CLOVER, WHITE (Trifolium repens). A stemless clover with the flowering heads growing from a cluster of basal leaves. It is a leading honey plant in many states with yields up to 300 pounds per colony. It is often known as WHITE DUTCH CLOVER. known as WHITE DUTCH CLOVER. It is the source of much of the early surplus east of the Mississippi River. The honey is white and mild with a delicate flavor. It granulates rapidly after extraction but more slowly in the white, attractive combs. In dry years white clover yields very little nectar. It is listed by Oertel as most important in 11 states, second in 10 states, and very important in 9 others. Ladino clover, a large-flowered variety, is being planted extensively.
COFFEEBERRY (Rhamnus californica). An evergreen shrub with white flowers, abundant in the foothills around San Francisco. It yields a white to light amber honey with a good flavor, according to G. A. Vansell. The honey is slightly cathartic. (See CASCARA SAGRADA.)
COMA, SOUTHERN BUCKTHORN (Bumelia lycioides). A spring shrub or small tree with small greenish-white flowers in axils of the leaves. It is important in parts of Texas. E. B. Ault writes that he makes about 25 pounds of light amber honey with a fair flavor from Coma. It blooms in the fall.
CORN-SALAD (Valerianella spp.). Weak, much branched, annual herbs, 6 to 18 inches tall, with a pair of leaves at each node and clusters of tiny white flowers with long tubular corollas, often common in damp meadows and along streams from Massachusetts to Illinois south to Florida and Texas. Bees often work the flowers heavily in May just before the main clover flow. Norman Bishop of Louisville placed 3 colonies in a 20 acre plot that was covered with a solid mat of corn-salad and obtained a shallow super of medium amber honey with a strong flavor from the two strongest hives.
COWPEA (Vigna sinensis). This extensively planted crop is only occasionally useful to beekeeping. When planted in dense stands, bees rarely visit the plants but when spaced in rows the plants become attractive to bees. Extra-floral nectaries on the leaves are worked almost exclusively in many localities but flowers are usually visited also. The honey is yellow amber with a strong flavor. Over seven million acres are now planted in cowpeas.
CRANBERRY (Vaccinium macrocarpon). These low evergreen shrubs are cultivated chiefly on Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Cranberries grow wild in the northeastern states and Canada. The honey is light amber with fine flavor but rarely obtained. Cross-pollination by bees is necessary to produce a good crop.
A field of corn-salad.