Madison, Wisconsin, February, 1920
A BEAUTIFUL ROOM WELL FURNISHED. ANNUAL CONVENTION, JANUARY 6th TO 9th. 1920
I. E. Levericli, Sparta.
1 appear before you today at the request of our Secretary, Mr. Cranefield, to explain how we grow strawberries “Every Year.” I might say with much truth that. I have partially, at least, grown up in the strawberry field. I cannot remember when we have not had at least five acres to pick each year, and for the coming season we have about fifteen acres. We are “farmer strawberry growers,” but, understand we look out for. and plan to make a success of the berries,—bo.h strawberries and bush berries: just the same as we do of our herd of Holstein cattle, and our fields of Golden Glow and Silver King seed corn.
However, I am well aware, that we have broken many old rules and methods brought along from the past in relation to the growing of a strawberry crop for profit, and I do not doubi but that some of the methods we follow, which, before I am through I will explain, may be a severe shock to the sensitive strawberry nerve of some strawberry growers in my audience. But as a tonic for that distressed person, I have this suggestion.—come to the “Levericli Fruit Farm" during the picking season next June and eat of the fruit, and if this and the sight of one hundred pickers, picking the luscious "King of all Berries,” does not restore to normal conditions, the nerves which 1 may have upset, 1 shall feel, that nothing but the "old plan” will do for that person.
In giving you information on how we grow them, not one year but every year, and produce nearly 2O'/< of all the berrie; grown in the Sparta district, and a crop the past season, of nearly thirty-five hundred. 16 quart cases from nine acres, with sales of nearly seven thousand dollars for the same. And yet, we hear some people say that strawberries are run out at Sparta. There certainly is an opportunity for a difference of opinion on the question.
We select a suitable location, which, in our particular ease is a sandy loam soil with a clay subsoil just rolling enough to afford good natural drainage. We grow in a three year rotation, oats, corn or potatoes, and strawberries. We always grow a cultivated crop the year preceding the planting of strawberries, which helps to eradicate the weeds to a large extent, the following year.
Preparation of Soil.
We fall plow all land to be planted to strawberries, at least eight inches deep. We disc all land before plowing, which cuts up the stubble and leaves the top of the ground in a loose condition. As soon as the snow melts in th? spring, and before the ground thaws, we top dress, using from ten to fifteen loads per acre of barn yard manure, applied with a spreader. As soon as the ground is dry enough to work in the spring, we harrow it to break the top and thoroughly pulverize the manure. It is next double disced as deep as the disc will run, so as to thoroughly ent up the manure and loosen up the ground. By doing this the small particles of manure are evenly spread through the soil, thus supplying all humus necessary for the proper nourishment of the plants, and also preventing the roil from getting too hard later on, which is one of the greatest causes of failure to get a perfect stand of plants. After a good harrowing, to level and break all humps, a spring tooth harrow is used, being regulated to run nearly as deep as the land was plowed in the fall. After this is completed, the soil is usually in a very loose condition, and we immediately harrow to level, break lumps and conserve moisture. We repeat this spring toothing once each week until we are ready to plant, so that no weeds are permitted to get a start. For, we firmly believe the time to kill weeds is before the plants are set. Before planting, we harrow three or four times to thoroughly pulverize and level, and if the season is inclined to be dry at this time, we roll, and harrow after the roller with a light harrow. However, if we are having plenty of rain, during planting time, we do not follow this course. AV ben we have the field in shape to plant, it resembles a garden plot.
Time of Planting.
We aim to plant the week following May Is,, so that the young plants will get the benefit of the spring rains. However, we have had good results one or two years when we have planted a week <>r two later.
We use a two-horse strawberry planter to set all our plants, and plant about twenty-one inches apart in rows four feet wide. [ have personally dropped every plant we have set for the past eight or ten years, and have lost comparatively few plants during that time.
We use about 2 barrels of water for every thousand plants set, and also soak all roots before planting, and as artesian wells and water are very plentiful up in the Sparta district, we do not discriminate in the use of water; be the season wet or dry, the water goes in with the plants just the same. We have found, that plants set with the planter, and where plenty of water has been used, can stand a dry season as well, if not better, than those set by hand, and as a consequence, my my services at strawberry planting time are in demand, as the neighbors are beginning to become convinced by seeing, that the planter is the surest means of getting a good stand of strawberry plants.
We grow* our plants on new land and set the best possible to obtain. We cannot afford to take chances and tempt fate, and set any other kind. Good plants are the foundation and are cheap at any price. We sell many plants, but we advise growers to grow their own, when possible to do so, as we think the plan has many advantages. All plants are set immediately after they are dug and sorted.
If, at the time of planting, the ground is very dry (and that is when a planter will work the best) and we do not get rain in a day or two, we again roll the ground with a light roller after the plants are set. This process presses down the ridge in the plant rows and presses the dirt more firmly around the plants. We have found that this rolling does not injure them in the least, as one would naturally suppose it would, but is a great help in keeping the roots from drying out at this time. It is our aim to have the soil mellow but firm.
As soon as the weeds begin to start, or after the first rain, we take a light wooden frame spike tooth harrow, and harrow the field lengthwise, if the top of the ground is very hard, we also harrow it crosswise. This, we find, breaks up the crust that is bound to form, and kills a large number of the early -weeds, and loosens the dirt around the plants; thus saving much hoeing. It also scratches the dirt from the top of the crowns of the plants, that have been planted a little too deep, or have been covered slightly by rolling. When doing this, great care must be exercised to keep the harrow teeth frei from straw', etc. However, one must be on the alert every minute during this harrowing and you will be surprised at the very small number of plants that are injured.
We cultivate our strawberries every w'eek after the first two weeks, until September 1st, or later if necessary, and keep the ground in a loose mellow’ condition. As soon as the blossoms are out on the new plants, they are all picked off, and no berries are permitted to grow the first season, and thus weaken the mother plants. We cultivate as close as possible to the plants w'ithout injuring them, and permit no w’eeds to grow, whatever. We use a sulky cultivator and Planet Junior for this purpose.
After the plants have a good start we hoe them for the first time about June 1st, using great care not to disturb the roots and to uncover all crowns. As soon as the runners start to shoot out, they are trained by cultivating and hoeing to form a matted row, and as the number of runners and new plants increase, the cultivator is narrowed a few inches each time. Care and judgment must be exercised at this time, as the row-must be kept intact and not allowed to spread too rapidly.
