Madison, Wisconsin, August, 1919
J. E. Howitt, Guelph, Canada in Canadian Horticulturist.
The tomato is a comparatively healthy crop, but nevertheless it is subject to several diseases which are serious enough to cause appreciable financial loss to the growers. Chief among these are Blossom-end or Point Rot, Leaf Spot or Blight and Tomato Mosaic.
Blossom-end or Point Rot wras very prevalent during the summers of 1917 and 1918. Many growers lost from 10 per cent to 50 per cent of their crop from it. The first symptom of the trouble is the appearance of irregular water-soaked areas near the tip of the fruit, usually when it is about half grown. These areas later become flattened or sunken and dark gray to dark brown in color and hard and leathery in texture. Later, fungi and bacteria may gain entrance through these injured spots and induce a rot which may destroy the whole fruit.
Blossom-end or Point Rot is a so-called physiological disease, not being due to any organism but to some condition within the plant itself probably induced by its environment. It appears to be du<* to an intermittent food and water supply and is worse in summers when we have prolonged heavy rains followed by periods of severe drouth. There is very little exact knowledge concerning the control of this disease. Observations, however, would lead the writer to believe that the following precautions will reduce the loss from this trouble:
1. Avoid over-forcing the plants, especially in the early stages of (heir development.
2. If possible water regularly throughout the growing season so the tomato plants are never allowed to become thoroughly dried out. Such regular watering is possible on small garden lots but is not possible in large plantations unless some system of irrigation, such as the Skinner System, is installed.
3. Avoid heavy applications of farmyard manure if the crop has suffered from Blossom-end Rot the previous year.
Leaf Spot or Blight
Leaf spot or blight is the most destructive fungus disease of tomatoes in Ontario. It attacks the leaves and stems of tomatoes and is extremely hard to control. Small, gravish-brown, angular spots, eon taining minute black specks, appear upon the leaves and stems. The lower leaves are first affected and the disease spreads upwards, almost completely destroying the foliage of the plants. The organism which causes the disease is carried over the winter in rubbish in the soil of the field, greenhouse or hotbed.
Leaf spot or blight can be prevented by spraying with bordcaux mixture, 4.4.40 formula. Commence spraying when the plants are in the seed beds and repeat at intervals of ten days or two weeks until there is danger of staining the fruit. With small patches of tomatoes it is often advisable to prune, stake and tic up the plants for greater convenience in spray ing. The diseased tops should h'* reaked up and burned in the fall if practicable tomatoes should not be oftener than once in three or four grown on the same piece of ground years.
Prof. H. F. Wilson, College of Agriculture.
Spraying is now a very necessary part of farm practice for the control of insects on orchard, farm and garden crops. A cheap and efficient spray, easy to handle and easy to apply is the desire of both grower and manufacturer. In other words what we need is a spray material that will kill quickly and at the same time involve a mini mum of labor and expense for its application. Spraying is especially desirable at this time when a maximum crop is needed in order to help feed the European nations.
The value of an insecticide is based on its power to kill or to repel insects. An ideal insecticide may be said to have the following qualities.
1. It must kill the insect before the latter can seriously damage the plant.
2. It must not possess any properties which will cause injury to the plant.
3. Its cost must be sufficiently low* to permit its use in large quantities.
4. It must spread and stick well to the surface to which it is applied.
5. It must remain sufficiently well in suspension to permit of a uniform coating of poison on the sprayed parts.
Arsenic, the base of all important insecticides now used against chewing insects, is a substance which cannot by itself be used with safety on plants because of its tendency to burn the foliage. In combination with other substances, it acts as a poison to insects but does not cause harm to plants unless in a liberated form as arsenic
oxide. The principal substances with which it is combined for spraying purposes is copper used in making Paris green, zinc in making arsenite of zinc, lead in making arsenate of lead, and calcium in making arsenate. These four poison sprays are the ones now mostly in use. A new material, arsenate of magnesium, has recently appeared on the market but we have had no opportunity to test its comparative value.
Paris Green. Paris green in comparison with other insecticides has a higher arsenical content than the other materials and a greater killing efficiency but it is not an economical spray material at 60 to SOe per pound and because of its tendency to cause foliage injury, we believe that arsenate of lead is a much more desirable spray to u%?. When Paris Green was first put on the market it combined 1% of free arsenic oxide but this is now greatly eliminated through present methods of manufacture and in time it is possible that a Paris Green can be manufactured that will not injure the foliage any more than the other arsenates. However, at the present time the percent of free arsenic oxide is so great as to cause much more burning than is generally realized by our growers.
Hoif and When to Use: If Paris green is to be used for the potato beetle, it should be pointed out to the grower that it is not necessary to use more than iy2 to 2 pounds to 50 gallons of water or per acre if stated in those terms. In eases where greater amounts are thought necessary, it is either due to poor application or to a poor grade of material.
Arsenate of Lead. Without question this is the most desirable insecticide on the market today and is now more generally used tlupi any other poison insecticide. The reasons for this are that when properly prepared, it is safe to use on the foliage of practically all plants and it stands well in suspension and sticks and spreads well on the foliage. It does not have quite the killing efficiency of Paris green but we have found the difference to be small in cases where pure arsenate of lead was used. It is necessary to point out that in our experiments, the so-called lead hydrogen and not the basic arsenate of lead was used.
