Wisconsin horticulture; official organ of the Wisconsin state horticultural society

Volume X
Madison, Wisconsin, Jenuary, 1920
Number 5

What Birds Shall We Protect?

Uy F. L. Washburn, University of Minnesota.

At annual convention Minn. Ilort.

Society, Dec. 1919.

I have always been an enthusiast on the subject of protecting birds and have neglected no opportunity to speak or write in their behalf, particularly championing the orders of hawks and owls, since against them appears to be the most deep seated prejudice. In this connection may I say that I criticize the campaign which was carried on against the crow this last summer by sportsmen in Minnesota. While I advocate shooting the erow and the black bird when working actual injury to the horticulturist and farmer, I am nevertheless conscious and appreciative of the good the crow does in connection with killing grasshoppers, white grubs, mice and other injurious forms of animals. However, the comparatively small number of erows killed and eggs destroyed would hardly have an appreciative effect upon benefits derived from this species. It must be borne in mind in considering what birds to protect and what birds to regard as injurious, that men whose interests are widely divergent are going to have opinions on birds decidedly at variance; for example, sportsmen are aware that hawks, owls and crows do lessen the number of game birds to a greater or less extent, and this class of men is perhaps nearly unanimously against these birds, .-as evidenced by the crow campaign, while well informed farmers and horticulturists, for the most part, realizing that hawks and owls destroy field mice, rabdren have been mobilized to promulgate the cause and the press in general has taken upon itself the duty of encouraging bird protection. This is as it should be for there has been great need for such a movement; but mark the result. Under this intensive protection, the numbers of many coinmoil birds have increased enormously, and the birds which were at one time useful, or at least neutral in their economic attitude toward the berry raiser, are now really injurious, forced to work injury through their increasing numbers and the constant lessening of their food. New and efficient methods of combating insects have lessened their supply of insect food and the diminishing quantity of wild fruits and berries through increased cultivation, obliges them more than formerly, to turn to berry patches to obtain that portion of their diet, which ten years ago perhaps, they could get in large part from the wild thickets.

From fifteen to twenty years ago so much work was done on the food habits of birds, that our opinions were crystallized, as it were, in this regard, and they have staved crystallized ever since.

As a member of the staff of the U. S. Biological Survey remarked in my office not long since, changed conditions are calling for new work on the food habits of birds. Under this continuous and rigorous protection and in consequence of increased tillage, what was true ten or twenty years ago in this connection is not true now. The ease of the robin was cited as an example.

I do not want this audience to misunderstand me. I am not urging the destruction of any bird or

group of birds, far from it. I enjoy watching tli<‘ robin on tlie lawn and listening to its song as much today as I did fifteen years ago and I delight in the music, given us by the cat bird, rosebreasted grosbeak, and the scarlet tanager. The melody in the song of the wood thrush is just as fascinating to me now as formerly. Yet I am a gardener and hor.ieul-Turist in an experimental way and am painfully aware of the fact that the grosbeak and oriole make it practically impossible to raise green peas in certain sections, without expensive protec.ion, and eat birds are so fond of my black capped raspberries that I have had to resort to costly measures to save any for family use.

The bright coloring of the oriole. so closely associated with spring and summer still delights me. yet in addition to its depredation on peas, I observed it last spring cutting off plum blossoms literally by the quart. Those of us who delight in tramping the woods and following streams may take great pleasure in the rattling note of the king fisher, yet this bird, because of its depredations oa fish, is one of the most destructive we have with us.

The Federal government has taken cognizance of the state of affairs to which I refer and the Secretary of Agriculture has permitted the killing of meadow larks in South Carolina between November 1, 1919 and April 30. 1920, under certain restrictions, because of complaint of its injury to sprouting corn and oats. The same official has issued an order effective October 24, 1919, permitting the shooting or trapping of grebes, loons, gulls, terns, fish ducks or mergansers, blue herons, green herons and night herons by owners and employes of private fish hatcheries where these birds are injurious. All of these birds art' protected under the migratory bird act of 191S, but have become sc destructive in connection with fish that tin' above official action appeared necessary.

Do not, 1 beg of you, leave this meeting feeling that the speaker has gone into the enemies eamp, turned traitor to a good cause, as it were, for I am as much a lover of the birds today as I was ten years ago, but a scientist of today must shut his eyes and ears to everything but actual facts as they are presented today, and it does appear that as farmers, gardeners and orehardists, we must use discrimination in judging birds and adjust our views to present day conditions. A study of the present food habits of birds under modern conditions appears necessary if we desire the truth in this connection.

What has been said in my talk upon this subject is intended merely as a suggestion for thought and observations along somewhat new lines. 1 should be very glad to heal- or receive thru the mails observations made by members of the Society not only in connection with food habits of birds, but also in connection with four footed animals, red and gray squirrels, the various “gophers," field mice and rabbits.

Methods of protecting garden crops from the attacks of birds and rodents will be given upon request.

Much may be learned about picking and packing apples from Bulletin 1080 I’. S. Dept, of Agriculture, entitled Preparation of Barreled Apples For Market.

Trim Apple Trees on Mild Fall


According to the old adage, the time to prune is when “the knife is sharp." In other words, prune whenever occasion arises. If the trees are properly looked after each year it is seldom necessary to do any heavy pruning which demands the use of a saw. Late winter and early spring is the time when most persons prune. On mild days in the fall the trees should be looked over and pruned. .Make all cuts close to the limb or trunk. Do not leave stubs or “hat racks.” Examine each tree and follow this plan:

Do not prime too severely trees that are of bearing age. In trees that have never been pruned there is danger of causing excessive wood growth if too many limbs are cut off at one time. It is better to distribute the pruning over a period of three years.

Several years ago two trees in the orchards at University Farm were pruned in this manner: the first was pruned severely and the other lightly; the next crop year the first yielded 1% bushels of apples and the latter 6 bushels. Too severe pruning lessened the crop. Pruning is done to make the remaining parts better serve our purpose.—R. S. Mackintosh, horticultural specialist of the extension staff, University Farm, Minnesota.

Bulbs May Be Grown Over Very Wide Area

The United States uses every year, in normal times, about $2,-000,000 worth of bulbs and has produced hardly $25,000 worth of Dutch bulbs in any one year—this despite the fact that few plants are more widely adapted and few crops more easily grown than bulbs.

The reason for this situation, says the United States Department of Agriculture, is that it has always been thought that the bulbs could be bought cheaper than they could be grown. In the future, however, conditions are going to be different, and the department has published Bulletin No. 797, “Commercial Dutch-Bulb Culture in the United States." This 50-page discussion of the subject is available for limited distribution to interested persons.