At the second hoeing the runners are placed and trained to fill all vacant spaces in the row, so that by following this method of gradually allowing the row to grow wider; by the 1st of September, we are able to have a good wide row, with a space of from ten to sixteen inches between each row. From this time until it becomes too cold foi plants to multiply, we cultivate to prevent them from growing together, using for this purpose a spike tooth cultivator, set as narrow as possible.
(To be continued in March)
Well-ripened sound fruit is healthful. It is also a valuable food. It should form a part of every meal, fresh when possible, or dried, canned, or otherwise preserved.
Home-grown fruit is desirable— Because it reaches the family fresh and in the best possible condition.
Because the family has fruit of which it would often be deprived if it had to be purchased.
Because, if the proper varieties be selected, a continuous supply of fruit of superior quality may be secured, regardless of market prices.
Because any surplus may be sold without difficulty, or may' be canned, evaporated, or otherwise conserved for use when fresh fruit is not available.
A great mistake is often made in growing asters by sowing the seed too early. There is nothing gained by sowing the seed early and allowing the plants to stand around in flats till planting-out time, in fact the plants are often greatly injured that way. Some of the early flowering sorts like Queen of the Market can be sown the latter part of March or first of April but for the main crop of cut flowers, from April tenth to fifteenth is early enough to sow the seed. The plants can then be grown right along till planting out time without cheek or allowing them to become drawn and stunted.
Seed sown at the time stated and the plants grown right along under the proper conditions make splendid plants for planting out around Decoration day.
The seed should be sown in pans or flats of fairly rich light sand loam, and covered with sandy soil and leaf mold that has been sifted through a sieve made of wire mosquito netting. When the young plants are large enough to handle they should be pricked off into flats. The flats I use are 12 x 22 inches and three inches deep. These flats hold fifty plants. These flats are very handy, and it is always easy to figure up how many plants one has, by the number of flats, no odd numbers to count.
When the weather is mild the plants should be given plenty of air to harden them, and keep them from becoming weak and drawn, and if they are in cold frames, which is really the best place for them, the sash should be removed altogether on mild days.
In this locality, Milwaukee, it is usually around Decoration day before the plants can be planted out.
I usually plant in rows eighteen inches apart and twelve inches between the plants in the row, this gives plenty of room to cultivate with a wheel cultivator, and gives the plants room to develop.
Asters should not be planted two years in succession on the same ground. They make much better plants and keep freer from disease if given a new location every year. Rotation of crops is always a good practice and no greater proof of this can be found than in the growing of asters.
Gladiolus are amongst our easiest plants to grow, and rival in beauty any of our garden flowers. Their cultivation is so easy that it almost seems like a waste of time and space to describe any method of growing them. They can be grown from seed easily, and some seedlings that I raised flowered the second season from seeding. There is a variety that is claimed to be an annual and flowers the first season, but I have never tried it.
My own method of growing gladiolus is to commence planting about the latter part of April, and plant every two weeks till about the middle of June. This gives a good succession of cut flowers, which continues well along into September. We usually open a drill five or six inches deep in good rich soil, plant the bulbs three or four inches apart according to the size of the bulb, and the vigor of growth of the variety. This gives the bulbs a good covering and when the plants push their way through they have a good firm hold of the soil, and are not easily blown over. When the bulbs are planted deep there is not so much need of stalking; of course in some of the stronger growing varieties it is a good practice to stake the flower spikes, because if they are allowed to become crooked they lose value, and a great deal of their beauty as a cut flower.
The bulbs should be left as long as possible in the ground, but should be harvested before there is danger of the ground freezing. Some growers cut the tops off within a few inches of the bulb, but I prefer to leave almost all of the tops on, and tie them in bundles of convenient size and hang them on nails along the rafters in a cool basement. This saves room and the air gets through amongst the bulbs freely, and they do not start to grow so quickly as they do when they are piled together in boxes.
‘ ‘ I guess I will buy some prennyuls’ this year, I want something that don’t take so much fussing and that will not have to be planted every year. They’re so nice don’t you think?” Of course I think so, it pays to agree with somebody who is going to part with some of that elusive evil known as money, but I know I am not dealing with a real flower lover. A real lover of flowers grows them not only for the result of beautiful flowers, but to satisfy that instinct we have to create something beautiful through our own efforts, through study and care and watchfulness. Of course I try to sell this person some kind of plant that will give of its beauty with the least possible expenditure of brain energy, but really, the dandelion and the Canada thistle are about the only ornamentals that fill these requirements, and I have not found any buyers for them as yet.
There is wondrous fascination in studying the likes and dislikes
of all the different kinds of plants that ive may term as hardy here in Wisconsin. The kind of soil they like, and fertility’, and drainage and moisture and when they’ bloom and how high they grow and how they’ fit in with other flowers and how often they should be divided and how to grow young ones and how much covering to give in winter and the thousand and one little things that make plants intimate personal friends rather than just something that grows.
Of course it is a very nice thing to have your grounds all laid out by a landscape gardener so you are sure that everything harmonizes with everything else and that it is all done properly even if you don’t just quite like it, but someway I have a sympathy’ for the old fashioned garden even if things are a bit jumbled. There is more of joy in carrying out your own ideas and plans, even if they’ do lack in perfection, than in following out some other person’s plans who may not be just in sympathy with your likes and dislikes.
And do not feel, either, that your whole garden must be planted in one year. Let it grow naturally, as friendships grow, adding as desire and opportunity permit.
About half the fun of gardening is in looking over the catalogs during the winter and wondering what this or that new kind is like, and dreaming about them, and it would spoil a whole lot of fun if you planted the whole garden in one year and had no incentive to grow your dream gardens during the winter time.
Well, I started out to write about •‘Hardy Plants for Home Grounds” and haven’t said any’-thing yet and my time has run out so we will quit for thus time and try and really say something next month.
Bill Toole, Garry nee Dule.
A drive is on for one hundred members for the American Pomo-logical Society from Wisconsin in 1920. Nine of our members head the list. How many more will there be for the March number? It has always been worth $2.00 to be a member of the A. P. S., it will be worth many times that in the new organization. Send $2.00 to this office for a receipt, 1917 volume of proceedings and all the good things coming. “The American Pomologist’’ is in the making and will appear as soon as funds are in sight. We can see the shadow already.
The early birds arc:
R. J. Coe,
Wm. Longland, G. A. Buckstaff, J. A. Hays, Irving Smith, Wm. Toole, Sr., A. Martini, N. A. Rasmussen, II. ('. Christensen.
Only 91 more needed; fifty in February will help.