The insecticide manufacturers and chemists know arsenate of lead in two forms. In each one the arsenic forms a different combination with the lead so that the one known as lead hydrogen, acid, or diplumbic arseuate of lead, there are two parts of lead and one part of arsenic oxide forming a material with 33%. poison in it. The second form of arsenate of lead known as basic, neutral or tripluin-bic arsenate of lead forms a combination in which one part of arsenic oxide is combined with three parts of lead and in which the poison amounts to 25% of the total.
The basic lead arsenate forms a much stronger combination between the lead and arsenic than does the lead hydrogen arsenate of lead and is therefore a more stable spray. It does not break down as rapidly in the presence of water or air and is the most desirable spray to use on tender plants in certain climates. However, the very fact of its extreme stability makes it an undesirable spray against insects which do not seem to be quickly affected by poison.
The lead hydrogen arsenate is a less stable product and is more easily broken up in contact with air. water or other chemicals a; l for this reason is a much quicker acting poison and has a higher killing efficiency than the basic form. This fact also makes it somewhat more dangerous to use on the foliage of tender plants and under certain conditions, severe foliage injury is liable to occur.
The present methods of manufacture are such that the free arsenic in either one of these materials is limited to a minimum and in our experiments in Wisconsin we have found practically no injury resulting from the use of lead hydrogen arsenate and recommend its use entirely. The differences in the killing efficiency of these two materials probably accounts in a large measure for the unsatisfactory reports that have come in regarding the use of arsenate of lead for the Colorado potato beetle. The basic or triplumbic form is so slow in its action that very poor results are obtained when used against this insect. On the other hand lead hydrogen arsenate in small amounts gives immediate and efficient results. It should also be noted that where the basic lead arsenate is used that while the insects which have fed on it do not die immediately, most of them become sick and do not feed.
How and When to Use: This material comes in a paste or powdered form and in the paste form should be used just twice as strong as the powder. For Colorado potato beetle use 2 to 2i/2 pounds of
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Married man able and willing to work wants work on dairy farm or market garden preferably where highgrade poultry is kept.
City bred but seven years experience on market garden. Wife willing to help in house or act as housekeeper. Address C. Wisconsin Horticulture.
fr-1 zn i % I _____ _________._____ _ ____
Urry 111 a I 11 Ui 11
I wish to say this in our way of growing cranberries. We took our winter flood off on the 27th day of March, and up to that date we had a very heavy bloom this year. But do not think that you should do this every year, because some springs are early and some are late. I would kindly recommend A. Searls & Son, for they have been successful growers. What I mean by successful growers is having an average crop every year. Do not be afraid to ask them any questions, because I know they will be glad to answer them. This year we started and put in some Searls’ Jumbo vines. We ploughed the bog and put our ditches around the sections. Then we leveled it and then put on 2% inches of sand. We got through planting on the 1st day of July, 1919, and so far there’s not many weeds in sight. All the vines are growing nicely, but there will be some weeds coming in spite of all. Try and keep them out for at least three years. In going to the expense to plant marsh that way, get the very best vines you can. Ones that will yield good. Ones that will raise a fancy kind of berry. A good keeping quality and they will bring a good price and you will never be sorry for all you went through. Yours truly, Carl Getsinger.
The thirty-second summer meeting of the Wisconsin State Cranberry Growers’ Association will be held in the Grand Rapids street ear pavilion near Nekoosa, Wis., August 12, 1919.
As many growers from away like to visit the Cranmoor marshes there will be no attempt at a morning session, leaving this time open for this purpose. Neither will there be an effort made this year for a picnic dinner as many prefer a hot meal which at this place is unattainable. However, any one desiring to take their lunch will find tables and other conveniences for their use. At the Herrick House in Nekoosa and the several hotels and restaurants at Grand Rapids good meals can be procured at prevailing prices.
Those coming by train will find the street cars running between Grand Rapids and Nekoosa very convenient and timely.
The meeting will be called to order by Pres. Searls at 1:30 p. m. sharp and it is hoped every one will make it a point to be on hand at the opening of the meeting.
Invitations have been extended to Prof. Whitson of the University of Wisconsin, Dr. Fracker of the State Entomological Dept, and Sec. Cranefield of the State Horticultural Society to address the meeting. Also to Mrs. F. R. Barber, the sweet singer of Warrens, to favor us with a musical treat. The balance of the afternoon will be taken up with crop reports and exchange of ideas affecting our welfare.
Let the attendance be large and every one come prepared to take an active part.
The old saying is as true today as it ever was. Do good unto all men as you have opportuuity. I cannot but think of the changed conditions under which we are now living, and especially along the lines of growing cranberres, and the sprit of unselfishness manifested by the growers in general.
I recall a little incident that took place about twenty years ago told by one of the growers at an association meeting. This grower had made a visit to the cranberry bogs of the east for the purpose of learning more of the methods then employed there in the growing of the berry. In the east they were then more up-to-date than here in Wisconsin having used more scientific ways of planting, earing for them, and in their harvesting, etc. This fact was known to the growers there, and they to a certain extent endeavored to keep this to themselves—a secret. In other words, they were a good deal like a clam—you had to pry it open to know what was on the inside. I had the pleasure of visiting these bogs in 1901 and what the grower said about keeping their methods a secret was partially corroborated. But we need not go to the east alone, for this same spirit existed among some of the growers here in Wisconsin. I remember that a number of years ago one of the growers had a fine crop while his neighbors had but few berries in comparison and they were wondering how this grower could manage to get such a good crop while theirs was insignificant. It was quite a while before any light was thrown out on the subject. He simply managed the water in a little different way than the others with the changed results. Whether willfully or not the grower kept these things to himself I cannot say, but this one thing I have observed, that the growers are now very frank and open hearted about anything pertaining to the growing and handling of the cranberry, which surely is a good sign of the better conditions. If this spirit could prevail more throughout the world, what a grand thing it would be. If selfishness could be entirely eradicated how much better it would be for all mankind. Suppose for a moment that Luther Burbank or some of those men who have achieved such wonderful results with fruits and vegetables would have been selfish and kept to themselves the results of their labors, would not the whole world have been losers thereby? Certainly it would. We can apply this spirit in all things in life. We can see what the selfish spirit has done for Russia. The ruling class have kept to themselves blessings which should have gone to all alike, and now since opportunity has come to them to get things and a new found liberty, they do not know what to do with it. They are a good deal like a Texas steer on a rampage. Just simply doing things.
