Madison, Wisconsin, December, 1919
Henry J. Moore, Niagara Falls, Ont. In Canadian Horticulturist.
No matter how successfully summer flowering bulbous and tuberous-rooted plants may have been grown, or what their appearance during summer may be. this is no criterion of the grower’s ability to grow them to perfection, unless he is capable of doing this every year. It is a more difficult matter to successfully store away the bulbs and tubers and to care for them over winter than to grow them. This may be proven by the large numbers that die during the winter resting period. Therefore to successfully bring them through the winter is really the criterion of ability in the culture of these subjects.
Many people forget that bulbs and tubers live during the resting period as during summer. The difference is that they arc not visibly growing, though actually they are. Even in dormancy certain essential changes take place, the only difference being that vitality is reduced. This resting may be likened to the sleep of a person. Surely by no stretch of the imagination can we regard a person in this state as dead. Once the grower of bulbous and tuberous rooted plants becomes impressed with the idea that he is not handling dead, worthless things, he will give them proper living conditions even during winter, when it is necessary for them to rest or sleep.’’
Another important thing we arc apt to forget is that the summer flowering bulbous and tuberous rooted plants we store away during winter are all or nearly all tender exotics, and. therefore, not being hardy they cannot stand the low winter temperatures, as do our native plants. We might, therefore, liken the exotic subjects to natives of the tropics, who, were they forced to spend a winter among the Eskimos, would quickly succumb to the cold.
REMEMBER TWO THINGS
The two important things then to bear in mind are, one,, that bulbs and tubers during their winter's rest are alive, though dormant, and two, that the reason we store them away is that they are too tender to withstand low temperatures, or that other outside conditions are unfavorable for their preservation over winter.
Bulbous and tuberous rooted plants vary greatly in their requirements even during their “sleeping” period. They must have a certain temperature, a certain condition of atmospheric humidity, and in some cases a certain condition of the soil or other medium in which of necessity they must be stored. It is not sufficient merely to throw the subjects into a box in the corner of a cellar or shed. This is too often done, and in the majority of cases little or no attention is paid to their condition during winter, in other words, they are forgotten. We should remember that in our cellar are bulbs and tubers that live, and they require living conditions peculiar to the resting period. When we forget these things tile subjects may die. This, then, is the reason of so many failures.
Why are the aforementioned conditions necessary? Let us deal separately with them, so that we may without confusion understand their importance. We will start with (a) Temperature: a certain temperature is necessary for all plants to live. Tropical or subtropical plants require a greater degree of heat during their growing and resting periods than du temperate plants at these respective times. As the temperature falls below normal during he n sling period vitality is correspondingly reduced, and if in the ease of tender subjects the temperature falls very low (even if it does nut freeze) and remains so for a considerable time death may ensue. Perhaps you have known of tubers of cannas, dahlias and elephant's ears (Caladiums), tuberous begonias, gloxinias and a host of others which in spring on removal from storage were found to be dead, although the temperature did not fall to the freezing mark. All other conditions being right, the tubers died because the temperature was too low over a prolonged period to allow the plants to live. The metabolic process, that, briefly, being the chemical change necessary to the life of the plant, could not take place at the low temperature.
Just as the temperature may be too low, so it may be too high for bulbous and tuberous rooted plants during the winter resting period. A person cannot sleep or rest in a temperature which approaches the heat of his blood. This unnatural condition excites and produces a state of restlessness which cannot be overcome until the temperature is lowered; so it is with the cannas and other bulbous and tuberous plants. A high temperature will excite the metabolism and growth will commence at an unnatural time, with consequent injury to the subjects. From these remarks, it will be seen that somewhere between the extremes of heat and cold there is a temperature just right for the welfare of our subjects when they are in a state of rest. This temperature for the purpose of this article we will call the “Optimum.” The Optimum temperature of storage place in the ease of the eanna, dahlia, and the elephant's ears, should be between 50 and 60° F. For the gladiolus between 45 and 55 F. For the tuberous begonia and gloxinia 55 to 65° F.
We now come to (b) Atmospheric humidity: Some bulbous and tuberous rooted plants require a dry atmosphere in their storage place, others a normal one. Bulbs or tubers of a firm texture like the gladioli and tuberous begonia require the former, while tubers of a succulent nature like the dahlia, eanna. elephant’s ear, and gloxinia require the latter. Were the last mentioned subjects stored away in a room with a very dry atmosphere, their cells would quickly lose their moisture, the cell walls would collapse, and the tubers would shrivel and become useless. Has any reader ever seen shrivelled, worthless tubers removed from the winter storage? Such is a very common occurrence, though easy to obviate.
NECESSARY STORAGE FACILITIES
The last condition, that of (c) the medium in which it is necessary to store certain kinds of bulbous and tuberous rooted plants for their winter’s rest, should not be overlooked. Were it possible to have the atmosphere just right, and just sufficient moisture therein. it would not be necessary to store many subjects in soil, sand, or other material. In all eases, however, where the atmosphere is very dry. it is the safest practice to cover the bulbs or tubers with some material to prevent the excessive escape of moisture from their cells. Generally sand will be found excellent for the purpose, but in no ease should the crowns of the tubers be buried, or bulbs be covered to a great depth. It should not be forgotten that it may be necessary to occasionally water eannas, ealadiums and dahlias in a dry position, even when covered with sand, and if the crowns arc below the surface water will penetrate and cause the tubers to rot. Watering should not be done in any case as long as the tubers are plump and hard, but as soon as the first signs of shrivelling occur, delay in this respect will be dangerous.
Choice bulbs as tuberous begonias and gloxinias should not be stored in a cellar, although a cellar with a furnace is an ideal place for the larger, coarser subjects mentioned herein. It is better to store them away in boxes of sand, and to place them on shelves or in a cupboard of a cool and normally dry room, in which position they may periodically be examined, as should bulbs and tubers of all descriptions during their period of winter rest. Corms of gladioli keep well if stored in paper bags and placed on dry shelves in a cool room, with a temperature of 45 to 50°. If, however, this is not available, and the storage place has a somewhat higher temperature, it is best to place the corms in boxes of sand to prevent the loss of moisture from their tissues.