“Would you please give me the name and address of some person or firm who make a specialty of the cultivation of asters and gladiolus, where I could get the best seed and bulbs? I would also be very grateful for the address of some reliable firms in Chicago who would buy cut flowers.”
“1 have raised asters and gladiolus for two years on a small scale and am very fond of the work and would like to go into it on a bigger scale. I would be very glad if you had any leaflets you could send me on the care of asters and gladiolus that you think would help.”
L. M. J.
Any reliable seed firm, or florist in any of our large cities can supply aster seed and gladiolus bulbs, that will give just as good results as if they were purchased from a specialist in those lines. The varieties of asters and gladioli suitable for growing for cut flowers are so numerous that it is a matter of experience to choose the best varieties to grow for the market.
As a rule, at the season of the year when asters and gladiolus are in bloom the market is so glutted with them that in the opinion of the writer it would be hard for an amateur to find a market for them in Chicago and it would not pay to ship them there unless they were exceptionally well grown. Well grown stuff can always find an opening and can command a fair price, but it takes a good deal of experience to grow flowers suitable for the Chicago market and make it pay.
Unless the grower intends to go into it on a very large scale, it would be better to find a local market, and work up a business gradually, rather than ship to Chicago. When the cost of packing and shipping to Chicago is taken into consideration, the prices obtained in the local markets would probably compare very favorably with those of Chicago. I would suggest that the grower obtain a copy of The American Florist or The Florist Review, Chicago, the addresses of a number of wholesale florists in Chicago will be found there: also the addresses of seed firms that can supply aster seed and gladiolus bulbs.
The American Pomological Society, Its Rejuvenation and What it Means
The A. P. S. is the oldest horticultural organization on this continent having continuous existence.
In the summer of 1848 A. J. Downing, Marshall P. Wilder, S. B. Parsons and a few others met in the city of New York to consider the expediency of establishing an American society thru which the then chaotic condition of pomology could be improved: for the purpose of correcting confused nomenclature, to preserve the fruits that were valuable and discard those which were worthless.
As a result of this conference the National Pomological Society was formed which was later extended to include Canada and rechristened the American Pomo-logieal Society. Thru nearly three-quarters of a century this society has held annual or biennial meetings attended by the foremost pomologists of the two countries. The society has never had any other source of income than the membership fees except the income from a fund of five thousand dollars contributed by Marshall P. Wilder for medals.
During this period the A. P. S. has rendered a service invaluable to pomology. Long before the department of agriculture was thought of the various committees of the A. P. S. were hard at work describing and classifying our fruits and correcting the nomenclature of pomology. Very early in its history the society came to be recognized as the court of final appeal so far as the names of fruits were concerned and holds that place today.
Thru the bestowal of the Wilder medals all new meritorious fruits are given a start in the world, a standing in the community of pomology such as could be had in no other way. Nor are these the only ways in which the A. P. S. has aided in the development of fruit growing. A glance thru the early reports show that those giants of early days were looking forward to the time when fruit growing would pass from the amateur stage then existing and hold its rightful place as one of the leading branches of agriculture and by careful study and more careful experiments with varieties, soils, cultivation, etc. laid the foundation of our present day pomology. Verily we owe much to these pioneers.
With the growth of commercial fruit growing during the past quarter of a century, the consequent falling off of the true amateur spirit and the love of fruit, as fruit, rather than as something which might be converted into dollars the A. P. S. declined in membership if not in influence.
At the biennial meetings of 1915 and 1917 there was much discussion as to ways and means of regaining lost ground and of placing the A. P. S. again in its proper place. One faction, including the writer urged that the A. P. S. with its splendid heritage and traditions be kept wholly an amateur organization and the commercial interests regarded as secondary; that the commercial interests organize a national association for themselves to be known as the National Congress of Horticulture (this Congress was born at Washington in November 1917 but died soon after); that there was enough of the old amateur spirit still alive to warrant this attitude.
Wiser counsels however prevailed and at the St. Louis meeting Dec. 31st, 1919 a reorganization was perfected with the object of bringing together the commercial and amateur interests.
After three days hard work the delegates led by President L. II. Bailey and assisted by nearly one hundred horticultural scientists in session at that time, the constitution was revised and steps taken to raise a permanent fund of $25,000 and an annual budget of $10,000, a part of which is to be derived from membership fees ; to publish a monthly magazine. The American Pomologist: to collect and disseminate new fruits of merit which are now too often lost thru inability of the originator to place the trees or plants on the market; to establish for amateurs and others an exchange for cions, buds and plants; to shape legislation, state and national; investigate markets and marketing mainly thru correlating existing agencies; in brief to serve as a clearance house for American pomological interests.
This is going to be worth while to every fruit grower either amateur or professional and every nurseryman in the United States and Canada.
The best part is that it will go thru. Professor, better know n as “Dean” Bailey who is an organizer of high ability, has his heart in this work and will make success a certainty. There is also something to build on, a stable organization with a record of 72 years of results. The reorganization does not in any way restrict or abridge the former valuable activities of the A. P. S., only enlarges its field of work. The A. P. S. will still retain its function of classifying fruits and passing on names of new fruits; it will be in the future as in the past the Supreme Court of Pomology.
It will be an honor and a privilege to be a member of the A. P. S. The affairs of the new organization will be administered thru a Council consisting of a vice president from each state elected by the state horticultural society. This Council will elect an executive committee of five members.
The writer, your secretary, is intensely interested in this movement believing it to be the biggest even in the fruit world for a quarter of a century and that it has come at an opportune time. Two things are at present essential to the success of fruit growing, the revival of the amateur interest and the coordination of all the commercial fruit growing interests. The new A. P. S. will do these things. Its officers invite your cooperation thru membership. Your secretary, acting as Wisconsin delegate at the St. Louis meeting, rushing in where angels feared to tread, agreed to secure one hundred members from Wisconsin in 1920. Will you help make this offer good? It is a matter of state pride for Wisconsin to head the list. Other states followed, after Wisconsin led, and they may make good but Wisconsin must. Eight W. S. H. S. members headed the list at the recent convention in Madison. Ninety-two more are needed. Send the two dollar membership fee to this office and a receipt will be sent you. It's suing to be worth two dollars. Try it.
Mindful of my neighbor’s promise to give me some advice about my garden, I went over to see him last night. It’s a curious thing, but a fact nevertheless, that a true gardener, like almost any sort of an enthusiast, is generous of his time when it comes to his hobby. A gardener is always ready to talk garden—lie’ll even stop gardening to talk gardening—which is saying a great deal.