If my observations are correct, we certainly have made good progress, and the right spirit is more and more made manifest as we meet in convention.
Henry H. Gebhardt. Black River Falls, Wis.
First Summer Meeting of the Wisconsin State Florists Association
The "W. S. F. A. was organized in Milwaukee, September 10th, 1918, state fair week, forty florists participating. A constitution and by-laws were adopted and the following officers elected: President, C. C. Pollworth, Milwaukee; vice-pres., J. E. Matthewson, Milwau kee, secretary, H. J. Seel, Milwaukee ; treasurer, G. Rusch, Milwaukee.
The first semi-annual or summer meeting was held in Fond du-Lac June 27th.
Nearly one hundred members were in attendance and at least one half as many wives of members.
No formal session was possible in the forenoon as the members crowding the hotel lobby were determined on getting acquainted.
Men who have transacted business for years with others were mighty pleased at the chance tn meet face to face and become really acquainted.
The afternoon meeting was largely taken up with reports of officers and closing the charter.
One hundred and twenty-four were on the roll as charter members when the charter was declared closed.
Following the business session several problems of interest to the trade were discussed informally.
Secretary Cranefield of the State Horticultural Society extended to the Association an invitation to join the W. S. H. S. as an auxiliary giving to every member of the florists association full membership in the horticultural society.
The proposal was well received by the members and altho of necessity referred to their executive board there seems little doubt it will go thru at the annual meeting in September, which will be held in Milwaukee during the State Fair.
Wisconsin Horticulture is not published for the purpose of making money but exclusively for the benefit of the People of Wisconsin.
It is better,—for Wisconsin people than any other horticultural paper published. It tells the best varieties to plant in Wisconsin, the best methods of cultivation for Wisoonsin. It’s a paper for the home gardener and fruit grower as well as for the big grower.
“We Answer Questions’’ is the slogan of the Society. Every question answered, first by personal letter and then in the paper.
Every dollar received for fees (subscriptions) and advertising is put into the paper.
Honest nurserymen advertise in Wisconsin Horticulture and only that kind. The other kind cannot buy space.
The paper is worth Ten Dollars a year but may be had by any one for Fifty Cents.
This price, 50 cents, includes membership in the State Horticultural Society.
A dollar bill pays for two years.
Send Fifty Center, coin, money order or check to Frederic Cranefield, Secretary, Madison, Wis., and get a receipt for annual membership and subscription to Wisconsin Horticulture for one full year.
A DOLLAR BILL PAYS FOR TWO YEARS
The Bee and Honey Department at the State Fair Sept. 8-13 1919
The attention of all members of the Wisconsin State Bee-Keepers Association, and Wisconsin Bee-Keepers generally, is called to the approaching State Fair.
$460.00 are offered in premiums, which is a large sum, considering the interest taken by the Bee-Keepers at large. The management of the State Fair is w-filing and anxious to revise the bee and honey de-miums, but cannot do so, unless justified by the active interest of the Wisconsin Bee-Keepers themselves.
The Department of Agriculture and the management of the state fair, are of the opinion, that the bee and honey industry of Wisconsin, and the state association, representing it, should make a much larger showing than ever before, if the expect the university, department of agriculture, and the legislature to fully comprehend the growing importance of bee-keeping in Wisconsin.
We will have in addition to the premium entries, an educational display and demonstration by the College of Agriculture. We ar? promised the largest and best display and demonstration of bee keepers’ supplies, appliances, bees etc. by G. B. Lewis Co., the A. I. Root Co. and others. We must and will have a much larger display than ever before, and ask all who possibly can do so, to make one or more entries, and help making it the best the State Fair ever presented.
If you are disposed to participate, write Gus Dittmer, Augusta, Wis., Superintendent of the Bee & Honey Department, for information, premium book and blanks, stating what you are able or wish to enter, and satisfactory arrangements will be made.
All arrangements must be made, so that the entries will be at the bee and honey building during the week preceding the Fair, so that everything may be properly arranged before the opening of the Fair. The Superintendent will be on duty at the bee and honey building, Monday September 1st, and every day during the week, proceeding the Fair, to receive all entries and properly arrange and care for them.
Write at once and we will have time for all necessary correspondence and arrangement.
The bee-keepers of the United States now face the problem of honey prices for the present years crop. It is hardly to be expected that the high prices of last season can be secured but certainly the old prewar prices, inadequate for peace times will not do. Many bee-keepers are asking about the prices of honey and there seems to be no standard to go by.
Wisconsin bee-keepers are getting a very generous crop and if any great part of it is thrown on to the market early in the season, prices may be seriously injured.
Bee-keepers in general feel that 25 cents per pound for extracted and 30 cents for comb will be about right. A few are even asking more. Certainly we ought not to have to sell for less.
In this issue President Dittmer, Superintendent of the Bee and Honey Department at the State Fair gives us an idea of what is expected of our Association this year. With a big crop at hand the members of the State Association ought to respond with many exhibits.
