Madison, Wisconsin, July, 1919
S. B. Fracker, Acting State Entomologist.
An order preventing the importation into the United States of nursery stock and plant material on a commercial scale went into effect on June 1. So many questions have been asked the writer about this quarantine and such bitter criticism has been expressed against the quarantine for provisions it does not in realty contain that it seems best to make a brief explanation of the order and its causes.
Under this quarantine the bringing into the United States of ordinary ornamental shrubs and fruit trees is to be discontinued but permits may be secured from the Federal Horticultural Board in the same manner as Heretofore for the entry of fruit and rose stocks, lily bulbs, lily of the valley, narcissus, hyacinths, tulips and crocus. This provision answers the question of a large number of nurserymen and horticulturists, ‘ ‘ Where are we going to get our rose and fruit stocks now that the quarantine has gone into effect?”
Perhaps the most important feature of the quarantine consists of its provision for the introduction of plant novelties, new varieties, and necessary propagating stock. Under regulation 14, application may be made to the Secretary of Agriculture for special permits for the importation of nursery stock and other plants needed for the purpose of keeping the country supplied with new varieties and propagating stock. The application must be accompanied by a statement certifying that the plants to be imported are novelties, or, if standard varieties of foreign plants, that adequate quantities for their propagation are not available in this country. Special regulations arc made covering plants imported under these permits in order to prevent the introduction of additional insect pests and plant diseases.
The United States has received during recent years so many extremely serious insects and plant diseases that the situation appeared to be a desperate one. In addition to such established pests as the Gipsy and Brown-Tail Moths, against which over one million dollars a year is being spent as a permanent control campaign, the horticulturists of this country could look back only one or two decades to discover the arrival of the citrus canker, which at the expenditure of hundreds of thousands of dollars has now been nearly eradicated from Florida; the chesnut blight which is surely but gradually wiping out the chesnuts of the eastern states; the white pine blister rust which is compelling all New England wood-lot owners to go to the expense of taking out their currant and gooseberry bushes or watch their white pine become valueless; the pink bollworm of cotton which threatened the cotton crop at least as seriously as the boll weevil (the latter, according to the census, having caused the south several hundred million dollars in reduced cotton production) ; and the European corn borer which has decreased the total corn crop of Hungary 25 per cent and that of some parts of Russia, 95 to 100 percent.
We have become so used to the expenditure of money for insecticides and the loss of crop caused by the imported cabbage butterfly, imported grain weevils, imported asparagus beetle, imported poplar borer, imported currant worm, imported cabbage maggot, and many others that we often do not appreciate the total damage they do. It is hard to believe that the introduction of any new ornamental shrub or of all the shrubs and trees which have been imported since the Civil War could compensate for the damage caused by the insects named. After seeing samples of the Potato Wart recently introduced into Pennsylvania, I feel confident in saying that no conceivable plant introduction could pay Wisconsin for the accidental importation of this disease into the great potato growing regions of the state.
Inspection of plant importations has been and always will be inadequate. Inspectors are looking for the invisible and attempting the impossible in trying to prevent the inintroduction of plant diseases. The only hope of protecting the horti cultural interests from the losses which follow th© arrival of imported pests consists of a quarantine against the plants on which they come and their importation, if necessary, under the most careful and severe restrictions.
Objectionable ‘‘brown patches” appear on fine laws, greenswards, and the putting greens of golf courses usually during the hot, moist weather of summer, the disease being most noticable when Hie weather is hot and muggy, and on ground which is kept too moist by insufficient drainage or heavy sprinkling. The brown spots— caused by a fungus—are at first more or less circular and grow in centrifugal fashion, becoming a foot or more in diameter.
During the early morning many of the spots are covered with a fine mildew. Later in the day the border of actively growing spots is smoky green in color where the grass leaves are dying. When the disease is abundant and a merging of the spots occurs, an entire putting green often will be completely brown and appear as if dead. Peculiarly enough, with the coming of cool weather in fall most of the infested spots recover, indicating that the grass has suffered no permanent injury. However, occasional diseased spots are completely killed. Apparently the brown spots radiate in the form of a small circle from one unit and continue this process, season after season, until large circles are formed. Occasionally a green spot is found in the center, but usually the whole patch is brown.
Prevention is the practical way of decreasing the damage wrought by this turf disease, according to the United States Department of Agriculture. Preventive measures consist in providing thorough drainage, both of the surface and subsoil. Often in spite of these precautions the disease will appear in warm, wet weather when the excess surface moisture can not be controlled. The growing of turf plants immune or highly resistant to the disease—Bermuda grass in the South and blue grass and white clover in the North—is the ideal method of prevention.
The fescues and the bents, the peers of all fine turf grasses, are markedly susceptible to the “brown patch’’ disease, although resistant strains are available in both these groups of grasses. It is anticipated by specialists in the United States Department of Agriculture that in the near future resistant strains of desirable grasses for putting green use will be available in amounts sufficient to satisfy all demands.
When a person is sufficiently familiar with the time of appearance and development of the “brown patches” among grass plants to forecast the occurrence of the disease, he can partially control and check its damage by persistent spraying with Bordeaux mixture, in amount just sufficient to moisten the leaves and crowns of the grass, without thoroughly wetting the ground. Frequent applications are necessary. The difficulty attending the use of Bordeaux or any similar fungicide is that as soon as it has been removed from the plants by rain or by continued mowing the fungus breaks out in new places, undeterred by the fungicide which is on the surface of the soil or on the older stems and leaves. Although the expense of using Bordeaux mixture is rather heavy, it will pay the owner to test out this measure of eradication rather than to allow the disease to spread unchecked.