My neighbor knows I have a lot 66 by 132 of which the house and front lawn occupy about a half, leaving about 4 rods square for a garden, and as he is a great lover of flowers I wondered if he wouldn’t advise me to put half or more into flowers.
“If I were you,” he said, “I would lay out my garden so that there should be a row of flowers, perhaps eight or ten feet wide between the lawn and the regular garden, and then I would lay out a border of flowers along the fence between you and Mr. Jones on the south and on the north where your lawn joins Mr. Smith I would just have my grass join right on to his and would put some shade loving plants along the side of my house and between it and the sidewalk leading to the kitchen,”
“IIow would you lay out the vegetable garden?” I asked.
“In the first place I would plan for a good-sized asparagus bed, and this I would put either in the back corner or in the front corner along the lot line where it will never need to be moved. This will begin to bear the third year and if cared for will be better each year thereafter all your life.
“I would put in a few red currants and one gooseberry bush along one side or at the end. Six or eight currant bushes will be all you will need when they come to bearing, and if you have more than one gooseberry bush, you'll have gooseberries to give away. You should plant one hill of pieplant at the end of the row. Then you’ll want a strawberry patch. If you put your currants across the end of the lot the strawberry bed can come next. Make it about a rod square—this will take about 4 dozen plants. You can dig them out of ray bed. Good strong plants put in early in the spring will try desperately to give you berries. If half of them are everbearing you will get a good taste of berries in the fall if you keep the blossoms picked off till August 1. Put them in rows 4 feet apart and about 16 inches apart in the row. You can plant something between the rows the first year. The second year add two rows and each year two rows rooting up two of the oldest rows. Plant the kinds of vegetables that you are fond of but remember that your space is very limited and choose. Potatoes take too much room. Melons and squashes take lots of room and the former are an awful strain on the morals of the neighboring small boys. Corn will not do well unless you have at least twenty hills, and those in a reasonably compact mass. Beans, peas, beets, cabbage, kohl rabi, cauliflower if you are a good gardener, lettuce, raddishes, onions, parsnips, parsley cabbage, peppers, carrots and turnips you will certainly want. But let me caution you. Be moderate. Don’t plant more than a third or a quarter of what you are tempted to. If you do it will go (Continued on page 102)
tive committee, is a young man and has charge of one of the largest orchard enterprises in the state.
Mr. E. J. Frautschi representing the third district is a Madison business man who is keenly interested in horticulture.
Mr. J. E. Leverich of Sparta while not so well known to the older members as his father will soon be better known.
Mr. II. E. Christensen of Oshkosh who succeeds J. W. Roe is too well known to need introduction. The balance of the committee are ‘‘hold overs.”
The fruit exhibit altho only one half as large as that of one year ago was of high quality and compactly staged in the long and narrow Assembly parlor was very striking.
The usual extensive “Kicka-poo” exhibit was lacking but Baraboo sent more than usual.
The executive committee voted unanimously, or nearly so, for a return to the dollar basis for annual membership and ten dollars for life membership.
These fees, reasonable and dignified, were the ones fixed by the Society upon its organization in 1865 and maintained until 1907 when the first cut was made. Two years later the original fees were adopted only to be cut again in 1912.
This juggling with fees has not benefited the society nor aided in increasing the membership and there is now a well defined feeling that the restored rates will remain for a long time.
After five years faithful and loyal services as president, contributing in the aggregate weeks if not months of valuable time to the affairs of the society, Mr. N. A. Rasmussen declined reelection and Mr. A. Martini of Lake Geneva was elected. Mr. J. A. Hays was reelected vice president.
Mr. Paul E. Grant of Menomonie, a new member of the execuInterest in the program was never keener. One apple grower stated that he considered the Thursday afternoon program worth more than one hundred dollars direct gain and indirectly thru inspiration a gain beyond measure. Now that we have each year a symposium by the college men and the practical experience of growers combined during a three day meeting the commercial grower who does not attend is bound to fall just a little behind in the game.
California outdoor grown chrysanthemums and violets are coming on to our markets in larger numbers every year.
A. Martini born 1868 in Zurich, Switzerland, served his apprentice years in floriculture in the then Grand Duchy Gardens Belvedere near Weimar, Germany, from 1883 to 1886. Spent 2 years in the well known nurseries near Trier on the Moselle. Emigrated to America 1888, became naturalized 1896. Worked in commercial greenhouses as grower of cut flowers and plants in different parts of the country serving 15 years with one of Chicago’s leading florist establishments. Since 1910 in charge of the extensive estate of F. D. Countiss, one of Lake Geneva, Wis., best known private residence grounds where fruit growing under glass is one of the specialties and where visitors are always welcome.
In having been elected as your president for the coming year I appreciate most highly the honor yon have bestowed upon me and I thank you most cordially for your confidence. During the years that I have had the pleasure of becoming acquainted with you I have been deeply interested in the work that this society has undertaken, what it has accomplished and in the manner that its policy is being carried out with the able guidance of its esteemed secretary Mr. Frederic Cranefield. Among the trial orchards established in different parts of the state better results have been shown in some localities than in others—having thus proven by persistent efforts and practical demonstration the hidden ecu-nomical value of some of our lands. In having established this one industry we as members of The Wisconsin State Horticultural Society have every reason to feel proud of the success achieved thus far and it is our duty to boost to our utmost this enterprise which with the assistance of our most highly esteemed co-workers of the university of Madison is bound to bring this state into its proper place as a fruit producer of the nation.
Our field of action is a large one and as a horticultural society we are interested in anything that tends to advance horticultural knowledge among our members not the least of which—as in the apple—is the furthering of other industrial enterprises. I wish to ask all members to be as enthusiastic as possible and to lend their loyal support for the welfare of our society by keeping alive the interest in the different local societies and by encouraging the forming of new ones. All amateurs have here a chance to get the best possible information and give their own experience pertaining to the raising of flowers, fruits and vegetables.
In closing I wish to say a word of praise for the splendid monthly magazine Wisconsin Horticulture whose pages are so full of interest to the professional and amateur alike that we ought to make occasional application for special copies for distribution among our neighbors and otherwise lend our support for an increasing membership.
Apple wood is extensively used for tool handles and brings $40 a cord.
For the months of March and April we will publish exchange notices free of charge. For instance if you have a surplus of plants or seeds that you would like to exchange send in your exchange list in substance as follows :
“Gladiolus bulbs, named varieties, for aster seeds or plants.’’