Unless we can make a big showing we are in danger of losing our exhibit space. If we show that we need it and will use more space it will not be a hard job to get an addition onto the building we are now to use. A definite site has been decided upon for this department and a new section will be added to the old building when necessary.
State Fair week is a good time for bee-keepers to get together and talk over the problems likely to be brought up at the winter meeting.
Let everybody answer the call of Brother Dittmer and be at the fair with an exhibit.
H. F. Wilson
Get some material such as vegetables, fruits, or flowers ready to exhibit at the state and county fair. You will help the show and learn something yourself.
Sow the seed of early ripening tress, such as elm and maple, as soon as the seeds are ripe. Stratify late ripening seeds in sands or sawdust so that they may not dry out.
Efficiency of Common Insecticides
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the powder to every 50 gallons of water or Bordeaux mixture if the latter is used in disease control. This amount should cover about one acre. For codling moth and leaf feeding insects on fruit trees use one pound of the powder or two pounds of the paste to 50 gallons of w’ater. For “cabbage worms” and other chewing insects on cabbage plants use one pound to 50 gallons of water and add one pound of laundry soap to make it spread and stick to the foliage.
Arsenite of Zinc: This material has come on to the market in recent years and next to Paris Green it seems to have a greater killing efficiency than any of the other insecticides given. However, it is somewhat variable in its action and more work is necessary to fully determine its value. In our experience it cannot be used with safety on fruit trees because of its tendency to burn or crimp the leaves. We have found it to be very efficient spray for potato bugs and have not noticed any injury to the foliage. It should be slightly cheaper per pound than arsenate of lead and would therfore make it a very desirable spray to use on potatoes and other plants with hardy foliage.
Hou- and When to Use: Arsenite of zinc sold mostly in the powdered form or in a paste form when combined with Bordeaux and known as zinc Bordeaux paste. For the Colorado potato beetle use 2 pounds of arsenite of zinc powder to every 50 gallons of water or Bordeaux mixture if the latter is used. Directions for using the zinc Bordeaux paste are given on the package.
Calcium Arsenate: Calcium arsenate is a material which has received some attention from time to time and the few early experiments in which it was used seemed to show that it was not a desirable spray because of its tendency to cause spray injury to tender plants. Investigations have also shown that although it contains a higher per cent of arsenic oxide than arsenate of lead still it does not have the corresponding efficiency.
How and When to Use: Calcium arsenate may be used in the same proportions as arsenate of lead but in each ease hydrated lime or unslaked lime should be added in equal amounts to prevent burning. When the lime is added it should be slaked in a small amount of water and poured into the spray tank before application. Calcium carbonate or air-slaked lime should not be used. For small gardens or garden plots 1 or 2 ounces instead of pounds in a three gallon pail of water may be used.
We have had several inquiries about garden tractors but have been unable to get any first hand information. A writer in the Market Growers Journal for July 1st writes in answer to a subscriber as follows:
In the issue of May 15 1 saw an article in regard to garden tractors and am writing for further information. Do you consider them a practical machine for garden work, price considered? I have good ground for them to work in, a sandy soil. I would want to use one on Onions. IJeans, Potatoes, Cabbage and Tomatoes. (’an they be turned easily at the end of rows? What is about the Mfe of one of them? They claim that the life of a large tractor is only two to three years, and if that is all the life of a garden tractor, it would bo rather an expensive affair.—C. J. D.. Colorado.
A significant incident has recently come to iny attention in regard to the owner of the tractor of which I spoke in the Journal. An acquaintance of his, who bought a garden tractor last spring, has just sold it to Mr. Smith at i considerable reduction in price, after using it but very little. The former told me lately that the only good he could find in this tractor was that it would turn a grindstone very nicely. Here are tv;o men, gardening on much the same kind of land, and partly for the same market, who have widely different views with respect to this machine. The reasons for this situation will help answer some of your questions.
Mr. Smith does much of his work himself, or his own sons do it. He is a powerfully built man who is not worried by the labor of handling a heavy machine. His whole family have considerable mechani cal ability; they have three or four other gasoline engines around the place, and therefore are able to keep the tractor in good repair, spotting troubles before they become serious. The farm is rather stony, and this necessitates extreme care on the part of the operator, and, in the case of delicate seedings or breaking of the crust by means of hand implements, especially when crops are small.
Jones, on the other hand, grows crops on such a scale, and in addition is involved in dairying to such an extent that his work is done entirely by employees. He tells me that he has known n.m to stay away from work when he told them they would have to use the tractor next day. Men on his place knew too little about gasoline engines to keep the machine in order, and eared too little about the crops
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Fort Atkinson, August 19th, 1919
Country Parks: Discussion led by Prof. F. A. Aust, College of Agriculture, followed by
W. J. Mayle, Union Grove.
H. M. Higgins, Seneca, Ill.
W. Ames, Oregon.
E. H. Niles, Oconomowoc.
Miss Nellie McDonald, Oconto.
Mrs. N. A. Rasmussen, Oshkosh.
L. L. Oldham, Elkhorn.
Strawberries: Varieties new and old: Discussion led by Herman Christensen, Oshkosh.
A small fruit survey; Prof. R. H. Roberts.
Insects affecting small fruits. Dr. S. B. Fraeker.
Herbaceous perennials, new and old; a selection that will furnish bloom from April until November. Discussion led by W. A. Toole. Baraboo.
Recent investigations in cucumber diseases. S. P. Doolittle, Dept. Plant Pathology, University of Wisconsin.