A light covering of straw on the strawberry bed will protect the foliage; more can be put on later. As a rule but one covering is put on and that when the ground is frozen hard enough to hold up a team.
In the November issue of “Wisconsin Horticulture,” at page 37, in answer to some questions put, there is the following statement:
“The Deutzia Pride of Rochester is only half hardy. This is true of all the Deutzias in this state, none but that will kill back more or less even in a mild winter and very low temperatures means blank spaces in the shrub border where the Deutzias stood.”
According to my experience, this statement needs to be somewhat modified. Many years ago I planted some Deutzia Gracilis on my then grounds on the lake short* (Madison) in rather an exposed situation, and the result was as indicated in the above statement. Later and some six or seven years ago. I planted some of the same shrub on the south side of my new home in a sunny exposure. Thus far, this shrub in this location has proved perfectly hardy. There has been not the least killing back by frost during this time. I am very sure that on most home grounds there can be found a place where this shrub will prove hardy. It is such a fine shrub that the general statement that it cannot be relied upon in this climate is calculated to do harm, I think.
John M. Olin.
Mulch well any plants that may have been set this fall. Spring is the best time to set out plants, but sometimes we have to move plants in autumn if we are to have them.
Don't be in a hurry to bring in the bulbs. A good root system is essential first, then top growth.
Madison, January 6th, 7th, 8th.
It is impossible to present our program for January meeting in this issue of Horticulture as replies from speakers are not yet received. Space has been reserved for Dr C. L. Shear or some representative from the U. S. Dept, of Agriculture of Washington, D. C. Professor E. R. Jones of the University of Wisconsin, a report from the Atlantic and also Pacific coast exchanges and a number of our own cranberry growers.
The convention will be a joint affair with the State Horticultural Society at Madison, January 6-8, and will afford an opportunity for acquaintance and mutual benefit.
Into granite or porcelain lined kettle put 1 quart of cranberries, 1 pint granulated sugar, 1 pint boiling water; cover and place immediately over hot fire. Soon as berries begin to swell and “pop” remove cover and mash with spoon, keeping sauce boiling during this time. Remove from fire and turn into china or earth-enware dish. Ten minutes should do the work. This gives tender skins, fine flavor and rich color, with all the virtue of the berry retained.
Mrs. S. N. Whittlesey.
Here are three sugar-saving recipes for Cranberry Sauce:—
No. 1—1 quart cranberries, 2 cups boiling water, lV; cups sugar. Boil the sugar and water for five minutes, skim if necessary. Add the berries and cook without stirring until all the skins break—or about five minutes over a hot fire.
No. 2—The same ingredients as No. 1 with a pinch of salt added. Cook the cranberries in the salt water until tender, remove from the fire and stir in the sugar as the sauce cools.
No. 3—1 quart cranberries, 2 cups boiling water, % of a cup of syrup (white preferred) and % of a cup of sugar. Boil the syrup, sugar and water for five minutes, skim if necessary. Add the berries and cook without stirring until all the skins break—or about five minutes over a hot fire.
Fruit lovers and some fruit growers have this year been confronted with conditions not all to their taste. The small crop and high prices of many of the earlier fruits caused meager supplies to the consumers. The car shortage in the cities fruit districts meant high prices for the small amounts obtainable and ruinous loss to the growers, as theirs was a more or less perishable crop. Nature made up for losses in other fruits by yielding a large crop of exceptionally fine sound cranberries. After these cranberries were harvested the Tocsin sounded a scarcity of sugar and for a time jobbers feared to buy and the situation was dubious both for the grower and consumer. As the sugar situation was bettered by the Government’s territorial distribution and by the release of 3,000,000 pounds held by the naval department every one took heart, and orders poured in—and then what? Cars were not to be had and are not yet available in sufficient numbers to fill orders. This trouble seems not to arise so much from scarcity of cars as unequal distribution for there are empty refrigerators standing idle on some side tracks while there are crying needs for these cars at other points on other roads. While our growers may not suffer loss as the citrus growers did because of deterioration of fruit, they face the danger of chilled berries in the warehouses unless berries can be moved before cold weather sets in. However we trust the cars in abundance will be forthcoming and one great comforting feature to all concerned is the splendid keeping quality of the cranberry. They will endure low temperature and in fact want to be kept in a cool dry place. With as good care as we give the apple the berry will keep quite as well, and like the apple can be used as needed, so sugar restrictions need not be a bugaboo to their purchase for with the weekly amounts allowed any family will have sufficient sweetening supply to indulge in the free use of the cranberry. Pure white Karo syrup is obtainable this year and can be successfully used with the berry. While entire substitution of the syrup for sugar does not give quite as fine flavor it can be used proportionately' with very' good results.
At this writing Oct. 25th, all the cranberry growers in the Cranmoor district have completed the harvesting of their berries. the Arpin company being the last to get in their crop, finishing the work last week. The crop this year is the best ever gathered, being in excess in quantity, and of an unusually good quality. We believe this is the only time on record when there was no frost during the entire season and never were we more favored with, weather conditions. The Wisconsin crop will probably clean up 40,000 barrels which is 10,(MX) more than were raised in 1918. Of this output the larger half will be furnished from Cranmoor Township—heading the list as estimated at this time is the Arpin Cranberry Co. with 4000 barrels; Gaynor-Blackston Co., 2500; Potter & Son, 2500; Bennett & Son, 2500; A. Searls & Son, 1800; Jacob Searls Cranberry Co., 1800; S. N. Whittlesey, 1500; Robert Regin, 900; J. J. Emmerick Cranberry Co., 900; Elm Lake Cranberry Co., 800; Lesher Cranberry Co., 800; Ed Kruger. 500; Mrs. Pauline Smith, 400; H. F. Whittlesey, 300; Robert Skeel, 300; Thomas Regin, 150; Lloyd Regin, 150; T. J. Foley. 70; Frank Patterson, 60; Bissig Brothers of City Point, 600.
