy action of the roots.
Paris green and air-slaked lime dusted over cabbage plants when moist will usually rid the plants of cabbage worms.
White cauliflower is obtained by tying the leaves over the head, protecting it from the sun. If this protection is not given, the head burns and soon decays.
One notice free.
Have all kinds of Dahlia bulbs to exchange for Gladioli bulbs.
L. A. Burmeister, Jr.
1151—18th St., Milwaukee, Wis.
Control of Green Apple Aphis in Bearing Orcliards.
Review of Bulletin 461, New York Agr. Exp. Station.
The eggs of the aphis are deposited in the autumn, and hatch the following spring. The majority hatch out as color is showing in the leaf tips of the opening blossom buds. Development is rapid, and winged forms of the second generation appear in late May or early June, when there is a migration to other trees. The species breeds continuously thruout the summer, producing many broods.
They prefer succulent tissues such as exist on terminal growths, watersprouts and suckers, and are generally present in injurious numbers for more or less extended periods during the summer months in nursery plantings and young apple orchards. In occasional years destructive outbreaks of the insect occur in bearing orchards.
Their attacks cause curling of apple leaves which may result in defoliation of affected branches. Succulent growth often exhibits a dying back of terminal areas. Invasion of Tuit clusters may be attended with dwarfed, misshapen apples which display pimpling and red stippling of the surfaces. The appearance of the fruits is often marred by the sooty fungus which thrives upon the excretions of the lice.
The delayed dormant, or bud spray, treatment of lime sulfur and nicotine sulfate protected bearing orchards until about the middle of June, when there was a reinfestation from winged migrants. Further spraying with nicotine sulfate and soap, during midsummer resulted in efficient control. Following the treatment, there was noticeable improvement in the condition of apples in most orchards with respect to shape, size and freedom from reddish discolorations.
Comparative tests of nicotine sulfate with soap or large amounts of lime indicated few differences in insecticidal qualities of these preparations. The advantages of the lime wash were its deterrent action on the aphids and its cleansing properties to the fruits. On account of its lack of surface tension and the difficulty and cost of application to large trees, the use of the lime mixture should properly be limited to young, non-bearing trees or those of moderate size. The rapid killing with nicotine sulfate in combination with soap and its greater spreading properties point to its superiority for large trees. It is probable, for these considerations, that apple growers having trees of great height with widespread branches will continue to place their dependence on the nicotine sulfate-soap spray for the control of the green aphis.
The complete bulletin may be secured by addressing the Station at Geneva, N. Y.