Canning fruits and vegetables—Mrs. L. G. Kellogg, Ripon.
Growing perennials from seed, and how to plant them after you have raised them—Mrs. C. E. Strong, West Allis.
Chickens—Mrs. John Geiger, Oshkosh.
Child welfare—Mrs. R. J. Coe, Fort Atkinson.
Most every member in southern Wisconsin should attend the summer meeting and we are of the opinion most of them will do so: There will also be many from the north.
The “Fort” you know is just below that famous crossroad Jefferson Junction and can be reached without difficulty. For those who own automobiles it’s a joke. The roads from everywhere pass thru Fort Atkinson and all are state highways.
Our headquarters, the Black-IIawk Tavern, is one of the best hotels in Wisconsin and we have
The following premiums are offered for exhibits of flowers and vegetables, at the Summer Meeting, Fort Atkinson, August 19 and 20.
For best specimens Fuchsia, Rex Begonia, Be
gonia of any other variety, Sword Fern, As
Best collection native flowers in arrangement and variety; varieties to be shown separately, each with card attached giving both common and botanical name---------------------- 5.00 3.00 2.00
bought up all the rooms in the house.
The program for Tuesday and the premium lists appear elsewhere, the Wednesday program, which is wholly in the hands of Fort At-kinsonites, is said to include a visit to the C. C. and E. nursery in the forenoon and something else in the afternoon and evening. There is much whispering and committee talk about it but we, their guests, are not to know about it until we get there. Well as the late Sanders, he was usually late, would say “Oh very well!”
Meaning flowers that can be grown from seed in one season.
A strip about five feet wide and twenty long in the vegetable garden was set aside last spring fo’ annuals. About May 10th or later seeds of fifteen varieties were planted, the seed mostly two and three years old, broken packels saved from former plantings: Aster. allvsum, balsam, candytuft, marigold, petunia, snap-dragons. cornflower, portulaca, coreopsis, nasturtiums, poppy, zinnia, mignonette and kochia.
Of these all but the aster were in full bloom July 10th. The snapdragon and petunia wero only a few days behind greenhouse grown plants planted a little later, while the asters are more thrifty and the foliage of a better color than greenhouse stock.
There are four rows with spots where seeds failed, filled with glad iolus and it will be a jot?, if not for ever at least until November. Only one mistake was made, in planting so much of each kind. Six feqt of row of Alyssum is too much, two feet is enough while a similar shortening of many other kinds would have allowed room for fifteen more varieties.
There are two ways about tomatoes and only two. Either you train them or you don’t train them. If you train them to a single stem you will need all of your spare time and much that is not spare time in order to make a good job of it. No one but the amateur who is short on land and very' long on time should attempt it.
What we started to say is this: If you have plenty of room and have set the plants four by four feet waste no time or material in racks or stakes or tying or pinching or any other foolishness. Just let them alone to sprawl as they will and you will have an abundance of fine fruit, five to ten times as much to the plant as compared with the single stem pole method and equally good in quality.
The striped beetle has now done its duty for the present season and retired from the field of action leaving behind a crop of larvae in the stems and roots of vines as a souvenir.
•There would then seem to be nothing to be gained by continuing so painful a subject, except this; our college friends after careful investigation conclude that simple methods, such as dusting are of no value and that our only hope lies in coating the leaves, inside and outside, with Bordeaux mixture. Enter the successful market gardener who absolutely controls the beetle by dusting with air slaked lime. How about it? Many growers use tobacco dust combined with slaked lime.
One subscriber reports complete success this year by following directions in a little paragraph tucked away in a corner of Wisconsin Horticulture for May 1918. advising the use of slaked lime plus a small quantity of turpentine.
It’s worth remembiring for next year that the striped beetle is an able-bodied pest with a tremendous appetite but entertains a violent dislike for slaked lime.
This is the year when the greater part of the white grubs become full grown. They may now be found in cells in the soil in the pupa or resting stage and in about a month will change to the adult May beetles or June bugs. These will remain in the soil until spring when they will come forth to start another generation of grubs.
Plow the infested field deeply as soon as possible and thoroughly disk and harrow to break up th-? cells in the soil and crush the tender pupae and newly formed beetles.
L. G. Gentner.
Every year the corn ear worm causes serious losses to corn in this state. Especially is this true of sweet corn.
The adult moths or millers ar? yellowish to olive green in color, with darker markings. They have a wing expanse of about iy2 inches. They begin flying at dusk and lay their eggs on the silks of the corn, also on weeds. The young larvae which hatch from these eggs feed on the silks and then burrow down into the ear and feed on the young kernels. The larvae vary a great deal in color, but are generally brownish or greenish with broad longitudinal stripes. When the larvae are full grown they burrow into the soil where they change to the pnnae or resting stages from which the adult moths later emerge.
There are perhaps three generations in Wisconsin, the last spending the winter in the resting stage 4 to 6 inches below the surface of the soil.
No practical control has yet been found for this pest on field corn, but on sweet corn, or corn raised for roasting ears or seed the injury may be considerably reduced by dusting the silks with lead arsenate powder as soon as they appear. . The treatment should be repeated every three or four days as egg laying continues over quite a period. The dust may either be blown into the silks with a dust gun or dusted on through a chees-eloth sack.
By thorough apd deep plowing and disking sometimes during the late fall or winter the greater part of the overwintering pupae may be destroyed. This will greatl.v reduee next years infestation, and will also kill many other injurious insects.