I am interested in fruit growing in this part of the state, having lived here nineteen years. In that time I have set out 110 trees of different kinds. The first I set was in the spring of 1901 and some of these are still alive and fruiting, but not many. Three Transcendent crabs left from eight; two Sweet Russet still bearing, not quite dead; three trees of Minor or Excelsior crab still fruiting, set seventeen years; Wolf River all dead; Yellow Transparent, all dead; out of twelve Duchess one old snag still gives nice apples; of the twelve Wealthy one still gives some nice fruit. The nine Hiber-nals are all alive, doing well, never lost a tree, set fourteen years, bore thirty bushels this year. It is a good pie apple, too sour for any other purpose, rather bitter or crab taste.
Of course I had all the apples I needed for family use when there were any, but late spring frost, in June, has killed all the fruit some years. So you see I have tried hard to raise apples. I’ve tried N. W. Greening three different times, always dies before fruiting. The Patten always lived until they came into bearing, then died, kind of slow but all dead now. I have one tree in bearing now for three years and wish I had more, and so does everyone else here that likes apples.
Now I set out one row, twelve trees, of varieties similar to the Wealthy. One of these trees broke off below ground in the fall of the year, and in spring I noticed a sprout come up from the root, as I thought, so I dug down and found it came from below the enlargement or graft. This was fifteen years ago and I have taken great care of this tree. The fruit is very uniform in size, light red on yellow or blushed where the sun strikes. This year it was loaded with bloom and set full. I picked almost six bushels from it this year. I tried keeping the quality for two years and they kept until March. It is a good eating apple and a splendid cooker.
My orchard is on north slope, soil clay loam, two to three feet deep, then hard pan with alternate layers of sand and hard pan down to sand rock. I never got through it. I use windbreak to north and northwest of orchard of white spruce, balsam and white pine set in double rows, the trees sixteen feet apart each way and alternate or break-joint fashion. This windbreak should be six to eight rods back of orchard. I also have evergreens for protection on south and southwest 16 to 20 feet from orchard and believe this has saved my trees more than anything else, this south protection. All trees shaded on south live and bear better than others. If I ever lay out another orchard I shall put a double row of evergreens 16 to 20 feet south and southwest.
I am now seventy-five years of age, and I have had but very little fruit since my boyhood in southern Illinois. I lived in Minnesota from 1857 to 1900 where we could hardly raise a crab apple on the prairie, so you see I was pretty fruit hungry. So I’ll sign,
Yjours for success in fruit raising which makes contented homes or goes a long ways towards the same.
Rusk Co., Wisconsin.
Keep grass and weeds away from the apple and plum trees if you expect them to have a whole hide next spring. Mice like to nest in weeds or rubbish near soft bark trees, because they furnish them easy meals during the winter.
Clean and oil all machinery and tools before putting them away for the winter. Rnst never did improve the working qualities of a tool.
During the past month a series of three day bee schools have been conducted by the University Beekeeping Department in cooperation with the U. S. Bureau of Entomology.
The first school was held at Fond du Lac on November 10-12, with an average attendance of 25 beekeepers, A second school was held at Chippewa Falls, November 17-19, with an average attendance of 30 beekeepers. A third school was held at Monroe with an average attendance of 15 beekeepers. More schools are to follow’ during the winter.
The cooperation and interest of the beekeepers is increasing rapidly and the industry is becoming organized. What, we need now is something from the beekeepers for our beekeeping section. Beginning with the January number the space devoted to beekeeping will be increased to four pages, one of which will be given over to local news items if sent in by our beekeepers. All papers presented in writing at the convention will be printed if our contract with Wisconsin Horticulture is continued.
Bee diseases cause the greatest losses among beekeepers in Wisconsin, but poor wintering takes a heavy toll which can easily be prevented.
The essentials for successful wintering are:
Plenty of young bees.
Plenty of stores.
Plenty of protection.
Whether or not bees winter best in the cellar or out of doors makes little difference at this time. The main question concerns the bee cellar. A poor cellar is almost as bad as none at all, and in some cases worse. A cold cellar is always a damp one. Bees arc easily affected by changes in temperature and, as the temperature outside the cluster falls, the temperature rises. The ideal temperature for best wintering is 57° or a little above surrounding the cluster. In order to get this temperature, the bee cellar should be kept at a constant temperature of about 50° F. Any temperature below 40° F is too low and if the cellar is cold enough to permit frost on the walls the winter loss will be greatly increased. In cellars where the temperature is as low as freezing the bees must produce more heat, use up more stores, and consequently more moisture is given off. If the stores are bad, the bees will have to hold more refuse matter in the intestines and this is liable to cause dysen-tary. The cold damp air causes moisture to collect in the hives which not only makes life miserable for the bees but develops mold on the combs and creates a general bad condition in the hive.
Every beekeeper should keep a thermometer in his bee cellar and provide conditions so that the temperature will remain near 50° F.
VENTILATION IN THE BEE CELLAR
It is now a well established fact that ventilation in the bee cellar is unnecessary except to keep the temperature down. Bees seldom suffer from lack of air and usually winter best in cellars where no provision for ventilation is made. A means of ventilation should be provided for every cellar but it should be closed tight during cold weather and opened only when the temperature rises above 55° F. If bees are coming out and flying about in the cellar when the temperature is lower than 55° F, it is likely to be due to dysentery or openings letting in light and certainly not from lack of ventilation.
Mice and rabbits annually destroy thousands of apple trees in Wisconsin every one of which could be saved by a little attention at this time of the year.