As a rule, mixed grasses on putting greens or lawns are less injured than individual settings of pure-bred varieties. However, mixtures will never result in the fine turf which comes from setting such grasses as velvet bent, carpet bent, or red fescue. Incidentally the high susceptibility of mouse-ear chick weed, or “creeping Charlie” is a special reason for eradicating all patches of these plants from putting greens or high-quality lawns.
The common lawn plants seem susceptible to the brown patch disease in about this order: Mouse-ear chickweed, red fescue, red top, velvet bent, carpet bent, rough-stalked meadow grass, speedwell and yarrow. Frequently, especially in the case of mouse-ear, ehickweed and speedwell, the disease does not spread beyond the boundaries of the plant attacked, but in other eases several species of plants may be involved in the same spot.
At one of the leading golf courses in the District of Columbia, where the “brown patch” disease was rampant in 1916, experiments were conducted in 1917 to determiine if the trouble could be prevented by the use of Bordeaux mixture. A fine putting green of mixed bent, measuring about 40 by 80 feet in size, was used. The disease appeared on June 13; two days later the green was watered with 300 gallons of half-strength Bordeaux mixture, a small portion of turf being left untreated as a check. No injury whatever resulted to the grass from the use of the Bordeaux. The treated area seemed to improve very quickly and within a week few spots were visible. In contrast, the untreated portion continued to deteriorate and on July 9 was in bad condition, while the treated area showed no signs of the disease. About July’ 15 the disease again became rampant on the treated area, when it was watered a second time with Bordeaux as before. The results following the second application were by no means as marked as after the first treatment, but were decidedly beneficial. From this experiment, as well as from several similar ones, it seems probable that the disease can be held in check by frequent light applications of Bordeaux mixture.
Married man able and willing to work wants work on fruit farm or market garden preferably where highgrade poultry is kept.
City bred but three years experience on market garden. Wife willing to help in house or act as housekeeper. Address C. Wisconsin Horticulture.
Not for many years has there been so favorable a season for cranberries, as this one up to date. Vines are looking well, and buds and blossoms are appearing much earlier than for the past two or three years. If present conditions continue a most bountiful harvest should be reaped.
Ill health has forced Wm. Sanford to retire from the management of the Arpin Cranberry Co’s marsh at Cranmoor. Mr. Sanford has ably filled this position for some years and it is regretted the state of his health prevents continuance. Mr. Harrison Kruger has taken the position and will devote his best efforts to carry on the good work.
Among the late scientifically laid out and operated cranberry marshes is that of the Cranberry Lake Development Company, located near Phillips, Wis.
This company possesses some 2,300 acres of land giving them ample material and facilities to develop and care for in the highest degree the parts of their acreage suitable for cranberry culture. They have 86 acres under cultivation, all developed as scientifically as the most modern and improved methods can prescribe. Of this acreage 22 acres came into bearing in 1918 with a yield of 983 barrels—a most remarkable production for a new planting. This season of 1919, thirtytwo acres more are expected to bear, and should these in turn do as well, the promoters of this plat are surely to be congratulated.
During last year a large number of concrete flumes were built—17 flumes with a half foot base, not counting the wings; 12 with a six-foot base, one, the main flume with a 14-foot base, and a spillway with a 30-foot base. A suitable storage shed 20x80 ft. was also built and another as large will undoubtedly be needed this year to take care of the increased production. Mr. Jas. G. Houghton as Pres. E. W. Clark V. Pres.—Albert Iledler Secy, and Treas. are the present officers of the company, while F. E. Kessel is on the ground as resident manager— these with the experienced advisement of Pres. A. Sear'ls. form a strong combine whose efforts bid fair to achieve great results. The secretary—Mr. Hedler and Mr. Kessel their active manager are both interested members of our state association, and we extend to the other officers and directors of the company an invitation to membership. We believe the $1.00 annual fee is a good investment for any cranberry grower.
My first experience with false blossoms was about ten years ago. I had one and a half acres planted with a popular Wisconsin variety. The soils varied greatly throughout the section. There were spots all sand and in places muck a foot or more in depth.
" At that time the vines were young and sending forth runners. Oil one of the sandy areas I noticed runners which seemingly produced a cluster of uprights upon which there was no fruit. I was informed that these were false blossom vines and endeavored to eradicate them by pulling out those which showed that characteristic, for I believed, at that time, the false blossom vine to be a distinct variety which grew among the vines and if eradicated would leave the vines unmixed. For two or three years I continued the pulling out warfare, and lost out, for finally the entire section seemed to be infested except about ten square rods near the original starting point.
This small area is seemingly warmer on frosty nights being nearer the upland also favored by being near a ditch and probably receives some protection from the blue-joint grass. It always yields a fine crop. Six years ago the acre and a half tract yielded 100 barrels but as the vines took on the false blossom characteristic the yield has rapidly fallen and is now practically nothing. In 1903 I selected about a quarter of an acre and planted to Metalie Bells, my object being to use it as a nursery plot from which to plant other areas. From another marsh I selected a half a peach basket full of vines being sure that each vine, when selected, held a large fine specimen of the variety. I cut each vine into pieces two or three inches in length and planted. With the use of fertilizers and care the vines thickened almost as rapidly as when the usual quantitiy of vines when the usual quantity of vines are used. The yield has been very heavy until about two years ago when a light spring fi ost destroyed the tender growth. Believing that the false blossom condition is usually brought on by injury to the growth. I watched the effect with keen interest. They are rapidly taking od the false blossom condition and I fear the tract will eventually be practically worthless.