L. G. Gentner
Most of the common house ants of Wisconsin are spoken of as large or small black ants, reddish brown ants, and tiny yellowish ants. All these kinds or species of ants usually come from out doors and must be killed in one of three ways:—fl) by mechanical destruction, which is rather tedious and not always practical: (2) by poisoning, which takes the most time and, may not always prove successful; (3) by fumigation with carbon bi-sulphide where the nest can be reached. This treatment is not always dependable if the nest runs under the cement walk, a house-wall or a stump.
Mechanical measures consist of laying greasy bones or sugared sponges in the ant trails and when the ants have gathered in number’s plunging the bone or sponge into hot water; or digging up their nests and widely scattering them among the chickens. Ant-proof cupboards, food safes, or the removing of attractive food from the reach of the ants will usually cause the ants to not work in the house. Where the nest is not easily found, poison sweets may be set along the trails so that the ants will carry the poison to the hidden nest and feed it to the laying queen and brood before they are themselves destroyed by the poison. This method will in time completely do away with the ants as they are attracted to the bait.
Use tartar emetic, 1 part to 10 of sugar dissolved in 100 parts of water. Spread this on chips of wood or glass and place on ants trails out of the way of pet animals. It may be also combined with cold lard or a similar grease so that it will not evaporate rapidly. Tn case tartar emetic cannot be secured, an equally effective poison can be made by using 3 grams of sodium arsenite (soluble) in a spoonful of water, added to 2 lbs. of sugar dissolved in pint hot water. The poison syrup may be soaked on bits of sponge and placed along the ant trails.
Where the trail of ants is easily followed to a nest in the soil, ear-bon bi-sulphide may he applied, preferably towards dusk when
most of the workers are at home. With a stick make three holes from three directions on the edge of the nest towards the center. As quickly as the stick is withdrawn each time, pour in an ounce of the carbon bi-sulphide and immediately close with damp earth so that neither ants nor gas can come out. One or more wet sacks laid over the nest will help to hold the fumes.
Professor G. C. Starcher, of Auburn, Alabama, has invented a simple and efficient fruit sizer that can be made at home. We have tried for several months to secure blueprints and specifications in time for publication in July or August Wisconsin Horticulture but without success.
Both prints and specifications may be had from Professor Starcher for one dollar and the materials cost about twelve dollars.
This sizer or apple grader gives as good or better service than many of the higher priced machines and can be made by anyone who can handle a hammer and saw. The purpose of this paragraph is to urge every apple grower in Wisconsin to send a dollar for the blue prints and specifications at once. You will never regret the investment.
If the home vegetable garden has been well tended to date there is nothing to do from now on,—except gather crops.
By S. B. Fracker Acting State Entomologist
How profitable will corn raising be when the crop has to be sprayed and protected as carefully as potatoes ?
This is a question which may well agitate anyone interested in the prosperity of the corn belt. The situation may be even more serious than the question suggests for the European corn borer whose introduction is feared can do as much damage to corn and many other crops as the Colorado Potato Beetle does to potatoes and no successful control has yet been devised.
During July, 1917, a field of corn near Boston, Massachusetts, was found infested with light colored eatterpillars boring in the stalks and ears. Later the insects were identified as the European corn borer (Pyrausta nubila~ Us and were found over a territory of about 320 square miles ijj Massachusetts and covering two smaller areas in New York State. They are spreading rapidly.
The principal food plants are sweet corn, field corn, fodder corn, celery, beans, potatoes, swiss chard, beets, spinach, dahlias, gladiolus, chrysanthemum, and several weeds. Corn is the favorite. In Europe and Asia corn, hemp, and millet are the most important economic plants attacked and a loss of 50 percent frequently results. Tn Hungary this insect is known to have destroyed one-fourth of the entire crop of field corn and the in jury in some parts of Russia is estimated to be 90 or even 100 per cent of the total crop.
There are two generations a year in Massachusetts. The winter is passed in the larval stage within tunnels of the host plant in such places as corn-stalks or cobs, and the adult moths appear in June. About 350 eggs are deposited by each female. The young caterpillars bore into the stalk and ears, as many as fifteen having been found within a single ear of sweet corn. Tn the infested area in Massachusetts the borers have been found at the rate of 1.050.000 to the acre.
In 1918, before Massachusetts was quarantined, Wisconsin purchased enough seed corn from companies located in New York and the New England States to plant 30.000 to 50,000 acres. Any of this may have come from the infested region and may have carried corn borers in the cob. Wisconsin thus forms at present the most likely door by which the borer may have entered the corn belt.
One inspector of the state department of agriculture is being assigned to a survey for the pest in this state for the remainder of the season. He can scratch the surface but will need the help of every farmer in the search. Any larvae found boring in corn should be considered suspicious and sent to the State Entomologist at the State Capitol for identification.
Horticulturists will often find large conspicuously striped caterpillars boring in dahlias and other thick-stemmed plants. These are known as “the stalk borer” and need not cause great alarm, but any small gray “worms” not over three-fourths of an inch long in such plants should be sent in.
Strenuous attempts to eradicate the borer completely from the United States are being made by the federal department of agriculture and they will appreciate cooperation in finding any new outbreaks especially in the Mississippi valley.
* Mrs. E. L. Roloff, presi- •
* dent, requests the attend- •
* ance of every member of *
* the Women’s Auxiliary at a
* Fort Atkinson, August 19th •
* and 20th. •
My auto, ’tis of thee,
Short cut to poverty—
Of thee I chant.
I blew a pile of dough On you two years ago, And now you refuse to go, Or won’t—or can’t.