Thus far, says the bulletin, commercial production of Dutch bulbs in this country has been confined to the Atlantic, and Pacific seaboards, north of Norfolk and San Francisco, respectively. Good bulbs have been produced in both regions. The western area is confined to a rather narrow strip which receives suitable rainfall and is sufficiently affected by seacoast conditions to prevent rapid transition from winter to summer. Ileat and moisture conditions are not so sharply defined in the East, and the bulb area is much more indefinite as to width.


Tn the interior, in the Ohio and Mississippi Valleys, small quantities of tulip and narcissus bulbs have been grown sufficiently long to show the possibility of the sue-cessful production of many varieties.

Some of the hardier and more robust of the narcissus varieties thrive well and naturalize even in the Gulf States, but this region is best adapted to the so-called South France stocks. The growing of tulips and Dutch hyacinths probably should not be attempted there.

Contrary to what would be generally supposed, it is not too cold for tulips and narcissi to succeed as far north as Sitka, Alaska. They thrive well along the entire northern border of the United States wherever the moisture conditions are suitable.

Thus it will be seen that these stocks succeed under a geat diversity of conditions. Indeed, they seem to be as adaptable as ordinary cultivated crops.

The successes with the three main groups of these bulbs on the northern Pacific coast; the large production of a long list of narcissus varieties in southern Illinois and Virginia: the culture of Darwin and other tulips in Michigan, northern New York, Ontario, and Virginia, and .he admirable hyacinth bulbs often pro duced in private gardens throughout the region south of New York, under conditions of comparative neglect and a large measure of ignorance of their life history, would seem to prove sufficiently that we have an abundant territory adapted to growing these stocks.


“The culture of bulbs," continues the bulletin, “is associated in the public mind with sandy soil, and the preponderance of advice as to their handling specifies sandy soils as preferable to any other. Periodical literature especially is full of reference to the so-called ‘sand-dune bulb fields' of the Netherlands. Abundant evidence is at hand to show that purchasers of bulbs have good success in flowering them on almost any soil which is available, and though this is a very different matter from producing the bulbs with flowers in them it is nevertheless a proof of the wide adaptability of these stocks.

“In the experiments at Bellingham, Wash., thus far, better tulips and better narcissus bulbs have been produced on silty soil than upon the lighter sandy soils. The trials with hyacinths are not decisive: indeed, other factors may account for the results. Proper fertility has not always been maintained, and the heavier soils are less exhaus.ed by lone cropping. While this may be true, the fact stands out prominently that the production of tulip, narcissus, and even hyacinth bulbs of good quality can be accomplished on silt-loam soils underlain by elay at a depth of 16 inches. On the o.her hand, it should bo realized that the ability to produce bulbs at a profit will be the controlling factor, and the expense is much less on light than

“When all is said, few plants are more widely adaptable and few crops more easily grown than bulbs. The regions in this country are few and small, indeed, where some varieties of each of the three groups are not successful when grown for ornamentation, and the possibility of the production of bulb crops is promising. The flowering of the bulbs, as we know, is accomplished in a great variety of media, almost anything, from water to ordinary loam soils, answering the purpose provided tile atmospheric conditions are suitable.

“Mechanics probably has more to do with the suitability of sandy soil than any inherent preference of the bulbs for sand rather than for heavier loam. It is possible that it will be cheaper to add heavy applications of fertilizer than to handle the bulbs in heavy soils. On the other hand, many varieties will coat up better on light than on heavy soils. The character of the bulbs grown on heavy and on light soils will vary somewhat, as it will with shallow and deep planting. The indications are. however, that success can be attained in bulb production on a friable loam soil, whether it has a preponderance of sand in its composition or not.”


Other phases of .he subject discussed in the bulletin include temperature, soil and fertility requirements, number of bulbs grown per acre, planting, depth of planting, treatment after flowering, roguing, harvesting the flowers, cultivation, harvesting the bulbs, storing and curing, cleaning, sizing and advantages to be gained by it, culling, propagation, determination of flowering quality, packing, shipping, bulb growing for pleasure, out-of-door culture. indoor culture, miscellaneous bulbs, insect pests, fire disease of the tulip, diseases of hyacinths, the mosaic disease, best varieties of hyacinth to plant, varieties of narcissi, varieties of tulips, and varieties of hyacinths.

The sources from which interested persons may obtain bulb literature are given, and the bulletin ends with several pages of definitions of terms, strange to the uninitiated, that are likely to be found in bulb literature and catalogues.

Cranberry Growers’ Convention

As has been noted in the December 1919 issue of this magazine the cranberry growers voted to hold their annual meeting this year with the Horticultural Society in Madison. Wis., Jan. 6 to 8. It has since been decided to hold our own individual sessions Jan. 9 that we might have the valuable services of Miss Jacobson of Chicago who so efficiently reports for the Horticultural Society. Our cranberry members should plan to reach Madison not later than the 7th. This gives opportunity for the social, informal, 7 o’clock dinner at the Capital House, and at least, one full day of the Horticultural meeting. Those that can be present Jan. 6 to 9 inclusive will receive that much greater benefit.

We are giving the program as it stands at this writing Dec. 17. It would be quite easy to have an evening session if others called on report favorably later on.


Thirty-third annual convention of the Wisconsin State Cranberry Growers Association, Madison, Wis., Friday, January 9, 1920.

Friday 9:00 A. M.

Friday 1:30 P. M.

About 13,000,000 pounds of maple sugar were made in the United States in 1918 and about 4,000,000 gallons of sirup. Vermont, New York, and Pennsylvania are the largest producers of sugar.

The value of the 1918 apple crop of the United States was about $230,000,000. It ranked ninth in farm crops.

Make firewood now of dead trees on the lawn, in the orchard or windbreak. They only harbor disease and insects.

Beekeepers* Annual Convention Madison, Dec. 5th, 1919.

Proceedings of the 41st Convention of the Wisconsin State Beekeepers ’ Association,

State Capitol. Madison. December 3, 'i and 3, 1919.

The first meeting of the Board of Managers under the new plan of organization was called to order at 2 o’clock Wednesday afternoon, December 3. The following delegates were present:

Regular representatives from Sauk and Langlade Counties were not present but the Rev. J. E. Cooke and Mr. C. S. Leykom were allowed to act for these counties in place of the regular delegates. Mr. Hassinger was appointed by the president to act as secretary of the meeting. The secretary of the state association then presented the business which was to come up before the association. The following recommendations -were passed and presented to the Association for consideration Thursday morning.

Article 2, Sec. 2. Change 2nd paragraph to read:

“The Board of Managers shall consist of not less than five members, of whom three shall be elected by the Board of Managers to serve with the President and Secretary as an Executive Committee of the State Association.’’