Write name and address plainly. Notices limited to 25 words; one time: no for sale notices, only exchanges. There may be no response to this offer or there may be a flood anyway we are willing to try it.
Annual membership fees will be accepted for two years in advance at the old rate until April first, and for two years only. So now is the time for a rain of dollar bills. Old members, renewals and new members, one and all dig up a dollar and do it before April 1st. You will never get another chance!
l)o you read “neighbor's’’ notes on “My Neighbor’s Garden?” Your editor prizes these practical talks very highly. “Neighbor,” who asks that his name be withheld, is a professional man with a deep and abiding love for plants and is an exceedingly skillful amateur gardener. That’s why he is successful—he loves his plants. Tlie notes will continue thru the year.
SECOND ANNUAL BEEKEEPERS’ SCHOOL AND CHAUTAUQUA, MADISON, WISCONSIN, AUGUST 15-21, 1920.
MAKE AN EXHIBIT OE HONEY AND BEES AT THE STATE FAIR, AUG. 30 TO SEPT. 4.
Keep bees better, Keep better bees. Keep cooperating, Keep organizing. Keep educating, Keep improving.
If you don’t like this issue, write the editor, tell us what you do want.
We have 594 members in the State Association. Next month we are going to print the numbers of state members in every local. Do a little hustling- before hand and double the number on your list.
Every beekeeper in the state should be a member of your local and the State Association.
LET’S MAKE IT 1000 BY DECEMBER 1, 1920.
The Secretary has been trying to buy a carload of sugar for the beekeepers but we are assured that there will be plenty of sugar on the market by April 1. So nothing more seems necessary.
The eradication of American foul brood and the keeping of strong colonies to keep down European Foul Brood will increase the honey crop of Wisconsin 1000%. Why not arrange with our Apiary Inspection Department to set a definite date in every county where American Foul Brood exists to have a clean up week? Have your local association decide the best time (at the beginning of the honey flow) get your supplies ready before hand and treat every diseased colony in every county. For every month or season that you delay*, you are losing money.
State Convention Dec. 4, 1919.
Brother and Sister Beekeepers, and Members of the Wisconsin State Beekeepers Association:
As I was not in attendance at our last annual convention, it is with some surprise that I find myself called upon at this time to face you as your presiding officer. However, it is with excusable pride that on this our 41st annual convention, I am privileged to greet you as your president. and assure you that the honor of serving you as such this one year counts with me for more than the consecutive service of 20 years as your secretary, and I trust you will pardon me the conceit, that your placing me in this position, was in the nature of an appreciation of my services as such to say nothing of choosing me as a successor of the old faithful standby, who has so efficiently served you as president for so many years. As I face this meeting, it is but too evident, as it has been for some years past, that a new and younger generation of beekeepers has taken the place of the older. This is but natural and could not be otherwise. Our best authorities today are younger men, take for instance Dr. Phillips and his helpers. In time they in their turn will go to the rear, and the rising generation of beekeepers take their places at the front. Quinby, Langstroth and Da-dant are names we revere, as pioneers in modern beeculture, but could they be with us today, they would be astonished and hardly recognize their books, revised as they have been to keep up with the times.
Of the old members I met at the first convention, I attended 23 years ago, very few are here with me today. Most of those still living are too feeble to be with us. In those days 20 or less met in some small room in the old Capitol, and sometimes the crowd would be seated around a large table, not very formal, but very social. Today this would be a very small attendance, if not a failure. Then we had less than 100 members, today 500 or more, and most of these, beekeepers who have developed from the younger men and women during recent years. Today we have 17 or more Local Associations, all affiliated with the State Association, and some of them with more members than we had 25 years ago. All of which has been brought about by the younger beekeepers and the extension work of the Agricultural College. Then we were practically not noticed by either the University or Department of Agriculture, and with the Legislature the needs of even the existence of a beekeeping industry in Wisconsin was a joke.
Today we are a recognized factor with all of them, and we have permanently taken our place in the ranks of the leading Agricultural Societies of the state, in fact we are part and parcel of the State Department of Agriculture as well as of the Department of Agriculture at Washington. We have today* under the auspices of the College of Agriculture a State Apiary, which after having experienced the ravages of American foul brood, and the consequent neglect of wartime conditions in the personnel of the College, was for a time not as promising as could have been wished. However, conditions at the College are again at normal and the Apiary is again under good personal supervision. In fact, we have a good nucleus, out of which to build a department of beeculture at the college. But what shall we do about it? Shall we let good enough alone and simply call it giving the University another job, or shall we take an active interest in the matter? Most decidedly the latter. Not, however, in the spirit of demoralizing criticism, but in the spirit of appreciation, that will result in betterment and improvement to the end, that this department be as important and as well equipped, as other departments in the Agricultural College. There is no doubt whatever but that war conditions have created for us a honey market such as we never had before, especially the demand for extracted honey, but for all that we do not have an absolute market. We have a better demand and ready sale, and much better prices, and it is now up to us, not only to keep this market, but to make it an absolute market. How can we do this? By an absolute market I mean the keeping in stock in every grocery store of honey the same as sugar and syrup, as a staple article. This may be done locally by the honey producers, and I think with little effort. One of our merchants, a young man, came to me this fall after previously talking with him, to look it over. I had a lot of 10, 5, 2% and 1 lb. packages enough for 1750 lbs. and nothing but amber at the time. I offered him the whole lot, if he would retail it all over his counter, and sell it at not less than 30c per lb. for 23c. He took the whole lot and now thinks he will not have enough as it is selling every day. Arrangements like this in every community’ would mean an absolute demand for it. This is the only condition to make it a staple and no amount of soliciting and peddling will accomplish the same result. Fifty years ago, farmers in my county used to peddle and dicker to dispose of their butter and eggs, because there was no regular market. Honey’ producers doing the same thing today are no doubt retarding the establishment of an absolute market to say nothing of demoralizing prices for the honey producer.
With the exception of honey, there is today no product of any Agricultural pursuit, but what has a regular demand and is handled wholly through the market, and prices to the producer are arranged likewise. There is today despite ready sale and good prices, no condition to govern and regulate prices. Instead of a market price on honey, as on butter and eggs, the producer sells for what he can get. I have it on reliable information that car loads of white honey can and have been bought in 60 lb. cans at 20c per lb. this same honey is sold after repacking in smaller assorted packages for 35 to 4 0c per lb. This, however, is for white honey only, amber they will not buy at all and are not interested in. Why, I do not know, but I do know that amber honey can be sold if put side by side with the white, or better if nothing else can be had, as was the case last year.