For protection against rabbits wrap the trunks with building paper, tarred paper is best, and for additional protection against mice clear away all weeds and grass from base of tree and with spade or hoe make a conical mound of earth around the trunk. This little mound seems to deflect the mice in their pilgrimages and they go on to other feeding grounds. Snow tramped firmly around the tree will serve as well but the tramping must be done more than once during the winter. The paper should be removed in the spring.
Old canes should be cut out of the raspberry bed and burned. They often furnish a home to insects over winter. It is a good plan not to let raspberries grow very thick. Cultivation helps to keep the insects in check as well as encourages the growth of the plant.
People in general, including newspaper reporters, are a gullible lot when it comes to matters horticultural. You can tell them anything and they will believe it, sell them anything if it is represented as wonderful or unusual. This was proved during the past season by the sale of a wonderful ‘‘bean’’ that was guaranteed to grow to a length of three feet and a weight of several pounds.
The gullible public swallowed the bait and planted the “beans.” In September the gullible newspaper reporters, especially in Milwaukee, added polish to the job. Here is a sample from a Milwaukee paper:
“Ten healthy Milwaukeeans sit down to one bean. They eat to satisfaction. When they arise there is some left. Some bean!
Thomas Braver, 987 Eleventh-av, sent to California for seed which the catalog said would grow unusually large beans.
“The beans were planted,” said Thomas’ mother. “They have grown very nearly one inch a day. I have used them in many ways. Some of them I pickled and some I fried like egg-plant. They are very good, as good as anything that I have ever eaten. They don’t taste much like beans.”
The largest bean has grown to thirty-four inches. The smaller one is thirty inches long. Both are approximately six inches in diameter. The larger weighs twelve pounds and the smaller about eleven.
According to Mrs. Braver, the beans also have the record here for the fastest growing beans on the market.
“On Thursday,” said Mrs. Braver, “the larger bean was twenty-nine and one-half inches long, four days later it was thirty-four. ’ ’
Here is another from Racine :
Racine, Wis.—Thirty-five persons, members of eight families, enjoyed goodly portions of a New Guinea butter bean, raised in the garden of George Chaussee, West Racine. The bean weighed seven pounds and seven ounces and was thirty inches long, but Mr. Chaus-see has a bean grown on the same vine that weighs 14 pounds and is 36 inches long. It is to be divided among 12 families in the neighborhood. The beans, largest ever grown in Racine county, are from seeds planted in May. Five beans were cut from the vine, the smallest weighing five pounds.
The writer has not had the privilege of seeing the wonderful “bean” but is informed on good authority that it is the Hercules Club Gourd, seed of which may be had of any seedsman for five cents a package. This gourd is a rank growing climber bearing club shaped fruits or gourds which often grow to three feet in length but unlike many other gourds rarely mature in this climate. Only one mystery remains and that is how any one can eat a gourd! No wonder the Racine specimen served for thirty-five persons.
Wisconsin supplies 49.7 per cent of the commercial pea pack of the United States. Of the 8,658,000 cases of peas canned in the United States this year, 4,375,000 cases were packed in this state, according to the figures of the national pea packers’ association. This state is easily first in the industry, with New York as the nearest competitor.
Why don't my plum tree bear? It blossoms full every year but never sets any fruit. This question is of such regular occurrence that we who are the targets for questions, keep the answer canned in quantities for instant use. Sometimes, not often, the advice is followed and sometimes, more rarely yet, does the advisee see fit to speak about it. Such a case follows:
“Fifteen years ago I planted two Surprise plum trees, they grew up to be fine large trees, loaded with blossoms every spring but set no fruit. I tried to find out why and asked nurserymen but got no satisfaction. I then wrote our Agricultural Experiment Station and was advised to plant other varieties with the Surprise, some Americana or Hansen hybrids.
I sent for two Waneta, Hansen hybrid, the next spring, 1916, and also to the Minnesota Breeding Farm for cions of the Haralson plum which I grafted on the Surprise. Last spring the blossoms on the Surprise all set and we had plenty of fruit. The Waneta also fruited, the most wonderful plums ever seen in this locality, a most delicious flavor. I am now trying seven kinds of the Hansen hybrids and four of the Minnesota seedlings, 8, 12. 21 and 91.” S. J. S. Appleton.
Hard wood cuttings about 12 inches long of mature grape wood may be set in the ground now and mulched with strawy manure. A good percentage of them should root next season. The cuttings may also be put in bundles and buried in sand until next spring and then set out.
Cabbage keep well wrapped in newspaper and turned bottom side up on shelves in a cool cellar.
The annual meeting is attracting more members each year. Many come for one day and many more stay until the end. It is a splendid opportunity both for amateurs and professionals to acquire information at first hand. Only those who have attended our meetings appreciate how much the personal contact means. You not only have the opportunity of listening to the men and women who are leaders in their special fields of work but you can engage them in conversation between sessions. It has often been said that the hotel headquarters is the real convention hall but that is only partly true. We cannot have one without the other. Come and get the benefit of both.
Annual Convention, State Horticultural Society, State Capitol, Madison, Wisconsin, Tuesday, Wednesday and Thursday, January 6th, 7th, and 8th, 1920.
(Subject to change)
Capital Hotel Headquarters for officers and delegates.
(1) Opening Address, Hon. J. J. Blaine, Attorney General.
(2) Introduction of delegates from Minnesota, Illinois, Iowa, Indiana and Northern Illinois Societies.
(3) Getting acquainted: Everybody shake hands with everybody else.
(1) The Arrangement of Cut Flowers in Vases, Bowls, Etc. A Practical Demonstration—A. Martini, Lake Geneva.
(2) Strawberries Every Year— J. E. Leverieh, Sparta.
(3) Cane Fruits, Diseases and Insects of—Leon K. Jones, College of Agriculture.
(4) The Business Man In Horticulture—G. A. Bueks.aff. Oshkosh.
(5) ‘‘Hoosier Horticulture”— L. V. Doud, Denver, Indiana.
(1) My Experience With Bees —Mrs. Wm. Nelson, Oshkosh.