Article 2, Sec. 3. Insert between the first and second paragraph here:

“The Secretary of the State Association shall be ex officio a member and secretary of the Board of Managers.”

Article 2. Sec. 4. Drop lines 5 and 6.

Omit sections 5 and 6, Article 2.

Article 2, Sec. 9. Omit in lines 1 and 2: “to pay the annual fee or neglects or refuses.”

Drop Sec. 10, Article 2.

Drop Sec. 12.

Article 8. Substitute in place of “who shall constitute an executive committee”—special meetings may be called by a majority of the Executive Committee after the entire Executive Committee has been notified.

Article 11. Executive Committee.— The President and Secretary of the State Association with three members of the Board of Managers shall compose an Executive Committee. The Executive Committee shall discharge such duties as are regulated to it by the constitution and by-laws or by act of any convention. No money shall be paid out of the treasury of this association without the approval of the Executive Committee.

Aiticle 12. Nominating Committee. The Board of Managers, exclusive of the President and Secretary, shall constitute a Nominating Committee for the nom nation of officers, provided that further nominations may be made from 'he floor.

Board of Managers adjourned at 5:30 P. M.


At 9:55 Thursday morning the regular convention was opened by singing “My Country ’Tis of Thee.”

Ths was followed by a very fine address to the older members of the association by Rev. J. E. Cooke.

The customary reading of the minutes and appointment of committees followed with reports from standing committees.

Mr. N. E. France, chairman of the Legislative Committee reported in detail the steps undertaken in securing the new bee law and the appropriation.

The chairman of the Extension Committee reported that the membership of the Association was 530 (now increased to 543); that there were 30 local associations in the state. 17 of which were affiliated with the state association. During the past year the university has held 49 meetings in behalf of the beekeepers at which there was an attendance of 1453 people. Remarks on the benefits derived from attending the summer school by Mr. Lathrop. Mr. Hanley. Mr. Parman and Mr. Adams.

This was followed by the report of the Board of Managers given by Edw. Hassinger and containing the recommendations before indicated. It was then voted to consider a crop reporting committee and Dr. Fracker, acting State Entomologist, explained to the meeting the purpose of the state marketing commission and the possible help to be gained through cooperation, between the state association, the crop reporting office, marketing commission and office of state entomologist. The president appointed a marketing committee to cooperate with the different offices mentioned consisting of Dr. Fracker. (’hairman. A. L. Kleeber and N. E. France.

The president then appointed the following committees:

And it in y Committee—A. C. Bartz, Mr. Lappley, C. S. Leykom.

Tiesolution Comm it tee—C. D. Adams, N. E. France, Mr. Otto.

The meeting adjourned at 12 o’clock.

The afternoon session was called to order at 1:50 P. M. The president gave his address in which he told of the work accomplished in building up the bee and honey exhibits at the state fair. The old building is to be enlarged by an addition of a forty foot annex and the amount of prizes to be awarded has been increased from $461 to $1066.

Dean Russell of the College of Agriculture then addressed the convention on “The New Era in Beekeeping" and congratulated the beekeepers on the work that had been accomplished and expressed an appreciation of the cooperation given by the beekeepers in helping the university.

Mr. Rahmlow. County Agricultural Agent for Price County, gave a very interesting and enlightening talk on the manner in which county agents might help the beekeepers. He expressed his belief that the beekeepers were not taking entire advantage of the opportunity to secure help from their county agents and suggested that where county agents exist, they should be encouraged to help with the beekeeping meeting.

Mr. A. C. Allen explained the preparation of exhibits for state and county fairs. He also explained the judging rules and the necessary requirements for a presentable exhibit. (Every beekeeper who is interested in exhibiting at the state fair should immediately write to Mr. Allen or President Dittmer about the premiums and exhibits for next year. $1066 in premiums are to be distributed and every beekeeper ought to win a sufficient amount to pay his expenses. In addition he has abundant opportunity not only to advertise honey but to dispose of his crop.)

Mr. Swahn’s paper “Standardizing and Organizing the Honey Industry” was read by the secretary and created a great deal of interest. This topic is a very important one and Mr. Swahn has presented an idea which will undoubtedly be in practice in this state in the not distant future. (This paper will later be published in Wisconsin Horticulture and every beekeeper should read it.)

At the request of Mr. B. A. Scott, Loss and Damage Inspector for the American Railway Express Company, a committee of three consisting of Mr. H. L. McMurry, Mr. Duax and Mr. Kleeber were appointed to confer with Mr. Scott regarding the large number of claims submitted to the express company for honey shipped by express. Mr. ,Scott stated that it was necessary to consider this matter very carefully and develop a packing case whereby comb honey could be shipped with fewer losses than at present. The committee reported the following resolution:

“It is the 'tense of this committee that when comb honey is to be shipped by express the case containing the honey should be placed in a box containing 3 inches of packing between the case and the sides of the box.”

Mr. Warren. Sales Manager. A. I. Root Company, discussed this matter and explained that the National Traffic Commission had almost decided to refuse to accept comb honey for shipment because of the poor manner in which beekeepers of certain sections put up their honey for shipment.

Several beekeepers inquired if there would be any possibility of getting sugar in the spring for feeding their bees. The secretary explained that since the sugar commission was not now in existence, the beekeepers had no recourse except to secure if possible, sugar through local dealers and in case this could not be done, it might become necessary for the beekeepers to try substitutes. Americos. a corn sugar, was suggested as a possible feed after the bees had begun to fly in the spring.

The meeting was adjourned at 5:30 P. M. to meet again at 7:30 that evening.

The Thursday evening session was taken up with the discussion of the foulbrood situation in Wisconsin by Dr. Fracker and the report of the Deputy Inspector, Mr. McMurry. Dr. Fracker presented charts showing the results of area clean-up campaigns in Dane. Jefferson and Manitowoc Counties. Those charts show very clearly the possibility of eradicating American foulbrood and it should not be many years until American foulbrood has almost disappeared from our state. (It is possible for every beekeeper to get rid of American foulbrood if he will only take the time to treat his bees in a thorough manner. Full directions can be secured by writing to the Apiary Inspector at the State Capitol, Madison.)

Mr. McMurry ^poke on cooperation and the value of the beekeepers working together in the extermination of foulbrood.

Meeting adjourned at 9:50 P. M.


Friday morning meeting called to order at 9:10. Mr. B. A. Scott of the American Railway Express Company addressed the beekeepers and offer to answer questions.

Mr. N. E. France presented a paper on the “Management of Out-Yards.” (Mr. France’s paper will be published in Wisconsin Horticulture.)