After having succeeded in supplying your local merchant, it is up to you to help him sell it, and this can be most effectually done, through the medium of your County and State Fair.
I am convinced, that for the purpose of bringing before the general public the importance of the beekeeping industry in Wisconsin, and to create a demand for honey, nothing equals a well planned exhibit at your county fair. This should be in charge of some beekeeper who is competent and willing to give information. It should be the business of all interested beekeepers to prepare for the next fair in your county by seeing to it that your premium List is revised to date and preferably conform to the State Fair list and by getting a sufficient number of beekeepers interested and securing ample space. Then put up somthing that will attract attention and watch results. If your merchant who sells your honey will put up an exhibit, furnish him a good attractive honey exhibit, with your labels.
The State Fair, however, should be kept in mind above all else, for here it is where we show up not only to the people at large, but directly’ to the State authorities who have their eyes on us. to estimate our standing and progress if any, and if proper efforts on our part are in evidence, will on their part encourage and recognize us w’ith the same aid so abundantly and freely given to other Agricultural Associations. In fact, the State Fair Board has already anticipated us in a way to make it incumbent on us to put forth our very best efforts in making good. They have assured us of an extension to the Bee & Honey building, giving us about three times the space at present provided, and have more than doubled the amount of premium offers. In doing this they not only show their good w’ill toward us, but that they fully realize the importance of our industry. The Department of Agriculture is anxious that we make a showing, proportionate to our importance, that every dollar of premium offered be taken up, and all space in the enlarged building be occupied. I am convinced from my limited acquaintance with the officials that they would welcome a condition, making necessary the expenditure of $10,000 to furnish adequate quarters for the Bee and Honey exhibit.
Is it possible to create such a condition ?
If ten local associations and 50 individual beekeepers would make entries, we would be swamped in our new enlarged building.
If all local and county associations and 150 individual beekeepers would make entries, we could fill the Horticultural building, and have the most attractive exhibit on the ground.
This estimate is no fancy imagination, and I am sure that any exhibitor in this department in recent years will agree with me. But I do not anticipate such a rush for the 1920 fair, and would consider it a decided progress if all space in the new building will be occupied.
This we can and must do and the best time to begin thinking and planning for county and state fairs, is right now, and let us do our planning in the spirit of advertising honey and making it a staple product. Financially it is the very cheapest advertising and in fact we are offered a bonus for availing ourselves of the opportunities offered by both county and state. At worst, you will be out nothing but a little time and trouble. Don’t be afraid of spending your time and money benefiting the other fellow, because he cannot do anything along this line without benefit to you. and so you are even. In conclusion, let me impress on you the importance of creating a condition that will make your honey as staple as butter and eggs. Keep it before the public, by having it on the counters of the grocery stores, in an attractive way at all times. By having large and attractive displays at all of our county fairs and at our state fair.
You cannot realize the full benefit to our industry when the beekeepers at large, help to make these exhibits the center of attraction. Only those of you who have seen the people crowding through our small building can have any conception of what it is like. Think of a conservative estimate of twenty thousand persons crowding through our small building in fourteen consecutive hours each day. This happened on Children’s and Milwaukee days. And during the week buying from the exhibitors over $2000 worth of honey in retail containers, to say' nothing of orders for larger amounts placed for delivery Think it over and remember. Make your next county fair and the 1920 State Fair the best ever, so far as we as beekeepers are concerned.
The manipulation of bees is based upon their response to (stimuli) occurrences which tend to increase or decrease their activities. In other words, when certain conditions exist bees follow a certain instinct to do things.
These reactions are known as bee behavior. Study your bees, learn what they do when certain things are done, apply only the good things and you will succeed.
Bearn how to provide the (stimuli) conditions which bees require for building up and gathering nectar and you will profit accordingly.
Provide plenty of stores, plenty of protection in cold weather, good ventilation in summer, provide abundance of room while bees are building up in the spring and during the honey flow, keep young queens and you can’t fail.
Temperature is an important condition which causes certain definite responses.
Bees cluster at 57° F. Below that temperature, the cluster becomes more compact and as the temperature goes down on the outside it goes up on the inside of the cluster. Bees produce warmth in the hive by fanning the wings and muscular action. The harder they have to work, the quicker their energy is used up and a greater amount of stores are required. In the spring and fall when the temperature falls below 50° F. bees should be in double walled hives or else they should be protected by outside packing. In winter they should be placed in a cellar or packed in winter cases.
Above 57° F. bees break the cluster and at 69° F. they fly’ freely’ from the hive. The queen begins laying eggs and brood rearing starts when a temperature of 9 4° F. is developed inside the hive.
Three pounds, or 15,000 bees is a good colony of bees in early spring; fifteen to twenty pounds or 75.000 to
100,000 bees is a good colony at the beginning of the honey flow. About five pounds of honey a»*e required to produce one pound of bees. charges on anything that the beekeepers will send in. Old extractors, foundation rolls, hives, etc., are desired.
To Edward Hassinger Jr., and his young wife.
Now, my dear Ed, just come along, Present your mate, your bride,
And we will sing a jolly song
In joyous mood and pride.
All kinds of fun we will select.
Your jealousy, Ed, hide,
For we don’t care if you object: We’ll even . . . kiss the bride.
We want to see—and briefly greet The sweetest little wife.
And then you, Ed, can just retreat And have her . . .all your life.
Friend Allen, our treasurer, was a recent visitor to Madison. He came to help audit the accounts of his church society, so you see he knows how to take care of our money.
If you have any honey to sell, list it with the state marketing commission. They can help you.
If you have any bees to sell, let the secretary know as he knows of several people who want to buy bees.
In the secretary’s report (see January issue) Shawano County Beekeepers’ Association was omitted from among the list of locals having delegates at the annual meeting of the Board of Directors. Mr. E. S. Hildemann, a worthy gentleman and a friend of the secretary was their representative. So this did not happen on purpose. “Beg pardon.’’
Every member of the association can secure these monthly reports from the Bureau of Markets by sending in your name and address, clearly written to the U. S. Bureau of Markets at Washington, D.
Learn what foulbrood looks like and treat your colonies before the inspector comes around.
(Mrs. R. E. Vaughan)
Pop Corn Balls
Boil one pint of honey till it will form a “hard crack” in cold water. Stir in freshly popped corn and when cool enough to handle, form into balls or cones or other fancy shapes.