(3) Fruit Growing in the Appalachian Region An illustrated talk.—Prof. W. H Aiderman, University of Minnesota.
(1) Business Session 9 o’clock to 10 o’clock. President’s Address, Reports of Secretary, Trial Orchard Committee, Delegates, etc, and Election of Officers.
(2) How a Young Man with Small Capital Ought to Start in Fruit Growing—Theo. Haack, Madison.
(3) Spraying the Farm Orchard—Peter E. Swartz, Waukesha.
The Women’s Auxiliary will meet Wednesday forenoon for program session.
Topic; Rural Planning:—A Full Discussion of this Important Subject.
The Rural Planning Law as an Aid in Preserving Places of Historical and Scenic Interest—Prof. F. A. Aust.
Making Highways Ornamental as Well as Useful—J. A. Hazelwood.
Looking Both Ways, Backward and Forward—Wm. Toole, Sr.
How the County Agent Can Help. General Discussion.
Informal dinner, Capitol House. No invitations are issued, every member expected to attend.
(1) Fruit Growing in Dunn County, Present and Prospective —Prof. D. P. Hughes, Principal Dunn Co. School of Agriculture.
(2) Fruit Growers Co-Operative Associations—Prof. R. S. Herrick, Ames, Iowa.
(3) Nitrate of Soda as a Fertilizer for Cherry Orchards—Geo. F. Potter, Agr. College.
(4) Some Notes on Apple Spur Growth—R. H. Roberts, Agr. College.
Thursday Afternoon 2 o’clock
(1) The Tractor in Orchard Cultivation—D. E. Bingham, Sturgeon Bay.
(2) Orchard Cultivation—R. E. Marken, Gays Mills.
(3) How About Gooseberries? —Dr. S. B. Fracker.
(4) Some Phases of the Apple Scab Situation—Dr. G. W. Keitt, Agr. College.
(4) Insect Pests in 1919—Prof. H. F. Wilson, Agr. College.
The following cash premiums are offered for exhibits at the annual convention Madison, Jan. 6,
7. 8. 1920:
Best collection of apples, not less than 15 varieties, 1st, $10.00; 2nd, $6.00; 3rd, $4.00; 4th, $2.00.
Best 5 plates (5 varieties) commercial apples for Wisconsin, 1st, $5.00; 2nd, $3.00; 3rd, $2.00; 4th, $1.00.
For best plate each of the following varieties, 1st, $1.00; 2nd, 75c; 3rd, 50e; 4th, 25c:
Ben Davis, Dudley, Fameuse, Gano, Gem, Gideon, Golden Rus-sett, Grimes Golden, Jonathan, King, Maiden Blush, Malinda, McIntosh, McMahan, Newell,
Northern Spy, Northwestern
Greening, Patten, Pewaukee,
Plumb Cider, Salome, Seek-no-further, Scott Winter, Tolman, Twenty Ounce, Utter, Wagener, Wealthy, Windsor, Wolf River, York Imperial.
Best tray of each of the above named varieties, 1st, $3.00; 2nd, $2.00; 3d, $1.00; 4th, 75c.
Best 5 trays of any of the following varieties: McIntosh, Northwestern, Wealthy, Tolman, Wolf River, Fameuse, Gano. Salome, McMahan. Seek-no-further, Windsor, 1st, $10.00; 2nd, $6.00; 3rd, $4.00; 4th, $2.00.
Separate samples must be furnished for each entry.
Best exhibit Pears, 1st, $1.00; 2nd, 75c; 3d. 50c.
Best exhibit Crabs. 1st, $1.00; 2nd, 75c; 3d, 50e.
Best collection, not less than 10 entries, 1st, $5.00; 2nd, $3.00; 3d, $2.00.
For each of the following. 1st, $1.00; 2nd, 75c; 3d, 50c:
6 Blood Turnip Beets, 3 White Turnips, 3 Yellow Turnips, 3 Rutabagas, 6 Chantenav Carrots, 6 Short-Horn Carrots. 3 Winter Cabbage, 3 Red Cabbage. 6 Chicory, 6 Ears Pop Corn, 6 Red Onions, 6 Yellow Danvers Onions, 6 White Onions, 6 Onions, Large Type, 6 Winter Radishes. 6 Parsnips, 6 Peppers, Hubbard Squash, 6 Heads Celery, 3 Chinese Cabbage.
Sweepstakes awarded pro rata, $20.00.
Premiums will be awarded for exhibits of Cranberries as follows: Premium list by the Cranberry Growers’ Association. First premium, $1.00, 2nd, 75c; 3d, 50c:
Bennett Jumbo, Searls Jumbo, Bell and Bugle, McFarlin, Metallic Bell, Bell and Cherry. Prolific.
One pint is sufficient for an entry. Send all entries to Frederic Cranefield. Secretary, Madison, Wis„ charges prepaid.
RULES OF ENTRY
1. Exhibits must be arranged ready for judges by 1:00 P. M. Tuesday, January 6th. This will be strictly enforced.
2. Four apples constitute a plate, no more, no less.
3. Competition open to all residents of Wisconsin, but premiums paid only to members. Successful exhibitors, if not members, must forward fee for membership before receiving check for premium; fee for annual membership, fifty cents.
Members or others unable to attend the meeting may send fruit to the secretary, who will make entries and place fruit on exhibition. Transportation charges must be prepaid.
All entries must be made on regular entry blanks which will be furnished by the secretary on application.
F. Cranefield, Secretary W. S.
H. S., Madison, Wisconsin.
Kokomo is a city in Indiana. Po-komoke is a strawberry. W. J. Moyle is a nurseryman. He talked about strawberries at the summer meeting and the reporter credits him with saying the “Kokomo” and Carson’s Beauty are identical and it was so printed in our November issue, p. 35. Now even this might have been all right, with most readers, if Prof. Moore had kept still. He didn’t. He laughed. He laughed until speech failed him and after a short rest laughed more. Surprising how little it takes to make some people laugh. Moyle spoke of the Pokomoke strawberry, not Kokomo.