Mr. C. P. Norgord. State Commissioner of Agriculture, spoke on “The Relation of the State Department of Agriculture to the Beekeeping Industry.” Mr. Norgord explained the difference between the work done in his department and that carried on by the College of Agriculture: how the State Department has charge of regulatory and administrative work while the college of agriculture is in charge of research. educational and extension work. He explained that the State Department of Agriculture was for tlm sole purpose of aiding the agricultural workers of the state and stated that he hoped the beekeepers would call on his department for assistance whenever needed.

Kenneth Hawkins, representative of the G. B. Lewis Company, discussed “Queen-Rearing for the Farmer Beekeeper.” This paper and one by Edw. Hassinger. “Short-Cuts in Wholesale Requeening" were received with much interest by the beekeepers and led to considerable discussion. (Both of these papers are to be printed in Wisconsin Horticulture.)

Miss Iona Fowls, Assistant Editor, Gleanings in Bee Culture, not being (Continued on page ?S)


Annual Convention, State Horticultural Society, State Capitol, Madison, Wisconsin, Tuesday. Wednesday and Thursday, January 6th, 7th, and 8th, 1920.

Capital Hotel Headquarters for officers and delegates.

Tuesday Forenoon 11:00 o'clock

Tuesday Afternoon 2:00 o’clock

Practice Work in Judging Apples: A daily, two hour exercise conducted by Prof. J. G. Moore. The class will meet at 1:45 o’clock.

Tuesday Evening 8:00 o’clock

Wednesday Forenoon 9 :30 o’clock

The Women's Auxiliary will meet Wednesday forenoon for program session.

Wednesday Afternoon 2:00


1:45. Practice Work in Judging Apples.

Topic:  Rural Planning:—A

Full Discussion of this Important Subject.

Wednesday Evening 7 :00 o 'clock

Informal dinner. Capital House.

No invitations are issued, every member expected to attend.

Thursday Forenoon 9:30 o’clock

Thursday Afternoon 2:00 o’clock

1:45. Practice Work in Judging Apples.

Some Orchard Methods in Northern Illinois, L. R. Bryant.

Premium List

The following cash premiums are offered for exhibits at the annual convention Madison, Jan. 6, 7, 8, 1920:

Best collection of apples, not less than 15 varieties, 1st. $10.00; 2nd, $6.00; 3rd, $4.00; 4th, $2.00.

Best 5 plates (5 varieties) commercial apples for Wisconsin, 1st, $5.00; 2nd, $3.00; 3rd, $2.00; 4th, $1.00.

For best plate each of the following varieties. 1st, $1.00; 2nd. 75c: 3rd, 50c; 4th, 25e:

Ben Davis, Dudley, Fameuse, Gano, Gem, Gideon, Golden Rus-sett. Grimes Golden, Jonathan. King, Maiden Blush, Malinda, McIntosh,  McMahan, Newell,

Northern   Spy, Northwestern

Greening.   Patten. Pewaukee,

Plumb Cider, Salome, Seek-no-further, Scott Winter, Tolman, Twenty Ounce, Utter, Wagener. Wealthy, Windsor, Wolf River, York Imperial.

Best tray of each of the above named varieties, 1st, $3.00; 2nd, $2.00; 3d, $1.00; 4th, 75c.

Best 5 trays of any of the following varieties: McIntosh, Northwestern, Wealthy, Tolman, Wolf River, Fameuse, Gano, Salome, McMahan, Seek-no-further, Windsor, 1st, $10.00; 2nd, $6.00; 3rd, $4.00; 4th, $2.00.

Separate samples must be furnished for each entry.

Best exhibit Pears, 1st, $1.00; 2nd, 75c; 3d, 50e.

Best exhibit Crabs, 1st, $1.00; 2nd. 75c; 3d, 50c.


Best collection, not less than 10 entries, 1st, $5.00; 2nd, $3.00; 3d, $2.00.

For each of the following, 1st, $1.00; 2nd, 75c; 3d, 50c:

6 Blood Turnip Beets, 3 White Turnips, 3 Yellow Turnips. 3 Rutabagas, 6 Chantenay Carrots, 6 Short-Horn Carrots, 3 Winter Cabbage, 3 Red Cabbage, 6 Chicory, 6 Ears Pop Corn, 6 Red Onions, 6 Yellow Danvers Onions, 6 White Onions. 6 Onions, Large Type, 6 Winter Radishes, 6 Parsnips. 6 Peppers, Hubbard Squash, 6 Heads Celery, 3 Chinese Cabbage.

Sweeps.akes awarded pro rata, $20.00.


Members or others unable to attend the meeting may send fruit to the secretary, who will make entries and place fruit on exhibition. Transportation charges must be prepaid.

All entries must be made on regular entry blanks which will be furnished by the secretary on application.

F. Cranefield, Secretary W. S. II. S., Madison, Wisconsin.

Convention Month

A desperate effort has been made to get this issue into the hands of members a few days in advance of tile convention in the hopes that a careful reading of the program would convince any who might be in doubt that they could not afford to miss it. There are so many good things offered that it would be unfair to particularize. The sure way to win is to come early Tuesday and stay late Thursday.

Perfect and Imperfect

There is, of course, a heaven and a hell; there must however be a third place, for printers. The writer is sure they, or some of them, will never be welcome or safe, in either of the first two places. They will meet there, in which ever place they may go, some editor who will kill them.

Are printers, or rather “makeup" men careful? They are not. Witness the cut of strawberry blossoms in the December supplement. The perfect or staminate blossom is labeled “imperfect” and vice versa. The final proofs were correct and then.—the makeup man reversed the cut! Will someone say a short prayer?


Conducted by the Department of Economic Entomology College of Agriculture

Prepare to Fight Insect Pests

During the winter months the out-of-door work is at a minimum. This gives the grower an opportunity to prepare for the fight against insect pests of the coming season.

In insect control, as well as in warfare, preparedness is a big step toward preventing losses. In a great many cases insects appear suddenly and work so quickly that before the grower realizes it. or lias time to buy spray materials a good part of a crop may be destroyed.

The grower usually plans in advance what crops he will plant, lie then should find out what common pests attack the crops in his locality and what control measures to use should such pests appear. Information may be obtained either from the Experiment Station at Madison or from the Secretary of Agriculture at Washington, I). (’.

Some type of reliable spray machine should be purchased. This may range from a small liana sprayer to a power machine, depending upon the needs. Old spray machinery should be over-han h*d and put into good working conditions. It is much easier to obtain parts during the winter than during the spraying season when delay may mean serious loss to crops.