Soak one-half cup of well washed rice over night. In the morning mix the rice with one-third cup of honey, a half teaspoonful of salt, two tablespoonsful of butter, a pint of milk and cook for at least an hour in a double boiler. Carefully fold in a well beaten egg and pour in a baking dish and dust top with cinnamon and bake in moderate oven for half an hour. .Serve with fruit preserves or raisin sauce.
Raisin Sauce.—Boil a half cup of chopped raisins and a half cup of honey and 3 tablespoonsful of water together and cool to serve with the rice pudding.
1 cup honey
% cup sugar
lb. almonds (chopped)
3 egg whites
2 tablespoons butter
Boil honey and sugar together till it forms a “hard crack” when dropped into cold water. Add one spoonful at a time of syrup to the stiffly beaten egg whites. Mix thoroughly each time before adding another spoonful. When the syrup has been added, pour mixture into saucepan and return to the stove. Cook very slowly, beating continuously till the mixture forms a hard ball in cold water. Add chopped nuts, pour into buttered tins and cool till it can be cut into squares and wrapped in waxed paper. Keep in warm place in an air-tight tin can.
Boil together two cups of honey, a half cup of sugar, a fourth teaspoonful of soda and two tablespoonsful of vinegar till it forms a “hard crack” in cold water. Remove from fire and cool till it can be handled. Pull same as any other taffy. Cut and wrap in waxed paper. Keep in tight tin box in a warm dry place.
The (.'lark County Beekeepers' Association met at Neillsville. December So. Professor Wilson, Secretary of the State Association was with us and gave some good pointers on the care of bees, winter problems and the need of foulbrood eradication. Mr. R. V. Brown. County Agricultural Agent, also met -with us and is showing much interest in beekeeping. He has met with us several times. We are planning more meetings for the coming year. Three members of the association were elected to take the examination for deputy county inspectors and we plan to get a good start on cleaning up foulbrood this season, J. S. Sloniker,
News Reporter for Clark Co. Bee Association.
Market quotations from Minneapolis and Chicago, our nearest markets, will be included if desired by the association.
Chicago, Dec. 31: 1 Calif, arrived.
I- c. 1. receipts moderate. Demand
BEE SHORT COURSE
A five weeks' short course in beekeeping will be given at the University of Wisconsin from February 11 to March 18 in connection with the regular Farmers’ Short Course. Courses in Agronomy, Soils, Agricultural Engineering, Dairy Husbandry and Horticulture will be given with the course during the morning periods. Afternoon sessions will be given over to beekeeping and Poultry Husbandry combined or to beekeeping alone as may be desired. Elementary and advanced principles of beekeeping will be given according to the requirements of the beekeepers.
The following bee schools will be held during February.
February 2. 3 and 4—Reedsburg,
city Library. Sauk County.
February 5—Juneau; February 6— Mayville; February 7—Beaver Dam. Dodge County. and movement moderate, market steady. Sales to jobbers—per lb. Extracted, various state. Alfalfa and Clover White 19-21C, Light Amber 17—19c, New York Buckwheat 15-17c. Beeswax: 1. c. 1. receipts moderate. Supplies moderate. Demand and movement moderate, market steady. Various states unrefined 42-45c per lb.
Minneapolis, Dec. 30: Supplies liberal. Demand and movement moderate, market steady. Sales direct to retailers. Comb: Western, Fancy light, 2 4-section cases $7.50. Extracted: in 60-lb. can mostly 20-2lc per lb.
The Secretary has been corresponding with Mr. John M. Davis, Springhill, Tennessee, and has received the following quotation for members of our association where not less than 100 queens are purchased:
May 10th to June 1st—$115.00 per 100 June 1st to July 1st—$110.00 per 100 July 1st to Nov. 1st—$105.00 per 100
If any of the local associations are planning to restock, they should take advantage of this opportunity and either write to Mr. Davis direct or to the Secretary.
Bees seem to be wintering fairly well from reports. My own bees are not wintering so well especially those that were fed very late and had no flight after being fed, some of them were fed on damaged sugar and some of this “sugar was salt”—one lot of feed had so much in it that the bees wbuld not take it, but I have reason to believe there may have been just a little salt in some of the other feed and as a result those colonies are restless and showing signs of dysentery.
There is plenty of snow to protect the clovers. There is just one beekeeper in Outagamie County that has any honey left to sell. Honey has moved slowly during the holiday season, but the demand is improving now.
Edw. Hassinger, Jr..
News Reporter for Fox River Valley Bee Association.
Examinations will be held for county apiary inspectors on February 7. Many county associations have recommended two or three of their members for appointment and these men will all be examined. The duties will consist of keeping track of the moving of bees in the county, making inspections on request, and working with state inspectors when an area clean-up survey is made. Applications from experienced beekeepers in counties without associations will gladly be considered.
It is expected that a second examination will be given additional men later in the spring. All interested associations and beekeepers are asked to write S. B. Fracker, acting State Entomologist, at the STATE CAPITOL.
The Northeastern Wisconsin Beekeepers’ Association held their annual meeting December 16 at Reedsville and elected the following officers:
President, F. F. Stelling, Reedsville. Vice-President, Wm. Rusch, R. F.
D. 2, Reedsville.
Secretary, Martin Krueger, Reedsville.
Treasurer, L. H. Krueger, Reedsville.
State Association Director, F. F. Stelling. Reedsville.
This association now has 77 members.
A three day bee school was held at Oshkosh, January 8, 9 and 10 with the result that the Winnebago County Association voted to affiliate with the State Association.
The onion maggot, a close relative to the maggots attacking cabbage, radish and bean, has caused such depredations in certain paits of the State that commercial onion growing in these parts has been given up.
After years of work on this insect it was found out that a poisoned sweetened liquid sprayed on the onion leaves would often attract and kill the parent flies before any eggs had been laid. The success of this means of control depends almost entirely upon lack of rain during the short period in the spring in which flies feed before laying eggs. Onion growers need not be told that there is seldom a lack of rain during this period. In some sections it rains every day when flies might be killed. Therefore, this method of control is not dependable in this state.
After a thorough study of the problem in all its phases by men trained in scientific research, it now appears that this pest may be controlled along biological lines, that is, by learning and taking advantage of the insect's peculiarities; its favorite places of feeding and laying, its liking for certain types of soils, and so on. Although this method is quite intricate to work out, it is, never-thel ess, the only method by which some insects—notably the Hessian fly—can be controlled.