Stratify gladiolus cormels in sand if you want them to germinate well next year.
THE INSECT PAGE
Conducted by the Department ot Economic Entomology College ot Agriculture
A type of flea-beetle easily recognized and injuring, so far as known, but one economic plant, is found in the horse-radish fleabeetle. The adult of this insect, is nearly one eighth of an inch long, oblong in shape, with a small black head and pale yellow wing covers, marked in the center by a narrow black band.
The adults live over winter in rubbish piles and crop remnants. In the spring tiny orange colored eggs are laid on the horse-radish plant. The young upon hatching, burrow into the stems and crown, where they feed until ready to transform into beetles.
It is evident from the internal feeding habits of the larvae, that control measures to be effective, must be used against the adult beetles.
A series of tests carried on at Madison the past summer, in which beetles were placed on separate, sprayed plants, showed that arsenicals used at the rate of 2 lbs. to 50 gal. of water appeared to give the best control. Of these, arsenate of lime killed a higher per cent (90%) of beetles than any other arsenical used.. In tests, using arsenicals combined with Bordeaux mixture, the per cent of killing, was about one half of that when arsenicals were used alone. In tests using Bordeaux mixture alone, practically no beetles were killed, and the beetles fed only on new shoots and spots on the leaves where no spray was deposited. It thus appears that Bordeaux repels the insects from the immediate vicinity at least, while foliage covered with arsenicals is eaten more or less readily.
It is interesting to note the results of field tests in which both killing and repelling action of any material could be exerted. Three medium sized plots were used in
Larvae of horse-radish flea-beetle tunneling in horse-radish stem. Enlarged 49 times.
the tests; one sprayed with lead arsenate, 3 lbs. to 50 gals.; one with Bordeaux mixture. 4 lbs. to 50 gals, and one left untreated as a cheek. Six other species of flea-beetles were found in these plots in greater or less numbers throughout the summer. The results of treatment upon all llea-beetles were as follows: In the plot treated with lead arsenate, there was a slight decrease in the number of horse-radish flea-beetles and a decided decrease in the number of all other flea-beetles, at each observation. In the plot treated with Bordeaux mixture, there was a slight increase in the number of horse-radish, but a decided decrease in the number of all other flea-beetles, at each observation. In the untreated plot, there was at first a decrease, but later an increase in the number of horse-radish flea-beetles, but a constant increase of other flea-beetles. The two treated plots showed little feeding injury, despite the relatively large number of beetles present, while plants in the untreated plot were badly shot-holed. A few beetles were found dead in the treated plots, and none in the untreated plot.
It appears then, from the above tests, that Bordeaux mixture, while recommended as the best control of most flea-beetles, is no better than lead arsenate, if as good, against the horse-radish flea-beetle.
John E. Dudley. Jr.
The adults of the Buffalo Treehopper are small, greenish hoppers about one-fourth inch long and have a horn like projection on each side of the body near the head. The young are lighter in color, flatter, and quite spiny, especially along the back. The young hop quickly but the adults fly readily.
The full grown individuals begin to appear in late summer and are numerous until frost overtakes them. During this time the females deposit their long, cylindrical, transparently white eggs into incisions cut in the upper surface of the bark of small branches. The eggs are laid in groups of 6 to 12 and are inserted obliquely into the incisions made by the strong ovipositor of the female. The damage is done by the female in making these egg punctures and not by any feeding as the young feed entirely upon grasses and succulent vegetation. The egg punctures are made in limbs of various trees but especially apple and cherry. Young growth is selected and as several hundred incisions may be made by a single female, y oung trees are often severely injured and sometimes even killed. The punctures do not heal readily end after a year or two the limbs take on a much scarred appearance, these sears making excellent places for entrance of diseases.
Since the adults do not feed upon the trees, any sprays applied would have no effect upon them but as the young feed upon the vegetation allowed to grow in or around the orchard clean culture become important where this insect is a pest. The grasses and weeds along fence rows should also be destroyed. Pruning out the most severely injured branches will help to reduce th" nun-iw
Chas. L. Fluke, Jr.
It is always interesting to know what others think of us and our children. It is also of interest to know the opinion of fruit growers about the apples which we claim as our own, how our children have behaved when away from home.
The following from the Rural New Yorker gives our Northwestern a pretty fair record:
“I notice in the recent discussions upon varieties of fruit for commercial planting, by various correspondents, that considerable attention is given to the Northwestern Greening apple. With us the Northwestern Greening is a very attractive fruit, being particularly large and green upon young trees, which are just coming into bearing. There is considerable variability in the size of the fruit, and the smaller specimens are usually more yellow in color, often being faintly blushed. It is generally considered to be a good baking apple, perhaps because the flesh is rather corky, and causes the fruit to hold its shape well through the baking process. Frequently there are speci-
Scars made by the egg-laying habit of the adult female hopper.
mens of '‘water-cored” fruit, similar to that which some times occurs in the King, and this of course is an objection. The quality, flavor, and juiciness is certainly much inferior to that of Rhode Island Greening. The fruit ripens a few days later than Rhode Island Greening. Evaporator men have told me that a good quality of yellow dried stock can be made from this variety. The trees bear well, but not at an earlier date or more abundantly than Rhode Island trees of the same age. During the winter of 1917-18 the trees appeared to be a little less hardy than Rhode Island, and patches of frozen and killed bark, especially at crotches, are quite frequent. Upon the New York market the “A” grade fruit usually sells at about 50e per barrel under “A” grade Rhode Island, but the “B” grade usually sells for slightly more than “B” grade Rhode Island.
Perhaps the greatest objection to the Northwestern from the grower’s standpoint is the trouble from splitting of the tree and limbs. The wood is very straight-grained, and in spite of propping up, crosswiring of limbs, etc., the results from this cause are very disastrous to the tree. Even where the trees have no fruit an ordinary wind here on the lake shore will blow large limbs out of them. In this respect they split down about as badly as the old Smock peach tree, and this is the worst variety of apples that we have from this standpoint. This one objection is sufficient reason for me. at least, to discontinue planting this variety commercially.
