to 3 feet with leaves divided into 5 to 7 toothed leaflets and seeds (achenes) with 2 long barbs (4 in B. bipinnata). Widely distributed in eastern United States in damp places, especially important in the central states. The golden-yellow honey is light colored with a pronounced but pleasant flavor, very popular in many areas as a table honey and much used in blending. Surpluses up to 150 pounds are reported from Delaware. Surpluses are also obtained in New Jersey, Maryland, Illinois, western Kentucky, Mississippi, Arkansas, and adjacent states. It is considered the leading fall honey plant in many parts of Arkansas.
SPICEBUSH (Lindera Benzoin). An aromatic shrub with clusters of yellow flowers, blooming in early spring before the leaves from Maine and Michigan south to North Carolina and Kansas. Bees visit spicebush for both pollen and nectar and it is often important for spring stimulation.
SPIKEWEED (Centromadia pungens). An annual herb with yellow flowers in composite head with 30 to 40 bilobed rays, the heads with spiny bracts. Spikeweed grows in valleys and plains in alkaline areas in California where it produces a strong yellow honey. The orange pollen imparts an orange color to the wax. It is an important fall honey plant in the upper San Joaquin Valley where it forms thickets 3 to 5 feet tall and produces a surplus of 25 to 35 pounds of honey according to B. W. Newman of Mentone.
SPURGE, LEAFY (Euphorbia Esula). A weed introduced from Europe and established especially in the northwest. The upper leaves are yellowish and the brown nectaries are horned. Wendell Roberts writes that in Montana he obtains from 50 to 100 pounds of a strong, amber honey of poor quality from spurge. It is also valuable in Manitoba.
STAR THISTLE, YELLOW (Centaurea solstitialis). Also called BARNABY’S THISTLE. Annual herbs one foot high with yellow composite heads with all tubular florets, and bracts around head ending in needle-like prickles. A weed introduced from Mediterranean region widespread but chiefly of value in California, where it produces a white or extra-light amber honey with a greenish cast and a fine flavor. A 60-pound average may be obtained with good hives storing 120 pounds according to Eugene Walker. Star thistle blooms from the first of July until late October.
SUNFLOWER (Helianthus spp.). Tall herb up to 9 feet, with large com-