In examining false blossom vines I have often noticed a place on the vine where apparently the growth had been injured and consequently deranging the growth procedure. Very likely the roots continued to force nourishment upward into the stem and leaves and the sudden death of the new growth resulted is an abnormal growth of defective uprights incapable of producing fruit.
In my case the condition and nature of the soil does not seem to be a factor. I have tried sanding, fertilizing, pruning, liming, deep drainage, and shallow drainage with no results in again bringing the vines back to their normal condition.
Herman J. Gebhardt.
Has any one an explanation or remedy to offer for the false blossom trouble? Mr. Gebhardt has had a sorry experience. Any light on the subject would be gladly received.
Mr. Nic Wirtz is this year looking after the growinsr of the crop on the J. A. Cohen marsh in Cran-moor township.
By W. H. Jordan.
(From Bulletin No. 424, N. Y. Experiment Station, Geneva.)
1. Nine unlike soils were brought to the Station in quantity from different parts of the state for the purpose of studying the relation of the various methods of chemical examination to their crop-producing capacity.
2. Vegetation experiments were conducted with these soils in the Station forcing house during two years.
3. The soils were submitted to chemical examination by different methods.
4. These soils showed by the vegetation tests greatly unlike crop-producing capacity, the dry matter produced varying in two years from 161.5 grams per box to 9.4 grams per box.
5. By no one of the methods of chemical examination was there established any relation between the amounts of nitrogen, phosphoric acid and potash, either total or soluble, and crop-producing capacity.
6. There appeared to be some relation between the total soluble matter in the soil and productiveness, to the extent that the two soils giving a very low yield of barley showed greatly less solubility than did the others. This relation, however, was not consistent throughout.
7. The general result of this investigation shows that we are not yet in a position through laboratory methods so far devised to measure the fertility of the soil.
Much investigation has been directed toward the establishment of reliable measurements of soil fertility. Many persons seem to regard it as desirable that this be done in order that there may be determined for any given soil its capacity to sustain plant production and its deficiencies that should be met through the application of fertilizing material. It is not certain, however, that it would be of advantage to farmers as a rule, to give to them directions for maintaining soil fertility that are worked out without any initiative or effort on their part. It is true that no request is more often made of this Station than to have a sample of soil analyzed in order to determine what fertilizer should be used to supplement its weak places and to what crop, or crops, it is adapted. There seems to be a very widespread impression that it is now possible by laboratory methods to ascertain just what procedure should be adopted in order to increase the cropproducing power of a given field. This impression persists notwithstanding the repeated assertions from scientific sources that no methods of analysis are now known which will give such measurements of fertility as will constitute a safe basis for practice. Notwithstanding all this, it is regarded desirable from the standpoint of the investigator to establish, if possible, some relation between laboratory results and field lesu'ts. It was for the purpose of getting additional light in this direction that the investigation herein reported were outlined.
(Then follows a detailed account of the experiments followed by the above summary.)
Nitrate of soda applied to leaf crops occasionally stimulates their growth. Half an ounce to a gallon of water is usually sufficient at a time. When applied dry, 150 to 200 pounds arc used per acre.
The wheel hoe makes garden cultivation easy.
Too many plants to the foot is just as bad as weeds. Keep the plants thinned.
Bone meal is a good fertilizer to work into the ground around perennials occasionally.
Two new locals have affiliated with the state associations, Vernon county and Price county. There are only about 25 beekeepers in Price county but they are alive and progressive.
Beekeepers’ Chautauqua, and School, University of Wisconsin, August 18-23
An opportunity is here presented Wisconsin beekeepers to get the very latest information on modem beekeeping methods. Dr. Phillips and Mr. Demuth of the U. S. Bureau of Entomology will give the main parts of the program and these men are probably better informed on beekeeping than any other persons in the United States today. Arrangements have been made through the University to provide a camping ground with water and fuel furnished and within easy reach of the street car line and lake- boats. ■ No better opportunity for a vacation can be found than this school. For those who desire,- room and board will be provided near the school grounds. The expenses outside of the traveling to Madison and return will be very small. No tuition will be charged for attending the school. Drop us a card and let us know whether or not you are coming so that we can make such reservation as you desire.
Very truly yours,
H. F. Wilson.
The apiary inspection bill is now a law having passed both houses without opposition. A copy may be had on application to Dr. S. B. Fracker, State Capitol, Madison.