Two .fields of onions near Green Bay were visited last summer and what was found there is clearly told in the accompanying pictures. When such extreme conditions exist there is hope of find-
OXION FIELD RUINED BY ONION MAGGOTS
This field is *4 mile from field shown below. Both fields were planted about the same time, and both pictures were taken the same day.
ing in just what locations the insect will appear and then planting some other crop there or, to state the matter another way, to find in just what locations the insect never appears and use those fields for onions.
It will be a great help to the men working upon this problem if all farmers of the state who grow an acre of onions or more will send the following data to the writer in care of the Dept, of Economic Entomology at Madison :
ONION FIELD PRACTICALLY UNINJURED BY ONION MAGGOTS
Compare with field above.
What part of your crop of onions was lost through attack of the onion maggot for each of the past three years?
To what extent did the maggot attack different onion fields or different parts of the same field?
Under what conditions of soil and nearness to woodland or waste places do you consider the worst injury occurs?
All letters will be gratefully rereceived and answered.
John E. Dudley, Jr.
In the northern counties of Wisconsin the past summer this interesting caterpillar was rather conspicuous on apple trees, especially in the younger orchards. The larvae, when full grown, are an inch or a little more in length: the head is red and the body is beautifully striped with yellow and black. Near the front end of the body there is a prominent reddish hump which has protruding from it large blunt black tubercles. Smaller similar tubercles appear on other parts of the body but they are not as large as those on the hump.
The adults of this apple pest are moths about l*g inches across when the wings are spread. They are greyish brown in color and make their appearance in June or July.
The eggs which are laid on the underside of the leaves in masses of 40 to 100 are white and nearly round in shape. The young caterpillars at first feed on the underside of the leaves only but as they develop they eat the edges of the leaves. As they always feed together in colonies, it doesn't take them long to strip a branch of its foliage. A character that quite easily identifies them is the habit of the larvae
when at rest to hold the tip end of their bodies in nearly a vertical position.
The caterpillars become full grown in August or September and then they seek suitable hiding quarters under trash on the ground to make their cocoons and spend the winter. They do not change to a pupa until spring.
Apple, cherry, plum, and pear trees are all susceptible to attack; young trees are often defoliated so that the wood does not ripen properly.
If the caterpillars become troublesome the trees should be sprayed with lead arsenate used at the rate of 2 pounds to 50 gallons of water.
Chas. L. Fluke, Jr.
We have on hand a quantity of the December 1919 supplement “Helpful Hints for the Beginner in Fruit Growing.” Members can help in the distribution of these. Please send for as many as you can use to advantage in your neighborhood. No charge for supplement or postage. These circulars cannot possibly help anyone as long as they are piled in a corner in the office; they may help someone if distributed. You can help.
We never lost a dollar bill yet so just tuck one in a letter for two years membership and two years’ subscription to Wisconsin Horticulture to say nothing of the Annual Report.
. If there is any one who thinks this too much write the secretary and the matter will be brought before the Board of Managers.
A St. Paul grocery store was selling big overgrown Colorado carrots at five cents a pound the other day and Minnesota grown carrots at three cents a pound. The Minnesota carrots were small and of all sizes, while the Colorado ones were large, smooth and even. While we did not sample either sort we will venture to say the Minnesota ones were the best. The grocer did not dare send them out on a phone order because they were not clean and even.—LeRov Cady, associate horticulturist, University Farm, St. Paul, Minn.
Have you gone over the vegee-tables in the cellear lately and removed any that are beginning to decay ?
SENATOR DUNLAP for summer and PROGRESSIVE for fall bearing are the two best varieties for Wisconsin. Our stock of plants of these two varieties is fine. We also have AROMA, GANDY and SAMPLE.
Write us about what you want for your fruit garden and orchard; also the ornamentals for your lawn, etc.
We are in a position to supply your needs.
Fort Atkinson, Wis.
P. S. Fruit trees and plants of all kinds are going to be very scarce before planting time. Place your order early.
Don’t expect a fern to grow in a hot dry room with a little water applied to the surface once in a while. Water the plant thoroughly clear to the root tips and then devise some means of keeping the air of the room moist and the temperature regular. Folks as well as plants will thrive better.
Now is a good time to cut cions for top working trees next year.
An eight hour day would be fine for the market gardener, but somebody would pay more for garden produce. Vegetables cannot be manufactured rain or shine as easily as plows and wagons.
MY NEIGHBOR’S GARDEN
(Continued from page 91) to waste. Usually people plant ten times as much lettuce as they
use, wasting seed, effort and space. Plant successive but only a little each time. Half a dozen parsley plants will give you 3 times as much as you will use, two good pepper plants will invariably be enough. Of tomatoes you will want two or three dozen plants. Half a dozen early ones and the other medium early varieties. Of peas you will want one planting of the early dwarf, one of medium and one or two of late and high varieties. Plant all at the same time. If you try for a succession you may succeed one year in three, but the other years milldew will get your last plantings. Make all your rows north and south and 16 inches apart. Plant peas in double rows 8 inches apart, w’ith two foot spaces between, and put brush or chicken wire between the narrow rows.
‘ ‘ Get your seeds from a reliable grower not from a grocery store. For most things one ordinary packet will be much more than you will need. For peas you will need more. A pound will be enough for a 25 foot double row.
“Have your garden spaded, and see that it is spaded down as far as a spading fork will reach. If you can get coarse manure, which you almost certainly can’t, spade it in. If you have to rely on commercial fertilizer powdered sheep manure is as good as anything you can get. Sprinkle it over the ground before spading. Twenty-five pounds to the square rod won’t be too much, although ten will do. Ground limestone will help a lot and should be used if the soil has been cultivated be-
A reader asks for information about lilies, garden culture, varieties, soil, tine to plant, eat. Who can help?
With proper care and attention, there is no reason why budded and grafted trees will not be as long-lived as old time varieties. The earlies* definite history of a grafted tree is a Summer Boneretien, from Europe, planted by Governor Stuyvesant at New Amsterdam in 1647. The trunk of this tree remained standing in New York City on the corner of Third Avenue and Thirteenth Street until 1866 when i* was broken down by a dray running over it. Here we had a grafted tree standing at the ripe old age of 219 years. This seems to us to prove that the longevity of a tree is not necessarily determined by whether it is grafted or seedling.
F. I), Garrison.
Don't say German Iris nor try to be botanical in your language and speak of Iris Germanica for it is no longer either good form nor correct. The name Flag Iris has been generally adopted both by dealers and amateurs. No one has been able to satisfactorily explain the adoption of the term German and Germanica as the species is not a native of Germany nor have but few species originated there.
Have you been successful with some vegetable, flower or shrub? Pass it along. Write one hundred words telling how you did it.