After a sprayer has been provided one should also obtain a supply of good standard insecticides. The grower can usually tell from year to year what common pests are quite certain to make their appearance and should be governed accordingly.

There are several directions which are of great importance in insect control. These are as follows :

Huihlrpds of potato plant lice sucking sap from the growing tip of a potato plant. (After Patch;

L. G. Gentner.

The Pink and Green Aphid of


The potato aphid or plant louse has in past years done much damage to potatoes in certain sections of Wisconsin. Such damage has been due almost entirely to the loss of plant juices when untold thousands of aphides concentrated and fed on the growing tips of the plants. (See illustration.) This severe feeding injury has often forced growers to spray that the crop might be saved.

Important as the pest has been in the past however, a new and greater danger now threatens the crop. It has been shown that this louse, aside from its feeding injury, transmits a disease to the plant, known as potato mosaic. The disease is already established in the state and bids fair to spread unless energetic measures to control it are made. The disease decreases the yield to a considerable extent, and no efficient control measures against the disease itself has yet been found.


It is therefore of the greatest importance that the potato aphid be kept down, at least in areas where mosaic is present.

As the average grower is already using two materials—arsenicals and Bordeaux mixture— on his potato fields, the thought of having to spray with another material may not be welcome.

This louse is a sucking insect. Neither arsenicals nor Bordeaux will kill it. Nicotine preparations, soaps or oil emulsions must be used. It is the object of this article to suggest certain safe spray combinations which in ax-save an extra application just for the louse.

Nicotine sulfate is without doubt the most efficient and convenient material to use. It should

be combined with soap at the following dilution :

Nicotine sulfate (40%)—V? pint

Soap (fish oil or laundry)—2 lbs.

Water_______________50 gallons

Arsenicals may be added to this spray if the Colorado potato beetle needs attention. Arsenical soap solutions are however liable to cause foliage injury and should be used with care.

A spray consisting of 8 pounds of soap dissolved in 50 gallons of water will be found effective against the louse.

When necessary to use Bordeaux mixture for tile potato leafhopper, flea beetle or certain potato diseases, nicotine sulfate may safely7 be added for the louse (J/5 pint nicotine to 50 gals. Bordeaux), but the soap must be omitted. Do not use soap with Bordeaux.

It is often profitable once or twice in a season to combine Bordeaux, an arsenical and nicotine when a combination of insects and disease exists.

As with many insect borne diseases the best cure is prevention.

John E. Dudley Jr.

The Apple Leaf Crumpler

The peculiar horn-like cases and leaf crumples often found on the new growth of apple trees, (especially on young trees) are caused by7 reddish brown caterpillars which live within the trumpetshaped cocoons. During the winter months, these eases are easily seen hanging by7 tough silken threads or fastened securely to the twigs as is shown in the accompanying picture. The caterpillars at this time are only partly-grown, but as soon as the first buds open up in the spring the young larvae crawl from the larger ends of their eases and seek the closest growing buds. They spin silken threads where-ever they go and quickly back up into their cocoons on the least disturbance. They7 feed only at night or early morning on cloudy days.

As soon as they7 become full grown, the caterpillars spin a thin sheen of silk over the openings and then change to pupae which

The Apple I.euf-cniinpler. showing the peculiar horn-like cases in which the insect spends the winter.

is the resting stage of the insect. In a short time, the adults appear as light-brownish, prettily7 marked moths about one half inch in length. They7 soon lay7 eggs from which young larvae hatch. The small hatching caterpillars begin feeding at once and very7 soon form their peculiar trumpet-like cases. When about one-half grown they attach themselves firmly to the bark, often fastening one or more leaves to their nests, and are then ready to pass the winter.

This insect is common in southern Wisconsin. Older trees which are not regularly sprayed will often be attacked but the real injury7 comes when very7 young trees are infested.

Control Measures consist in picking off the winter nests. This is easily7 done on young trees but is inadvisable when trees begin to bear or are heavily7 infested; the best remedy then is to spray with the best lead arsenate, one pound to fifty gallons of water. Applyin the spring after the first leaves appear. Older orchards that are regularly sprayed for the codling moth are never troubled by7 this insect.

C. L. Fluke.

Rats, the Most Destructive Animals Known

According to the year book of the United States Department of Agriculture for 1917 there are two kinds of rats found in America, all of which are causing tremendous losses both in the cities and in the country. None of these are native, but all have been introduced from foreign countries. The brown rat, also known as the barn rat, is the worst of all, although the black rat is a close second. On the farm the rat finds an abundance of both shelter and food. Grains, fruits, vegetables, eggs, young poultry, wastage from feeding troughs, etc. are to be had for the taking. Holes made in grain sacks, and feed bins, young poultry destroyed, eggs taken and other depredations too numerous to mention, makes the rat a criminal of the worst degree.


Never miss an opportunity to kill a rat and do not permit breeding places on your farm. Rat proof the buildings, keep all food products in rat tight bins and do not throw waste products out where rats have free access to them.


Encourage the boys on the farm to engage in a war against rats. You will be doing yourself a service and the boys may learn something of animal life and have some sport besides. Give each boy a half dozen traps and pay him a quarter for each rat he catches. The more he destroys the more profitable the investment. A recent investigation in some of our Eastern cities show that rats destroy $1,350,000 worth of products each year in Boston and over $1,000,000 per year in Pittsburgh, Pa.


Barium Carbonate for rats or mice may be fed in a dough composed of four parts of meal or flour to one part of the mineral. A more convenient bait is ordinary oatmeal (rolled oats) with about one-eighth of its bulk of barium carbonate mixed with water enough to make a stiff dough. This may be exposed in bulk in a pan, or put out, about a teaspoonful at a place, in rat runs. Eaten in sufficient quantities, this mineral is dangerous to all animals, and caution is needed in its use.                     II. F. W.

Cut flowers, except those with milky juice, like poinsettias or poppies, keep best if a small portion of the lower end of the stem is cut off each day and the stem set in clean water.

My Neighbor’s Garden

I have wondered these bitter winter days what my neighbor the gardener would find to do with his leisure during the long evenings on which I used to see a light in his basement work shop where I knew he kept some of his plants and did ivliat I would call a lot of “pottering around.” That expression always seems expeciallv applicable to gardeners, I suppose because their work always has more or less to do with pots.