By F. W. Allen, Assistant Horticulturist Fruit Storage Investigations, Bureau of .Markets, U. S. Department of Agriculture.
As prerequisites for success in storing fruit of any kind, whether iu cold or common storage, it should be sufficient to mention the necessity of having good fruit well grown, picked at the proper stage of maturity, carefully handled and stored as soon after picking as pos sible. With the importance of these fundamental factors fully appreciated, the efficiency of aircooled storages depends directly upon three things: The location of the house, its construction, and the way in which it is managed.
The terms “air-cooled” and “common” storage are synonymous, but in using the former we imply the medium by which the fruit is cooled. In this type of house there is no artificial means of refrigeration, only the natural circulation of air. The cooler the air as compared with the temperature of the house the faster the circulation and the more rapid the cooling. In most of the apple sections of the Northwest the nights are generally quite cool, even though the days are warm. Any section having these cool nights is well adapted for successful aircooled storages. In localities where the days are warm, with little reduction in the night temperature until quite late in the fall, the value of the storage is considerably reduced. In fact, the construction of this type of house in such regions should probably be looked upon with some discouragement.
cooled entirely by air circulation. A few small windows located here and there where they will fit in most conveniently will not accomplish the purpose intended. Air circulation is induced by the difference in weight of air at different temperatures. The weight of a cubic foot of warm air is less than a cubic foot of cold air. Warm air therefore seeks the higher level
Tn planning a common storage we should never lose sight of the fact that the building is to be spaced three-fourths of an inch apart are recommended.
Interior view of air ducts to a base-ment where the air inlet is built in the wall. With the intake doors on the outside at the level of the ground the cold air is delivered under the false floor.
and cold air the lower. For this reason intake air vents should be placed in the foundation wall, in order that the cold air may enter at the lowest point. After being drawn into the house this cool air expands, its weight becomes lighter, and with the continuous flow of cold air through the intakes it seeks an outlet through vents or an air shaft in the ceiling. The storage room floor should be not less than eighteen inches above the ground level and of open construction. Two by fours or two by sixes
With this construction the ventilating system may be compared to a heating stove, where the cold air is taken in under the grate and the heated air passes up and out through the chimney. If we desire more heat, the stove is given more draft, that is, the intake openings are made larger. In order to cool the fruit in an air storage more rapidly, we do the same thing. The same principle applies, only the difference between the temperature of the intake and outlet air in the storage house is much less than that in a stove, consequently the circulation is much slower. For this reason the air vents must be numerous and of proper size. Eighteen by thirty inches is none too large and one such opening should be provided for every ten or fifteen feet on both sides and ends of the house. In extremely large buildings inlet openings should be twenty-four by thirty-six inches. The insulated or refrigerator type of door is much better than those made of only one or two layers of boards.
The flues or outlet ventilators should lead up from the ceiling of the storage room and out through the ridge of the house. By making these from four to six feet square only one or two such outlets should be necessary for the average individual grower’s house. As in the ease of the inlets, these should be likewise fitted with trap doors in the ceiling of the storage room. By installing such a system of ventilators the house is equipped with the cooling machinery. The efficiency of this machinery will depend upon the method of operation, as we shall see subsequently. Most air-cooled houses
are too dry for the best results. Tests of methods of adding moisture to the air are now under way, but as yet the easiest and most practical plan is to wet the dirt floor and walls of the house thoroughly each fall before putting in the fruit. This may be repeated to some extent during the storage season. The general size, arrangement and construction of the walls will depend upon the grower’s particular needs and the amount of capital to be invested. Rooms for the combined use of storage and packing are undesirable. The packing room may be adjoining the storage room, or, in basement stor ages, the packing room is generally on the upper floor. Basements are more difficult to ventilate and cool than above-ground storages, although after once thoroughly cooled they generally maintain a more uniform temperature. In a basement house it is necessary to pipe the cold air down beneath the outside level in order that it may be delivered under the open base floor. The outlet air shafts in this ease must also extend down through the room above the base ment.
The walls of the house may be constructed of frame, tile, brick or concrete. In some sections storage-house walls are nuilt of adob-brick. In selecting material and in the construction of the wall it. should be remembered that the wall is not only for the purpose of keeping out low temperatures in winter but it should keep out high temperatures in the early fall and late spring. To protect the stored fruit from injurious temperatures, extremely high and extremely low, the walls should be insulated. Cork, mineral wool and quilting are materials offered for this purpose, although all of them are expensive. For frame constructed houses and buildings with wooden linings, dry mill shavings, where they can be secured, furnish a cheap and very efficient insulation. Doors and windows and the frames surrounding them should so fit as to be practically air tight else a well insulated wall will prove of little value. If storage-room windows are necessary, they should be fitted with double sash and wooden shutters. The doors should be of the refrigerator type. During the early part of the season when it is advisable to have these doors open at night a light slat door to keep out intruders is desirable.
In the above-ground type of house it is well to provide some means of insulating the ceiling. The roof is probably the warmest part of the building, and unless filled with shavings or insulated in some way is a weak part of a good storage. A light-colored roofing material such as white asbestos will be of considerable advantage in reflecting the sun’s rays.
With ample means provided for ventilation or cooling the house; with walls, ceiling and other parts constructed to hold a uniform temperature, the final success of the house depends upon its management. A house built of the best materials and constructed along proper lines is of little value unless it is properly operated. Instances in no small number could be cited to prove that this is true. It is believed that it can be stated with perfect safety that less than one house out of ten is properly operated for the most efficient results. In numerous cases houses go through the season with only a pretense of management: a window is occasionally opened for a little fresh air or an oil stove is put in when the temperature reaches the danger point during the winter.