BEEKEEPERS’ SCHOOL AND CHAUTAUQUA
8-12 A. M. Registration to be completed
1:00 P. M. Fundamentals of Bee Behavior Outside the Active Season (Fall Management)—E. F. Phillips
3 :00 P. M. Fundamentals of Beekeeping Practice Outside the Active Season (Fall Management)
—G. S. Demuth
9 :00 A. M. Fundamentals of Bee Behavior Outside the Active Season (Outdoor Wintering and Spring Management)—E. F. Phillips
10 :30 A. M. Fundamentals of Beekeeping Practice Outside the Active Season (Outdoor Wintering and Spring Management)—G. S. Demuth
1:00 P. M. Queen Rearing—H. L. McMurry
2:00 P. M. Practical Beekeeping Extension Work
—A. Swahn, Ellsworth
3 :00 P. M. IIow I Use the Long Idea Hive
—Edw. Hassinger, Jr., Greenville 4:00 P. M. Package Bees and Reports from Attending Beekeepers—H. F. Wilson
9 :00 A. M. Fundamentals of Bee Behavior Outside the Active Season (Cellar- Wintering and Spring Management)—E. F. Phillips
10:30 A. M. Fundamentals of Beekeeping Practice Outside the Active Season (Cellar Wintering and Spring Management)—G. S. Demuth
1:00 P. M. Local Conditions Affecting Cellar Wintering in Wisconsin—II. F. Wilson
2:30 P. M. Successful Methods of Wintering Bees Out-ofDoors and in the Cellar—II. L. McMurry
4 :00 P. M. Out-Door vs. Cellar Wintering
—Frank Kittinger, Franksville
7:30 P. M. Evolution of Beekeeping Practice in the United States—G. S. Demuth
9 :00 A. M. Fundamentals of Bee Behavior During the Active Season (The Honey Flow)—E. F. Phillips
10:30 A. M. Fundamentals of Beekeeping Practice During the Active Season (The Honey Flow)—G. S, Demuth 1:00 P. M. Comb vs. Extracted Honey in Wisconsin
—N. E. France, Platteville; H. H. Moe, Monroe; L. Francisco, Mosinee; W. T. Sherman, Elkhorn. 3:00 P. M. Advertising and Marketing the Honey Crop
—K. Hawkins, Watertown
4:00 P. M. Disposing of the Old Combs and Cappings
—Gus Dittmer, Augusta
7:30 P. M. Beekeeping in the United States (Illustrated) —-E. F. Phillips
9 :00 A. M. Fundamentals in Bee Behavior During the Active Season (Swarming)—E. F. Phillips
10:30 A. M. Fundamentals in Beekeeping Practice During the Active Season (Swarming)—G. S. Demuth
1:00 P. M. Factors Influencing Nectar Secretion —E. F. Phillips
3 :00 P. M. Locality—G. S. Demuth
4 :00 P. M. Obtaining the Maximum Crop in Wisconsin
—James Cherf, Antigo
9:00 A. M. Diagnosis and Treatment of Bee Diseases
—E. F. Phillips
11:30 A. M. Discussion on Disease Control
1:30 P. M. Field Meet and Picnic Under the Auspices of the Dane County Beekeeper’s Association
Wisconsin beekeepers who are thinking of moving should investigate the northern part of the state because there are great possibilities in that section. While in Price county several yards were visited in which bees were working in the third story. One beekeeper already had 2,000 pounds of surplus from dandelion on June first. Almost a continuous flow of nectar is available from early spring until fall. Early spring flowers are wild cherry and dandelion. The clover flow started about June 10 this year and is slightly preceded by wild raspberry. The white clover and raspberry continues until late July.
The beekeepers of Wisconsin should form themselves into a committee for the investigation of beekeeping conditions in Wisconsin and report them for publication in this paper. Mr. Henry C. Kenning, Catawba, Price county, has just turned in a complete record on winter conditions and blooming period of plants at Catawba, Wisconsin for the years 1917, 1918, and 1919. These records are of unusual value and we would appreciate receiving similar records from any beekeepers who have made such notes. Send them to the secretary.
That the cabbage worm is fond of cabbage, both early and late kinds, and don’t be afraid to use arsenical poison preferably arsenate of lead % oz. to a gallon of water. While there is absolutely no danger of poisoning so far as the cabbage is concerned home gardeners whose crops are usually mixed and somewhat crowded should exercise care when spraying potatoes or cabbage with arsenate of lead to avoid spraying neighboring lettuce, beets or other leaf vegetables.
Sow seed of head lettuce early in July for a late crop. It will surely head in the cool weather of September.
Slaked lime and tobacco dust either used alone or a combination will surely repel the striped cucumber beetle. Experience proves it.
Don’t quit cultivating. Plants need the soil stirred now as much as ever.
If the apple or plum trees are over-loaded with fruit it is a good plan to thin out a part of it.
Trees fifty or sixty feet apart along the highway add to the appearance, and to the comfort of the traveler.
Asparagus should not be cut after June 20. It must have some time to store up a supply of food for next season’s growth.
Keep the potatoes well cultivated. Much depends on the way the crop is cultivated. The killing of weeds is not the only purpose of cultivation.
The following premiums are offered for exhibits of flowers and vegetables, at the Summer Meeting, Fort Atkinson, August 19 and 20.
The summer meeting, as announced last month will be held in Fort Atkinson. The dates are August 19th and 20th.
The program so far as arranged is as follows:—
Tuesday Forenoon, August 19th
Country parks or Recreation Centers.
This is Prof. Aust’s hobby and he will lead the discussion.
Tntil now parks have been considered as belonging wholly to cities. Why should this be so?
Country boys and girls are coming to depend more and more on the city for their amusements. The
Best display vegetables grown by boy or girl under 16, in home or school garden. Twenty dollars divided pro rata.
Best display vegetables from “home” garden by person over 16. Twenty dollars divided pro rata.
Exhibitors in Class III may also show in Class II.
1st prize 2d 3d
For best specimens Fuchsia, Rex Begonia, Be
gonia of any other variety, Sword Fern, As
Best collection native flowers in arrangement and
movies and cheap vaudeville are the main attractions in summer as well as in winter.
How many communities have a suitable field for a ball game without trespassing?
Supposing a neighborhood should buy or lease a small tract with an open field for games and a shady corner where all the neighbors could meet Sunday afternoons; suppose,—well suppose the writer stops here and let others tell about it. It's a mighty interesting subject, and in addition to Prof. F. A. Aust the following persons will talk about it.
W. J. Moyle, Union Grove.
II. M. Higgins, Seneca, Ill.
W. Ames, Oregon.
E. II. Niles, Oconomowoc.
Miss Nellie McDonald, Co. Supt. Schools, Oconto.
Mrs. N. A. Rasmussen, Oshkosh.