My curiosity took me over to my neighbors one evening, and instead of calling him from his work I went down to his work room. Here I found in a cool unheated basement room lighted only by a couple of windows, quite a few growing things and quite a few things simply sleeping. Here were tender hydrangeas not quite dried up but kept just moist enough so that the buds should not shrivel, veranda pots of geraniums, wandering Jew and periwinkle, not growing but with just enough light and water to keep most of their leaves; pots of parsley looking fine and green, as well as dishes of paper white narcissus making roots and waiting their turn to be brought up stairs. In dark cool corners the cut stems of eannas and “red hot pokers” projected from heaps of sand. Other boxes and barrels held dahlias and ealadiums. and in a cool, dark closet adjoining he showed me paper bags of gladiolus bulbs and on a high shelf a row of hyacinth glasses in which the long white roots had reached the bottom of die glasses and the greenish yellow sheaths of the flower stalks were showing well above the bulbs. Tn a couple of weeks they will be ready to be brought into the light. Here also he had his pans of Dutch-Roman hyacinths making root-growth, but beginning to show flower spikes. The temperature was between 40 and 50.

I found my neighbor busy with, his jackknife whittling away at long slender stakes of which he seemed to have an enormous number. These he explained to me were mostly for gladiolus, for he makes a practice of training his plants in the way they should grow while they are still young and susceptible. His gladiolus stakes are from two and a half to four feet tall and about :1S to 1 -j an inch in diameter. Shorter stakes are for asters, zinnias, marigolds, calendulas, pyrethrum, snapdragon, stronger ones for Canterbury bells, foxglove, columbine and eannas. These he splits by hand out of heavy red cedar lath when he can get them and when he cannot he buys a straightgrained seven foot cedar post and out of it by axe, hatchet and jackknife he will split a bundle of fine straight stakes, and when in the midst of his work he looks not unlike the ancient arrow-maker of the Hiawatha legend.

For hollyhocks, dahlia, cosmos and other tall heavy plants he gets % x :!j sawed cypress stakes at the planing mill. They are made of edgings and are not expensive. For tomatoes lie gets 2 x 2 cypress. All stakes are stored in the basement in the winter time and except for breakage will last eight or ten years if sap wood is excluded.

But not only dot's he make stakes but labels. He has a real gardener's passion for having the names of his pets before him. With a dozen varieties of iris. twenty varieties of asters and peonies, fifty of tulips and many more of gladiolus it is quite impossible to keep them all in mind. Besides it is a great pleasure to any gardener-minded visitor to know the name of any variety which lie may see in another’s garden, so my neighbor makes labels for nearly all his plants, especially of those of which he has named varieties. These he can lmy of the seedsmen and florists and they look neat and pleasing, but are gone at the end of the first season. So he buys red cedar lath, if he can get them, cuts them into one foot lengths, planes one end smooth for about 4 inches, gives the smoothed part two coats of flat white paint, leaving the rest unpainted, sharpens the other end, and has a stake that is good for four or five years of constant exposure, and of twice that length of time, if taken in winters as the gladiolus labels are. These labels are marked with a black carpenter's pencil, or a marking crayon, or even a soft lead pencil. If red cedar lath cannot be had he goes to the planing mill and gets quarter inch strips sawed from inch or inch and a quarter stuff which he cuts into ten or twelve inch lengths.

Isaac P. Ketchum, a life member of this Society, died Nov. 22. 1919. He would have been 72 years of age on January 1st next, lie frequently attended our meetings and was always keenly interested in our work. Of his love of the beautiful his friend Col. W. J. Anderson says:

“Mr. Ketchum’s love of trees and flowers was a passion. In his beautiful grounds at Ethelwyn Park, across Lake Monona, he had not failed for years to plant annually many trees and shrubs. A fine altruism manifested itself in his tree planting. lie was planting always that those who came after him should find enjoyment in the results of his work. He spoke often of what he called the kindness manifested by the early owners of his home acres who planted so many beautiful trees.”

There was found among his papers the following verse by Whittier :


Give fools their gold and knaves their power;

Let fortune's bubbles raise and fall; Who sows a field or trains a flower Or plants a tree is more than all.

Mr. Ketchum was also a firm believer in Wisconsin as a fruit state. His faith in this respect never wavered and within a few years planted a cherry orchard of considerable size near Madison.

About Storing Gladiolus Bulbs

A member asks the following questions: “What is the best method of storing gladiolus bulbs ? Should they be covered or left open to the air? Should the tops be cut off when stored? What should bi- done with the little bulblets to preserve them for spring planting?”

The article bv Henry J. Moore in the December number of this paper discussed at length the storage of bulbs and gives not only directions but reasons. He says: “Bulbs and tubers during their winter's rest are alive, tho dormant, and they require living conditions peculiar to the resting period. ”

While gladiolus bulbs are of firm texture they will not withstand freezing or extremely dry air for a long period.

Dig and store in a dry place for a few days until the tops are thorolv dry. Remove the tops and store the bulbs in paper sacks or pasteboard eartons in a cool dry place, preferably at a temperature of 45° to 50°. The bulblets will not stand as much drying as the bulbs and should be stored in damp, not wet, sand.

Transplanting Wild Blackberries

A member who lives where wild blackberries are plentiful and of good quality asks if it would lie practical to transplant these wild plants for commercial purposes. It would not. In the first place it would be impractical if not impossible to secure sufficient plants uniform in size of the proper age for transplanting and secondly there is rarely any uniformity in size, productiveness or quality in the wild berries. If one were to mark a choice bush at fruiting time move it and propagate from this by means of sucker plants or root cuttings it would be possible to build up a stock of plants of one variety but it would not be worth the trouble. Better buy plants.

Protect beans and peas from the weevil ravages by putting in an airtight receptacle and putting carbon bisulphide in a saucer. This quickly evaporates and the fumes set de among the peas or beans, destroying any weevils present.

Beekeepers’ Convention

(Continued from page 71)

present. Mr. Warren of the A. I. Root Company, was called upon to speak in her place. Mr. Warren’s address was not only interesting but threw a great deal of light upon the shipping of honey. From the statements he made, it is very evident that our beekeepers have not sufficiently studied the matter of shipping packages for either extracted or comb honey; and he pointed out the need of standard tested shipping packages. He also impressed the b( ekeeper with the necessity of recognizing a retail, wholesale and jobbing marker, and stated that the beekeepers must sooner or later make a study of such markets.

Mr. H. L. McMurry then addressed the beekeepers on “Modern Beekeeping Practices.” Mr. McMurry has a very pleasing and interesting way of presenting his subjects and brought out the important points necessary for good beekeeping practices in Wisconsin. Meeting adjourned at 12:15 and picture taken on the steps of the State Capitol.

The afternoon meeting was called to order at 1:55.

Mr. Chas. I,. Datix talked on “Out-Yard Advantages.” This subject is of much interest to our beekeepers at the present time and this paper will later be printed in Wisconsin Horticulture.