Efficient management of a cold storage for the best keeping quality of apples requires an immediate and uniform temperature of from 30 to 32 degrees. Efficient management of an air-cooled storage requires a consistent and continuous effort to approximate these conditions. The sooner the temperature in the storage room can be brought to 32 degrees, the longer and better the fruit will keep. There is no desire to intimate that air-cooled storages are equal to cold storages for long keeping, for this is not the ease. However, with proper management in order to reduce the temperature earlier in the fall and to hold it near the freezing point throughout the winter, quite different results will be obtained than those generally secured. This statement is
Open false floor made of 2 x 4 or 2 x 6 material spaced one-half inch or more apart, enabling the cold air taken in underneath the fruit to cool it more rapidly.
made after observing fruit and keeping many records in houses of various growers. Good methods and good keeping quality go hand in hand.
One or more accurate thermometers are essential for the successful management of a storage house. They should be tested at 32 degrees in crushed ice to see if they record the proper temperature. Place the 1 hermometers in different parts of the house and consult them twice daily—not to see how cold the house is but to see how hot it is. Whenever the temperature of the house becomes warmer than the air outside, turn on all drafts, open the ventilators, both top and bottom, and allow as much air to pass through the house as possible. As soon as these temperature conditions change close all the ventilators and allow no warm air to enter. As a general rule, to follow these instructions means that early in the season all ventilators should be opened in the evening and closed early the following morning. The night air is cool, and within a short time after harvest it drops below the freezing point. This air will cool the storage, and quiA cooling means better keeping quality. If, however, the vents are left open both day and night all advantage of the cool night air is lost during the day. This is the basis upon which many houses are operated, but it is not good management.
In answer to the statement sometimes given that it is difficult to keep the storage closed during the day when the fruit is being harvested, it might be suggested that in so far as possible the fruit should be allowed to remain under the trees during the night and should be hauled in early the following morning. This method has the double advantage of getting cool fruit into a cool room. Where it must be brought in during the heat of the day it might be left on the platform over night. Either method is preferable to putting warm fruit directly in the storage room. If this method cannot bo avoided the boxes should be taken in on a conveyor which passes through a small opening in the wall. This will allow much less warm air to enter the storage room than would come through a large door. The thermometers should be watched and the temperature kept on the decline. Each extra degree of heat in the storage early in the season means several days oft’ the life of the apple next spring. The keeping quality of the apple is lost in the fall, not in the spring.
As a further aid in quick cooling enough space should be left between the stacks of fruit in the storage so that the air can have free circulation around at least a part of each box. Main aisle ways in the house should be left directly in front of and above the intake windows. If fruit is stacked directly over these intakes it decreases their efficiency very much. Except in emergency eases boxes should not be stacked more than six or seven high. If stacked lo the ceiling the circulating air is again cut off and the cooling of the fruit retarded. Whatever type of house one may own, or contemplate owning, good consistent management counts for more than anything else.
Better Fruit, July 191!)
(Continued from page 167) themselves to use proper care in running the tractor. Jones therefore found little good to say for the very machine that Smith could not do without.
These differences in men and conditions are at the bottom of every tractor problem. I believe that when the garden tractor is operated entirely by skilled and interested help, when there is sufficient acreage to require daily attention of two or more persons during the growing season, and where horses are not required for other farm work, the garden tractor is not only practicable, but that it will soon be recognized as almost indispensable. I have some doubts as to its utility on very stony ground and on very sandy ground. The stones tend to throw the machine to one side or another, often injuring growing vegetables. Though I have not seen the machine at work on very light sandy soil, I suspect that even^with extension rims on the wheels it might not develop traction enough to do the required work. I was rather surprised several years ago to find a certain make of tractor a failure on sandy Sweet Potato ground. The actual pulling of plow or cultivator on that kind of ground was not a heavy demand on the tractor, but the loose sand gave no hold to the wheels. Probably your land is not as sandy as that.
It is not difficult to turn the marine at the ends of rows, though it involves a little more labor than to turn a horse. There is some saving of time, perhaps, as the rate of turning depends only on the activity of the operator and not upon the will of the horse.
I would judge that they could be kept in repair with less trouble than could a larger tractor. One must expect, however, to put in at least a few minutes exery day in oiling and cleaning, tightening bolts, etc. The life of the garden tractor depends entirely upon the amount of work it does in one year and the care taken of it. If it does enough work in one year, an owner might well afford to scrap it at the end of the first year. Probably with reasonable care and constant use it should last three years, and in that time it ought to much more than pay for itself. On the other hand, if used but rarely it might last much longer than three years. I think it would find its most economical use, however, when kept busy all the time and thrown away after two or three seasons. There are bound to be improvements, and no one wants to hold on to an out-of-date machine when something much better is available.
The applieation of the above remarks, if such application is at all possible, must be made by yourself. I wish I could say definitely for you whether or not you should get a tractor, but you realize, of course, that that is impossible. The final answer depends upon your own situation with respect to soil, type of gardening, acreage, and kind of men you have to work for you.
W. C. Pelton.
A clipping from the Milwaukee Sentinel of July 1st under the head “Fifty years Ago Today" says: “The Madison Horticultural society holds its thirty-third exhibition in Madison today." At first glance this seemed like a trifling exaggeration but on reading again we find that it is nowhere stated that it was the thirty-third annual exhibition.
The Madison Horticultural Society was organized in 1858 and the oldest organization of its kinc in the state ranking the State S ciety by seven years.