Chas. Wm. Wilbor, Wayne Co., N. Y.
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My neighbor is a confirmed gardener. A real gardener is like a real toper, the habit soon confirmed. Even when he can’t work the ground he fusses around in the garden aimlessly so far as I can see, scattering a few leaves here and there, putting some rubbish in this place which he takes away from that. If you ask him about it he tells you that this plant needs some covering, that he is putting a dead tomoto vine over that plant so that it will catch the leaves and hold them as a covering for a group of tender perennials.
When I talked with him the other day he gave me quite a different idea about winter covering from what I had had. His idea is that a winter covering for plants is not to keep them from freezing but to keep them from thawing. Plants that are not exceptionally hardy, if covered during the winter. unless the weather is continuously and uniformly cold, are apt to smother and rot if covered very deeply. During warm spells the moisture in the crown seems to tend to rotting and the death of the plant. If covered enough to keep it from thawing it is much more likely to live through the winter than under a deeper covering wheer it might thaw from below rather than from above.
My neighbor’s theory is that early covering of plants is not usually necessary. In fact last winter in March when his strawberry bed was covered with snow and snowdrifts, I saw him spreading straw and chaff on top of the snow. But the result seemed to justify this practice for his strawberries were the finest in the neighborhood. Another reason for delay in covering, so he tells me, is that if he waits until everything is frozen up, the field mice have located for the winter and are not nesting in his garden or devouring the roots near the surface in the unfrozen ground as they very likely would be doing if he fixed up nice snug quarters for them early in the fall.
Of course this does not apply to bulbs, especially lilies planted in the fall. These he covers with a layer of leaves thick enough to keep the ground from freezing so that the bulbs may make a good root growth in the fall. They are deep enough in the ground so that mice do not disturb them.
If a gardener is shrewd he can make the wind do lots of covering for him if there are trees, especially oak trees in the vicinity. A dead plant, if a bushy one, thrown on the ground will stop a lot of leaves, and a row of them over a row of plants will stop leaves enough to make a first class cover. These will stop the snow from blowing away and save the gardener a lot of trouble in the way of raking and covering.
I noticed in my neighbor’s garden where his early potatoes and other early crops had been, that he had apparently sowed something that had come up and covered the ground with a growth which remained green all winter. I asked him what sort of a crop it was and he told me he was raising nitrogen for next year’s crop. He pulled up a plant which had a great quantity of roots and all along the roots little green nodules like a multitude of tiny embryonic potatoes. The plant was the Hairy or Winter Vetch, a plant of the pea family, upon the roots of which nitrogen fixing bacteria live, and cause these nodules in which nitrogen is stored in such shape that becomes available as plant food. When this is spaded into the soil in the spring it serves two purposes, to make the soil lighter and more favorable by the addition of the vegetable fiber, and to add to the soil the nitrogen stored in the nodules upon the roots of the plant. It produces the same result that the farmer secures by plowing under a growth of clover.
The Minnesota State Horticultural Society believes in and is working toward the following ideals:
1. For every home
a. A vegetable garden to sup
ply the family.
b. A small fruit garden.
c. A small apple and plum
d. Plantings of trees, shrulrs
and flowers to make it attractive.
2. For every farm—
A shelter belt of deciduous and evergreen trees to protect the farmstead.
3. For every school —
Grounds adorned with trees, shrubs and flowers.
4. The study of gardening in the
public schools for all boys and girls.
5. The suitable planting of trees and shrubs on all highways.
6. Public parks and playgrounds
for every village and city.
7. The commercial production of
vegetables, fruits, nursery stock, seeds and flowers.
8. The origination of better var
ieties of fruits by the planting of seeds.
9. The extermination of injurious
insects and plant diseases.
This declaration of principles with the possible exception of No. 2 might well be adopted by our own society.
(Continued from November)
The Cove cherries this year are an exceptionally fine lot of fruit. M. E. Lawrence has about 15 acres in cherries and apples and this is his best season. His trees are principally on ridge land and slopes. He will have a big crop.
Other orchards in the vicinity of The Cove are those owned by W. O. Brown, who has about 10 acres; Ellis Stokdyke, 15 acres; Lucius T. Gould, 15 acres. Ed. DeSmith also has an orchard in that vicinity. Stanton Minor has 7 acres in cherries.
Robert Cornish’s 12 acres are producing better than ever this year. S. T. Learned’s crop is larger and better than ever. F. N. Graass has 15 acres that are producing the very best of cherries.
M. B. Goff has 50 girls, principally from Green Bay, picking in his 35 acre orchard and will get a big yield this year, having given his orchard particular care. The young ladies have a camp in the woods and have their own cooks and leaders.
Will Marshall and son Ray, Job Tong, Ben Otis, Lester Birmingham, each have orchards that show the owners are men experienced in horticulture and are doing better than ever this year.
While John Hanson, down the bay shore, has not a very large orchard his cherries are the equal of any grown in the county. He has 500 pretty 7 and 8 year old trees on his 5 acres and expects to pick at least 1,200 eases. He has between 30 and 40 pickers engaged, many of them being local people.
Among the “coming” orchards is that of Henry Overbeck. Situated in the fruit belt Mr. Overbeck has about ten acres of young cherry trees, which this year proved to be good producers. Having several buildings suitable for sleeping and feeding pickers, Mr. Overbeck was among those who took care of his own crew. He contemplates extensive improvements in his pickers’ quarters next season, installing shower baths and other modern improvements. It is possible that Mr. Overbeek’s place will be used as a community center for pickers for several small orchards in that immediate vicinity.
Harry Walker, conductor on the A. & W. Ry., takes about a two weeks vacation every year to oversee the cherry crop on his eight acres. It is also one of the rapid developing young orchards.