L. L. Oldham, C. Agr. Agent, Elkhorn.
Strawberries: Varieties new and old: Discussion led by Herman Christensen, Oshkosh.
A small fruit survey; Prof. R. II. Roberts. Insects affecting small fruits. Dr. S. B. Fracker.
Herbaceous perennials, new and old; a selection that will furnish bloom from April until November. Discussion led by W. A. Toole, Baraboo.
Recent investigations in cucumber diseases. S. P. Doolittle, Dept, plant Pathology Univ, of Wis. This ought to make a full and satisfactory day, especially if lots of people come and take part in the discussions.
There is another reason why most everybody should come and that is the program for the second day,
of more agreeable traveling conditions.
Fort Atkinson is centrally situated in Southern Wisconsin and for all who have automobiles is merely a pleasant jaunt. On the whole we will, no doubt, have a good attendance and a pleasant time. The details of how we will be entertained by the “Fort” people will be announced next month.
which as usual is in th** hands of the local people. That it will be a complete and finished program no one doubts. Fort Atkinson is the home of the largest Wisconsin nursery and an inspection of this will be highly profitable as well as interesting. The summer meeting is quite as important and as profitable as the winter meeting and there is the additional advantage INTERNATIONAL APPLE SHIPPERS’ ASSOCIATION
GENERAL GROUP CLASSES AND PRIZES
(Open to the World)
For the best exhibit of commercial varieties as representing the section or state from which it comes, and to be composed of not more than five (5) summer, five (5) fall and ten (10) winter varieties the following prizes are offered in each of the Groups specified below:
First prize—Silver Cup and Blue Ribbon.
Second Prize—Silver Medal and Red Ribbon. Third Prize—Bronze Medal and White Ribbon.
The sections comprising the various Groups are as follows:
Each Group constitutes a class by itself. The fruit entered in any Group will compete against all other entries in the same Group and will also be regarded as entered for the President’s Cup.
General Group__Sweepstakes Prize
The two exhibits scoring the highest in each of the above Groups, as determined by the specifications applicable to that Group, will be selected to form a Group Sweepstakes Class. For the best exhibit in this class, the Association offers a Silver Cup, designated the President’s Cup. No exhibit, however, will be awarded both the President’s Cup and a prize in the Group Classes. The exhibit, therefore, ranking second in the Group which takes the Silver Cup will be awarded the first prize in that Group. The judges, in their preliminary determinations, will, therefore, make one more award than the prize list calls for, to provide for this necessity.
Special Single Plate Classes
(Limited to Exhibitors Showing the Product of Orchards Owned or Leased by Them.)
For the best Single Plate exhibit from the sections constituting the preceding Groups, the following prizes will be offered in each Group and for each of the varieties specified below:
First Prize—Bronze Medal with Blue Ribbon.
Second Prize—Red Ribbon.
GROUP 1—Duchess, Wealthy, Baldwin, Greening, Northwestern Greening, Spy.
GROUP 2—Maiden Blush, Grimes Golden, Jonathan, Ben Davis. Winesap.. GROUP 3—Williams, Grimes Golden, Rome Beauty, York Imperial, Ben Davis, Stayman Winesap, Winesap. Albemarle Pippin.
GROUP 4—Winter Banana, Delicious, Jonathan, Spitzenberg, Winesap, Newtown Pippin, Rome Beauty, Black Ben Davis.
Each variety constitutes a class by itself and a prize will be awarded for
(Continued on page 156)
Life History and Habits: The potato leafhopper (see cut), formerly known as an apple leafhopper is a very small, greenish insect found on the under side of the leaves of potato and bean as well as some other plants. The adult insects both fly and hop and when disturbed dart from one plant to another so quickly that one is apt to overlook them unless they are present in large numbers.
The minute eggs are laid in the midribs and petioles of the leaves or in the stems of the plant. They are so small and so well hidden by the female that it is practically useless to hunt for them. In about ten days the eggs hatch into very small young or nymphs looking much like the adults but without wings. These nymphs moult and grow, feeding upon the leaves, until ready to change into the adult stage. There are probably three generations of the insect in southern Wisconsin, the last adults feeding upon potato until frost.
These insects like plant lice have sucking mouth parts and with their beaks suck the juices of their host plants. This feeding injury alone would be in proprotion to the abundance of the insects but should seldom if ever be sufficient to kill whole fields of potatoes. A serious complication has arisen, however, in the establishment, beyond a reasonable doubt, that the leafhopper transmits a disease. This disease, usually spoken of as “tip burn” (see cut) spreads through a plant very rapidly during the hot summer months. Whole fields of potatoes may turn brown and die in a few weeks. It is the disease then that makes vital the control of the insect.
Control: About every ten years the potato leafhopper appears in vast numbers and for a year or two causes serious losses to potato growers. Indications point to a heavy infestation of the insect this summer, heavier even than last year. If the potato crop is to be saved, control measures should be started at once and kept up.
Bordeaux mixture 4-4-50 combined with an arsenical is probably the best early treatment for potatoes and should be applied at least every two weeks. The Colorado potato beetle can thus be controlled and the potato flea beetle and leafhopper largely repelled. In applying the spray the under side of the leaves must be covered to assure protection. This is not a contact spray and does not kill the leafhoppers but tends to repel them and delays the appearance of disease. It is not feasible to attempt killing the adults by spraying, for with their quick movements it is impossible to hit many of them.
Early in July when the nymphs are nearly fullgrown and before any have become adults a thorough spraying with nicotine sulfate (40%) at 1 to 1200 should be given. The nicotine may well be combined with Bordeaux mixture. It is essential to hit the under side of the leaves. If the nymphs are not all killed another like application should be given ten days or two weeks later.