Reports of committees were then presented and the changes in constitution recommended by the Board of Managers were taken up separately and passed upon as they will appear in our new constitution and directory to be printed sometime in January or February.

The Marketing Committee then reported and the following resolutions were unanimously adopted:

The Marketing Committee of the State Beekeepers’ Association has taken up with the various divisions of tin* Department of Agriculture the beekeepers marketing problems and has received suggestions from the officers of the department. The committee for the convenience of the association. has placed their report in the form of a series of resolutions which are recommended to the association for adoption.


Be it resolved by the State Beekeepers’ Association, that the crop reporting service of the Stare and U. S. Departments of Agriculture, cooperating, be requested to furnish to the beekeepers through the newspapers, the State Entomologist, and the Marketing Commission the following information:

Be it further resolved, that the members of the Beekeepers’ Association pledge themselves to give all possible assistance to the crop reporting division in securing this information.

Be it resolved, that the State Beekeepers’ Association accept the offer of space in the market news letter for price and marketing information as made by the Marketing Division, and.

Be it resolved, that the association request the Division of Markets to send this news letter to all its members. and

Be it further resolved, that the Marketing Division be requested to secure from the Division of Entomology, including the apiary inspection service, the following information:

Be it resolved, by the State Beekeepers’ Association, that we cooperate with the Department of Agriculture as represented in the crop reporting service, the division of markets, and the state entomologist's office, and offer the service of our officers and those of every affiliated beekeepers’ association in making the reports and information accurate.

Be it resolved, that the State Beekeepers’ Association, ask the Division of Markets to establish legal standards for the grading of comb and extracted honey; that in the opinion of the members of this association such grades should conform as nearly as possible to those now used by the principal honey buyers: that such grades should be as simple as possible and that the requirements of marking such grades on the container should anply to extracted honey in any quantity, and to comb honey in case lots.”

S. B. Fracker,

N. E. France, A. L. Kleeber.


The Nominating Committee comprised of the delegates of the Board of Managers reported the following nominees.

President—Gus Dittmer. E. A. Du ax.

Vice-President—J. E. Cooke. Harry Lathrop.

Treasurer—A. (’. Allen. Wm. Otto.

Secretary—H.  F. Wilson, John


The following officers were elected to serve for the coming year:

President—Gus Dittmer.

Vice-President—J. E. Cooke. Treasurer—A. C. Allen.

Secretary—H. F. Wilson.

A rising vote of thanks was extended to Dr. Fracker for the inspection work accomplished during the past year.

A rising vote of thanks was extended to Mrs. O. W. Hildreth for her work as assistant to the secretary. (Mrs. Hildreth has helped a great deal during the past year in keeping up the records.)

Moton was then made and passed to have the constitution printed with a directory as was done last year.

A motion was passed that the secretary he authorized to contract with the editor of Wisconsin Horticulture for four pages to be used for the Stare Beekeepers’ Association.

Report of the Resolutions Committee accepted and adopted as follows:

“Whereas, the Department of Agriculture through its division of Entomology is conducting area clean-up work for the control of bee diseases and is using every possible resource of the department to reduce the ravages of American and European foulbrood.

Therefore be it resolved that the Wisconsin State Beekeepers’ Association express its approval of the work being carried on and promise the support of the organization and the cooperation of all its members in the campaign.

Whereas. the State University through its Department of Economic Entomology and its Extension Service is assisting in the development of beekeeping: first, in organizing local associations; second, in holding a beekeepers’ chautauqua on the University Campus during the summer: ami third, in supporting the apiary industry in other ways.

Therefore be it resolved that the thanks of the association be tendered to the university and particularly to the members of the staff who are in charge of this work, and that we express appreciation of the help of Dr. Phillips and Mr. Demuth of the U. S. Department of Agriculture in making the beekeepers’ school a marked success.

Whereas, the beekeepers of the stare have been greatly benefited by the county agents in helping to form local associations and assisting the apiary inspectors in carrying out their work.

Therefore, be it resolved that the association go on record in support of the policy of maintaining a county agent in every county of the state; and be it further resolved that we recommend to the local societies affiliated with us that they cooperate with him in their localities in his other work in every possible way.”

The meeting adjourned at 4:35 P. M. H. F. Wilson. Secretary.


By Mrs. R. E. Vaughan.

Place one and a half cups of honey and one-half cup of butter in large sauce pan over the fire and let slowly come to the boiling point, beating all the while with an egg beater. Remove from fire and cool ten minutes, then add yolks of five eggs, beating mixture vigorously after adding each yolk. Add a naif teaspoonful of soda dissolved in a little cold water and slowly sift in three cups of flour. When well mixed, add three tablespoonsful of milk and one more cup of flour. Fill about half full small buttered muffin tins and bake for about twenty-five minutes.

To the above recipe add another cup of flour and a teaspoonful of cinnamon. Take a small piece of dough and roll out on a floured board and cut into fancy forms. The tops may be sprinkled with granulated sugar, chopped nuts, shredded cocoanut or citron, and various seeds for flavors. Bake in a moderate oven twenty minutes.

Soot as a Fertilizer

We have a good many questions from market gardeners who ask about the value of soot as a fertilizer. Some of our people live near manufacturing towns, and the factory chimneys, when cleaned out, yield quantities of this black material. The soot is deposited on the chimney from the smoke arising from the coal or wood. It contains small particles of unburned fuel, and in these are found small quantities of nitrogen, potash and phosphoric acid. There is no standard composition of soot, although some samples run high in nitrogen. English

gardeners make heavy use of this material. It is good to use on cold, heavy land, as it darkens the color of the soil and thus increases its power to hold the heat. In England soot is considered a stimulant, somewhat the same as nitrate of soda, al.hough of course with very much less nitrogen. The English gardeners use it early in the season, scattered between the hills or drills, and well worked in with hoe or cultivator. Such crops as onions, cabbage, and root crops generally, respond quickly to an application of soot, and it has some value for keeping down certain insects, such as cutworms, wireworms and grubs. It is not a good plan to use lime with the soot, as the effect of this mixing would be to drive off part of the ammonia. After the soot has been worked into the ground, however, the lime can then be added with good results, and this combination is said to be useful for fighting insects. Some gardeners make great use of soot as a liquid manure. In preparing this liquid, a peek of soot is put in a weighted bag and suspended in a barrel of water, where it is permitted to soak for a week. The black liquid produced in this way makes a good application for the garden. In England soot is bought and sold by measure, and not by weight. It is said that the heavier samples are the poorest, as they are mixed with brick and mortar.—Rural New Yorker.

Rabbits, Whitewash and Delicious Apples.