Cedric Dreutzer is another fruit grower on the bay shore that has a large acreage of young fruit trees, cherries and plums, that are commencing to bring good returns. Mr. Dreutzer’s plum orchard is one of the largest in this district.
Other bay shore fruit growers are John Pallister, who also grows grapes, A. S. Brooks, Harry Dan-koehler and others in the Little Harbor district.
The old Anton Long 80-acre farm is now known as the “B” Orchard company, named from the Brills of Green Bay. F. N.
Kohn is one of the head men of this property which is owned by Green Bay people. They have a large orchard and a fine crop of fruit.
Frank Borchert’s 20 acres are being picked by the girls from the Boyce camp. Mr. Borchert will get about 2,500 crates.
Michael Hahn has a 10 acre orchard of young trees which are just starting to bear and will get about a thousand crates.
R. Fellner has 18 acres and will average better than a crate each on his young trees. B. Sackett also has a young orchard just starting to bear. He has 10 acres.
Richard Gilbert will get a thousand cases from his 5 acres.
Harry Evans, owner of Cherry Height orchard, has one of the prettiest locations in the county, at the crest of the hill overlooking the city.
Other orchards in the fruit belt, consisting of .five and ten acre tracts are Louis Nebel, Ed. Squier, E. Bartlett, Mrs. A. Greaves, John Kostka, Elbert Kubis, Peter Simon and T. A. and H. J. Sanderson. All of these orchards are just commencing to become profitable and there will be a large increase in production during the next few years.
The fruit belt extending across the peninsula east of Sturgeon Bay is about fifteen miles long, and contains many orchards not mentioned in the above writeup, also orchards on the west side of the bay and up the peninsula.
Out at the fair grounds are 400 boys in one great camp. They are Y. M. C. A. youngsters from all over Wisconsin and work subject to call from growers belonging to
the Union. They are assigned in working parties to the different orchards and are taken to and from work each day in trucks. The camp has a director who has his hands full most of the time. The boys live in the buildings on the grounds and besides have a number of army tents. They have their own cooks, and, take it from the cooks, those 400 live like the Four-Hundred and can eat up more grub than all the summer resorters in the county put together, town nights!—they start at Poulos’ candy kitchen and make the rounds of every candy shop and bakery in town, causing the confectioners and bakers to start right in again and get another stock ready for the next night.
William Staab, of Milwaukee, one of the Y. M. C. A. boys camped at the fair grounds, broke all picking records last week while working in the Stokdyke orchard. In 12 hours’ picking, in one day, his card was punched for 232 quarts. He was picking Early Richmonds and picked with stems on.
Julius Dubois, of this city, previously held the picking record, which he established in 1915, of 221 quarts in one day’s picking in the W. I. Lawrence orchard. Julie has an orchard of his own now and picks the greater part of the crop himself.
Last year one of the boys in the “Y” camp averaged 131 quarts a day for the entire picking season.
At The Cove this year one picker averaged a quart of gooseberries every three minutes for the day.
It is claimed that an Indian picker in the county got 260 quarts in one day but this report is not verified.
Over on the Sawyer side of the bay cherries are just as plentiful and just as nice. Old Veteran George Walker has six and a half acres of as pretty cherry land as one can find in the county. He employs 25 pickers, all home people, and will get 1,000 crates. His trees were planted in 1910, 1911 and 1912.
Theodore Abrahamson has five and a half acres good for 1,600 crates and has 40 local pickers. He has 500 8-year old trees and 100 6-year old.
Just as good as any, and better than many, is the orchard owned by John Boler who brought up his young trees for 7 years by working on them in his spare time when he was not working at the Door County State Bank. He has worked hard on his orchard and is reaping the fruits of his labor. Besides 9 acres in cherries he has a 6-acre apple orchard and has also been taking care of the 9-year-old cherry orchard of his brother-in-law, Walter Larson. Among Mr. Boler’s employes is an aviator, a Mr. Wood of Fond du Lac, but Mr. Wood’s professional services are not required. Mr. Boler has thick, squatty trees that can be picked even without the use of a ladder.
Cherry Ridge Fruit Farm, owned by Melvin Haines, proves that ridgeland is the very best for cnerries. Some of the trees are 8-years old and others are from 10 to 14 years. The old trees are holding up fine, with 6 and 8 cases to a tree. The 70 pickers, all from the neighborhood, picked 5 tons of cherries in one day. Over 20 tons of earlies were harvested and at least 40 tons are expected from the 5,000 trees. The 40 tons are net weight, most of the cherries being “milked,” or picked stripped without stems.
Mrs. Fanny Jones owns the Ridge View Orchard. She ardently objects to her 20 acres being called a farm, because she hasn’t a pig or a cow or a chicken on the place—just fruit, that’s all. Her cherries look so nice it is a shame to pick them from the trees, and she positively won’t strip them for the canning factory. Those cherries must be picked on the stem and shipped in neatly packed crates. Mrs. Jones has about 10 acres in cherries, with some young trees, and employs only local pickers to gather 1,500 cases. She has a lovely crop of pears and many acres of plums, too. which are looking very nice.
About 175 pickers are employed in the orchards owned by Nic Jacobs and Ed. Jacobs. The pickers are principally Algoma young people who are having an enjoyable outing besides making lots of money. Nic Jacobs has 25 acres in cherries and will get between 4,000 and 5,000 crates. His trees are 12 and 13 years old. Ed. Jacobs has about 8 acres in cherries and will get an exceptionally heavy yield.
The Waupee Fruit Co., of which John Hull is the head, has 18 acres in cherries and will harvest 36,000 pounds of fruit this year. Mr. Hull’s son-in-law, D. W. Warren, has ten acres and will have a big crop also.
Root crops and cabbage require a cool cellar with some moisture in the air. Squash and pumpkins require a dry warm cellar. Onions should be placed on shelves or in bins not over eight or ten inches dee'p with a good circulation of air about them.