By keeping potato plants well covered with Bordeaux mixture and applying nicotine sulfate when nymphs are present in abundance the best protection from insect attack and disease may be expected.
John E. Dudley, Jr.
Numerous inquiries have recently come to this office regarding some “disease” attacking elm or maple foliage. The injury to elms
has been in the nature of small light-colored globular-like galls. These galls are caused by small mites which look like tiny spiders. They live within the galls and thus cannot be reached by sprays.
The galls formed on maple leaves are of two kinds; the most common of which is red or black and somewhat globular which is also caused by a mite. Often large numbers of these reddish galls appear giving the trees a conspicuous and unusual appearance. One informant speaks of them as “reddish colored bunches —in some eases a hundred or more of these bunches on one leaf.”
Another type of gall on maple leaves which is not so common but has come to our attention is the maple leaf spot; it appears to be due to a fungous disease rather than to an insect. The spots have a green center with concentric rings of yellow and deep red, % t o 14 inch in diameter. These blister galls are caused by small larvae or worms, the adults of which belong to a group of flies called gall midges.
Very little experimental work has been accomplished in methods of control for these pests of shade trees. Mites on fruit trees hibernate about the bud scales and can be destroyed by spraying with lime sulphur during the dormant season. It is possible that the same spray may be effective against these pests and having no other remedy it is worth while to apply when practical. Use at a strength of one gallon of the spray to 10 gallons of water.
Charles L. Fluke.
A meeting of the Women’s Auxiliary is called for August 19th at Fort Atkinson.
Mrs. E. S. Roloff, Pres.
The campaign for funds to aid the horticulturists in devastated France closed June 1st but not soon enough to announce contribution in the June number of WISCONSIN HORTICULTURE.
The returns have been surprising.
The revelations of generosity and deep feeling for suffering shown in the letters accompanying many of the gifts are of priceless worth.
That the total number of contributors is small compared with our membership is, ’beyond any doubt, due to the wording of the appeal which led many to feel that only comparatively large contributions were expected. While just the opposite was true there is no cause for disappointment for the sum total was, to the editor most surprisingly large. The list was intended only for members but a certain young people’s church association inveigled the editor to attend Sunday evening session and urged him to accept the regular contribution for the tree fund. When the project was launched the Board of Managers, after much discussion, agreed to plant three trees each. The president wanted it specified that his should be Maiden’s Blush, while the vice-president wanted only Wealthy, the secretary chose Hibernal.
Their names head the list, when you reverse it.
Subscriptions to the Plant a Tree in France fund, in order received.
Dr. W. II. Macdonald, Lake
II. P. Yale. 3011 State St.,
Ernest J. Muller, Waukesha 1.00 Wenzel Prochazha, Water
Frank H. Rogers, Fort At
Emma E. Patterson, Bur
E. S. Brindley, Richland
Geo. W. Buckstaff, Oshkosh 4.50 Lake Geneva Gardener’s and
C. O. Tanberg Jr. Hibbing
T. J. Conway, Zumbro Falls,
Mrs. W. J. Brubaker, West
Mr. and Mrs. Coley Strong,
Mrs. S. Simmons, Lake Mills 1.00 Geo. Raymer, Pasadena, Cal. 6.00 Young People’s Association,
Unitarian Church, Madi-
Mow the lawn frequently and fertilize occasionally if you want it kept in good condition. Don’t let the grass get long. It is harder to mow and weakens the growth.
Tomatoes trained to stakes do not yield quite so much as when in bush form, but the fruit is better colored and larger.
Orchard Notes from Illinois.
Mr. William Toole, Sr., who attended the convention and fruit show of the Illinois State Society held in Chicago last December returned with most interesting notes on the papers and discussions presented at the convention. While these have not been edited by Mr. Toole nor submitted by him for publication the editor takes the liberty of publishing the original notes and is of the opinion that our readers will agree that the notes contain very much valuable information in concise form.
Crown rot is serious, entailing a loss in some orchards as high as 30 per cent, caused by soil conditions including lack of drainage.
Fruit buds are seldom winter killed. It is a mistake to think that winter injury to bark only happens on southwest side of tree. Careless observers often mistake mice injury for winter killing. Drouth often causes serious injury. Crown gall very much weakens trees in the orchard.
Root rot is serious in southern part of the state. Canker on limbs and trunk is frequent cause of death. There are physical causes like lack of nutrition and lack of congeniality between scion and stock. Grimes Golden gives out at about twenty years old. Top working that variety on congenial stock is recommended. Canker causes 50 per cent of all losses. Cutting out soon enough stops spread of the infection. Cut out dead material first, next cut around the edge of healthy tissue and remove the border, keeping knife sterilized with bichloride of mercury, also spray the newly cut surfaces with the same. Spray the finished work with gas tar to keep out wooly
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each variety. An exhibitor may limit his exhibit to a single plate of one variety or he may enter as many of the varieties specified as he desires.
These classes require a separate exhibit from the Group Classes. The plates are not interchangeable. In other words plates cannot be withdrawn from the Group Classes to fill these classes. The same varieties, of course, can be entered in both the Group and Single Plate Classes, but not the same identical apples. Exhibitors entering both the Group and Single Plate Classes should use due care to clearly specify the particular fruit intended for this special class so that no error may occur.
The plates winning first prizes in the above classes will constitute a Single Plato Sweepstakes Class, and a Silver Cup will be awarded to the best plate in this Class.
In judging the Exhibit, the following features will be considered and will count when perfect as the scale of points indicates. The scale is the standard of perfection and indicates the relative importance of the various points. Exhibits will be judged on this basis.