Will such damaged trees make satisfactory growth again, or would it be better if they were replaced by new trees next spring?

to the expense of setting new ones.

“The apple branch contains scars from which eggs of the Buffalo Tree Hopper (Ceresa bubalus or C. taurinus) have hatched. The eggs are usually laid in the tender twigs and pass the winter there. In the spring they hatch out and the punctures in the wood continue to swell and by fall the bark is in the condition shown in your sample. As the tree grows older these swellings increase considerably in size and in bad cases occasionally kill branches or even trees.

There is no remedy for the condition after the eggs have been deposited but as these tree hoppers lay eggs only in trees which are surrounded by grass or weeds, the evident method of preventing the injury is to clean cultivate the trees or keep the grass cut short. ’ ’

The trees were planted in 1913, 1914 and 1915 and so far have borne no fruit worth mentioning, only an apple here and there, the trees have made a wonderful growth and losses of trees have not been greater than in other varieties planted alongside. It will require at least five years more before a report can be made as to the value of the Delicious for Wisconsin orchards.


It is surprising what a vast amount of misinformation one may acquire by a careful reading of the daily papers. The following items picked at random have a decided Burbankian flavor.

Poplar Bluff, Me.—According to W. T. Romine, recorder of Dunklin county, Luther Burbank has been outdone on the farm of F. M. McNeil, where a wild grape vine growing around a hickory tree has produced hickory nuts in place of grapes for two consecutive years. It is not alleged that the vine grows the nuts in clusters like grapes, but many persons in the neighborhood testify to the authenticity of the story.

Findlay, 0.—This city boasts of a local Burbank who hypnotized

an apple tree into bearing 29 dif-feren varieties of apples and 7 varieites of pears. And he accomplished it all on one tree which a few years ago seemed ready to keel over from age, neglect and disgust.

The wizard is Henry Flatter. Practically all the apple grafts are bearing regularly, while the pear grafts were reported doing well, with two of them producing fruit of exceptional quality.

Flatter now proposes to make the tree produce an apple half sweet and half sour. lie has grafted two slit buds of sour and sweet apples on the tree and he is convinced the graft will produce the the fifty-fifty apple.

Apples and pears ripen on the tree from early spring until late in the fall. All are reported healthy and edible.

Horticultural students from surrounding states come often to sit at the roots of this tree of varied apples and pears. Flatter holds there is no particular wiz-ardv attached to his achievement.

“Get to know your trees, that’s all,” is his recipe.


The Wisconsin Farmer has compiled the following list: Arizona—Sahuaro or giant cactus. A rkan sas—A pp 1 e blossom. Cal if ornia—Golden poppy. Colorado—Blue columbine. (’onnecticut—Mountain laurel. Delaware—Peach blossom. Florida—Orange. Georgia—Cherokee rose. Idaho—Svringa. Illinois-—Violet.

Indiana—Carnation. Iowa—Wild rose. Kansas—Sunflower. Kentucky—Trumpet vine.


Maine—Pine cone and tassel. Michigan—Apple blossoms. Minnesota—Moccasin flower.



New Mexico—Cactus.

New York—Rose.


North Carolina—Daisies.

North Dakota—Wild prairie rose. Ohio—Scarlet carnation.


Oregon—Oregon grape.

South Dakota—Pastpie flower.

Rhode Island—Violet.

Texas—Blue Bonnet.

Utah—Sego lily.

Vermont—Red clover.

Washington—Rhododendron. West Virginia—Rhododendron. W isconsin—V i ol et.

Wyoming—Indian paint brush.

1919 U. S. Apple Crop

The commercial apple crop for the United States is estimated at

23,177,000 barrels, compared with a production of 24,724,000 barrels in 1918, according to the October report of the Bureau of Crop Estimates, United States Department of Agriculture. Prices paid for this fruit, from ciders to A grade, are the highest since apple growing became a commercial industry.

The Administration of the Apple Grading Law

The inspection of the apple packing in 188 orchards containing 50,400 trees, and the examination of a large number of barrels and boxes of apples, is outlined in the report for this season’s apple administration filed by Dr. S. B. Tracker, Acting State Entomologist, with Commissioner of Agriculture. C. P. Norgord.

Three full time inspectors were employed by the Department of Agriculture in apple grading work throughout the packing season. Practically the entire commercial crop of 129,000 barrels was sent out properly labeled under the apple grading law. The remaining 2.516,000 bushels consisted of apples which were absorbed locally, sent out in bulk, or wasted.

Of the various grades, which are "Wisconsin Standard Fancy,” "Standard A,” “Standard B,” 'Unclassified,” and “Culls,” by far the most popular grade this season was "Standard B,” although a very large number of "Standard A” were packed in the best orchard districts. Very few “Fancy” apples were shipped from this state this season, owing to the unusual amount of injury from scab, curculio, and worms.

A number of violations of the law were discovered and prosecutions have been begun, both for unlabeled barrels and for those which did not come up to the grade marked. These are the first prosecutions which have been started since the passing of the law and are somewhat in the nature of test cases.

“The season was a remarkable demonstration of the profits of Wisconsin orchards when carefully managed and of the losses resulting from neglect,” according to the report. “The fact that the carefully sprayed orchards produced high grade fruit for which the orchard owner received from six to eight dollars per barrel, while two and one-half million bushels were either sold locally at low prices or rotted under the trees is a convincing argument in favor of careful handling of fruit. Individual orchards in Sauk, Richland, Crawford, and Door counties paid handsome returns while many of those in the east central portion of the state which were less well cared for hardly paid the interest on the value of the land.

“The state contains in the neighborhood of 800 orchards of 200 trees or more which could be made highly profitable investments by the adoption of a simple spraying program. The season’s work shows that summer strength lime-sulplnir is much more satisfactory for this purpose than the well known Bordeaux mixture. One of the orchard districts in particular suffered severe injury from spraying with Bordeaux while tile trees in the same neighborhoods to which the lime-sulphur and arsenate of lead mixture were applied were protected as effectively from insects and disease and were not injured by the spray. This is in accordance with the recommendations made by the department at the beginning of the season.”

Rural Planning

One of the bright spots in the legislative session of 1918-1919 was the enactment of the Rural Planning Law.

Section (2) of the Act defines Rural Planning as follows:

Surely this is a subject fit for the most earnest consideration of every horticulturist in the state. We will, therefore, spend an entire session at tile Con ven, ion discussing this topic in an endeavor

to learn how we may best serve the people of the state in carrying out the objects set forth in the preamble. The Rural planning law was printed in the September number of this paper. We discussed only one phase of this subject at the summer meeting, country parks: we will go further into it at the January meeting.