Scale of Points
Size—(As representing the section from which it comes at that sea
Color—(As representing the section from which it comes at that sea
It should be noted that Color is relatively Unimportant. This is made so because the season is not far enough advanced at the time of the exhibit to allow it to be given a greater value.
Limitation of Classes
General Group Classes—The General Group Classes carrying with them the President’s Cup are open to the world-growers, dealers, associations or selling agencies. It is not necessary that the fruit exhibited be raised by the person who exhibits it, or that it come from a single orchard or a single owner. It must, however, be exhibited as the product of the State where it wras actually raised.
Single Plate Classes—These classes are limited to Growers showing the product of orchards owned or leased by them.
It is fully recognized that fruit is not matured by August 13th. The question of maturity has nothing to do with this exhibit. An immature apple has just as great a chance as a matured apple, providing it is up to the standard for its particular section or state, at that season of the year.
In other words the variety of seasons in the various states is taken into account by the judges in making their awards, and everyone is on an equal footing, regardless of weather the fruit is fu 1 grown or not.
(1) We want this year’s fruit. Take it as it is on or about the date of the exhibit.
(2) Commercial varieties are wanted, and the awards will be upon thia basis.
No entrance fees. You are also welcome to arrange your own exh bit if you desire.
It is not necessary that you exhibit the full maximum number of varieties mentioned in the Class Rules to be eligible to an award, providing your exhibit, whatever its number, truly represents the Commercial Varieties of the state or section it purports to represent. You may also exhibit a greater number of varieties than required, with the understanding that the excess is not to be considered in competition.
From 5 to 8 apples of each variety are sufficient. More may be shown if desired.
1. Pack each variety by itself in a carton, paper bag or other container with the Name of the variety clearly indicated on or inside such container. See that the apples intended for the General Group Classes are kept separate from those intended for the Special Single Plate Classes and indicate distinctly for which Class the respective apples are intended. Many exhibitors fail to name their apples or the names are so mixed with the various varieties. that it is impossible to distinguish and separate them. Such exhibits will necessarily have to be rejected. Name Your Varieties—Mark them Plainly. Keep Each Variety Separate. Enclose in the general package in which your entire exhibit is sent a complete invoice giving the names of all the varieties sent. Fill out and mail the enclosed invoice to Charles Keebler, Hotel Pfister, Milwaukee, Wis., Chairman of the Committee in charge of the exhibit so that he may arrange space, trace delayed shipments and avoid errors. The above instructions are very important. Do not fail.
2. If you do not bring your exhibit personally, send it by express, or any way ydu choose, to Charles Keebler, Hotel Pfister, Milwaukee, Wis.
3. Exhibits in many instances may be sent by parcel post if carefully packed, protected and started in time. Consult your local postmaster as to weight limits.
4. Take special care to see that all exhibits are carefully and tightly packed to prevent bruising in transit.
5. Cold Storage—If apples are desired to be sent in advance of the exhibit and held in cold storage, send them to Charles Keebler, Wisconsin Cold Storage Co., 178 Florida St. Milwaukee, Wis. Mark on the package "Apple Exhibit. International Apple Shippers’ Association." Write Mr. Keebler, at 299 Broadway, Milwaukee, advising him of fruit thus sent in advance. No charge for cold storage or cartage.
Wien to Send Your Exhibit
Time it to arrive at Milwaukee, Monday, August 11th. Allow for delays in transportation.
aphis. Make trimming and pruning of diseased wood a separate work from general pruning.
Cost of production of apples; total including overhead cost, 40.8 cts. per bu. of salable apples.
Prof. A. J. Gunderson on spraying: There are still problems to solve but much good has already been accomplished. Apple blotch is a serious trouble in southern Illinois and is extending northward. Its advancement should be checked. It is important to cut out watersprouts and dead wood before spraying. Spray with lime sulphur three and five weeks after blossoms fall. Worst infection is five to six weeks after full bloom. Liquid spray is superior to dust. He prefers the rod spray with disk nozzle, to the spray gun. Lime sulphur is a good spray for apple scab but late in season if temperature is above 85 would use bor-deaux mixture at 3-4-50 strength. Would spray for codling moth with 1 lb. dry arsenate of lead to 50 gallons of water, at fall of bloom, also 3 and 5 weeks after. For second brood would spray 10 weeks after fall of bloom and also in September for late moths if weather is hot and dry. There is a division of opinion regarding efficiency of the gun spray. One man uses the gun for lower part of tree and the rod for the upper part. Workmen like the gun spray because it is easy to handle. Some workmen refused to handle the rod spray after having used the gun.
Senator Dunlap gave a very interesting account of a trip among the orchards of California, Oregon and Washington. In the California apple district yellow and green varieties are preferred because red varieties do not color well. In manuring orange orchards Prof. Shamel has had very good results by opening furrows between rows of trees and filling with manure and then covering the same by throwing the furrows back. In Oregon they think they can promote fruitfulness by pruning. In Washington diseases and insect pests are increasing. They think
fruit dropping is caused by deficiency of both plant food and moisture.
Prof. Lloyd talked about fruit and vegetable storage houses especially for apples. Storage buildings belong to two classes, those with ice cooling or artificial refrigeration and those not provided with refrigeration, built either above or below the ground surface. Cold storage facilities are most needed near point of distribution to save shipment in severely cold weather. Any place having a population of 5,000 or more should have cold storage facilities for fruit and vegetables. Bulletin on construction may be had from the Illinois College of Agriculture; also from the agricultural department at Washington. Prof. Kraus of Oregon talked of pruning. When trees are pruned the branches which are cut back the most make the least growth the following season. Leading or terminal branches outgrow lateral branches.
There are three general styles of training trees: First, the leader type which plans for a continuous center trunk. This makes for a tall tree until the branches are out of reach of pruning, after which the tree assumes its natural tendency of growth. Second, is the open center plan which is promoted by a general cutting back of all of the branches. This induces a broom shaped head and is the style mostly followed by those who advocate low heading. A third type is called a delayed open center, and embraces several leaders. His preference is for this type of tree.
Pruning is easy so far as cutting goes but too much is done thoughtlessly. The grower often prunes to let light and air inside of the tree. Don’t do it. Too much pruning starves the tree. As a general rule trees come into bearing earlier if left alone than if they receive much pruning. Too much summer pruning induces water sprouts. After six or seven years of age trees should receive less pruning. Prune trees of vigorous growth but cut lightly or not at all if growth is poor. To renew old trees thin out instead of cutting back. Water sprouts may then be trained to become bearing branches. To promote fruitfulness in trees which are slow to come to bearing, pinch back in June the same season’s growth to about the same length that you would cut back the same growth to, the following winter. Call the first growth in June the “A” growth of the season. Any growth following the pinching call the ‘‘B” growth. If B growth is vigorous cut it back at regular time of pinning the following winter. If B growth is light let it alone. This plan of promoting fruitfulness works well on varieties that have a tendency to bear on the last season ’s growth of wood. More money has been lost by over pruning than by pruning too little.
Fertilizing orchards by Prof. Kraus: Thousands of dollars have been wasted by applying commercial fertilizers which the soil did not need. Of the three classes of fertilizers, nitrates, potash and phosphates, nitrates are most commonly needed. Nitrate of soda is the form most commonly used. Continued use of this fertilizer in Oregon promotes an excess of alkali in the soil. Use five or six pounds to a tree in bearing. Spread broadcast as far as branches cover and not too close to the trunk of the tree. Use two-thirds when growth commences in spring and the balance two or three weeks later. Less benefit is derived if there is deficiency of humus in the soil.
Mulching promotes efficiency. It pays to raise mulch material on $100 per acre land to apply on $500 per acre land. Cover crops of legumes promote storage of humus and nitrogen ; cover crops also may rob the trees of fertility and moisture. He prefers sulphate of ammonia to nitrate of soda but it is more expensive. Pruning has great influence on growth of trees and may be worked in opposition to the nutrition of the tree.
The apple show held in connection with the annual convention of the International Apple Shippers' Association is unlike any other fruit show in that green apples are shown. At first glance it appears ridiculous to exhibit apples less than half grown but this exhibit is not for the entertainment of the general public but for the information of apple buyers. Men who have been engaged for years in buying apples can form a fairly accurate judgment of the crop from partly matured fruit and "Wisconsin growers will do well to exhibit at Milwaukee next month. The exhibit is of interest only to those who will have apples in car lots. The complete premium list and rules are given in this issue.
Secretary Phillips of the I. A. S. A. announces that there will be an exhibit of apple graders at the Milwaukee convention, August 13 to 16.
The sample sent here was forwarded to E. G. Hastings, professor of bacteriology of the Wisconsin College, and the Minnesota sample to Prof. Brierley. These gentlemen report to Mr. Tuttle as follows:
Mr. Cranefield has referred to us some material which you forwarded to him. This material has usually gone under the term of vinegar bees. This somewhat solid material contains both the yeast plant and the bacteria that are able to change the alcohol formed by the yeast into acetic acid, the acid which is present in vinegar. Thus when this material is placed in a sugar solution the yeast ferments the sugar with the production of alcohol, which is later changed to acetic acid. The
Vinegar making or the conversion of sweet cider into vinegar is a slow process requiring, under cellar conditions, several months.
Various means are employed for hastening the process. One of these, know as “vinegar bees,” is quite common in the eastern states, but evidently has been but little known in Wisconsin.
Mr. C. R. Tuttle, of Baraboo, who has been engaged in vinegar making for years, recently secured some of the “bees” and sent samples to this office and to the horticultural department of the Minnesota College.
bees will accomplish nothing more than can be accomplished by ordinary yeast such as compressed yeast and acetic acid bacteria which can be obtained from a variety of sources.
I have no information concerning the origin of the material. It seemed to gain a considerable reputation during the past few months.
E. G. Hastings,
Prof, of Agr. Bacteriology.
I understand that there has been a lack of information as to what “vinegar bees” might be. The common way in which “vinegar bees” are prepared is to take the cake from properly prepared vinegar, usually as the finished vinegar is being racked out of the barrel, and run this slimy cake through a medium to coarse sieve, which breaks it us into the small particles from one-eighth to one-fourth inch in general diameter. This material is then mixed up in some of the good vinegar and can be used as a starter when making cidtr vinegar in barrels or casks.
As you will note, the bees have no relation to yeast. Yeasts are commonly used to assjst in the first or alcoholic fermentation in vinegar making and the bees or clear vinegar used for a vinegar starter, adding this latter to the hard cider. In my studies of the vinegar making qualities of Minnesota apple varieties I have found that, for varieties which will make a standard vinegar strength, nothing is gained by either the use of yeast or starters, and for varieties which do not seem capable of making a standard strength vinegar, a starter can have no appreciable effect.
W. G. Brierley,
Asst. Prof, of Horticulture.
Unsprayed trees in certain Iowa orchards produced in 1917 an average of 2.4 bushels; sprayed trees, 5.4 bushels. Not only was the quantity doubled, but the quality went from 9 per cent clean in unsprayed, to 81.3 in the sprayed orchards.