OFFICIAL ORGAN OF THE WISCONSIN STATE HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY •
Madison, Wisconsin, May, 1921
The Peony and the Iris
T. A. Kenning, Minneapolis, Minn.
(At Summer Meeting, Racine, August 1920—From Reporter’s Transcript.)
Usually when a man or woman starts to grow flowers, they want to grow all the kinds of flowers that they see between the covers of seed catalogues. Each one seems more lovely than the other, and the catalogues present them so attractively that they want them all. They try a good many of them, and they find that some are not adapted to their particular locality; that some are rather fijjieky, and need especial care; some are not hardy, and some grow like weeds and look like weeds. On the other hand, they find that some are adapted to any locality, and respond handsomely to whatever attention is given them. Now, such flowers are the peony and the iris. want to learn more about it themselves, and they want to get a good collection of peonies and irises, and they want other people to grow them. So they hunt up other enthusiasts, and then they decide that the best way to disseminate the knowledge of and love for their particular flower, is through an organization. Thus it was that four or five men gathered together in Minneapolis about five years ago this last June, and organized the Northwestern Peony & Iris Society. There was an American Peony Society, but they held their exhibitions in the east, and it was hard for the growers and enthusiasts of the northwest to exhibit in competition with those who were nearer at hand. Among those men who organized this society were the late Rev. C. S. Harrison, C. J. Traxler, of Minneapolis, A. M. Brand of Faribault, and W. F. Christman.
It is a curious but sad fact that two of those men subsequently became blind. Rev. Harrison before he died became blind, and the last thing that his gaze rested upon was one of Brand’s peonies, I think it was the Mary Brand; a very fine, red flower. He said it was the very finest red peony in existence, and he was quite an authority. Mr. Traxler is now also blind, and it was a pitiful sight at our last peony show to see him being led around by his daughter, she trying to explain the exhibits to him.
Now, the object of the North western Peony & Iris society is to disseminate the knowledge of and love for the peony and iris, and this is done in a number of ways. Each month the secretary has a department in the Minnesota Horticulturist, and in the Flower Grower. The members of the Northwestern Peony & Iris Society are also members of the Horticultural Society, and get the monthly publication, the Horticulturist. Then the secretary also issues a bulletin from time to time. We have had so far only two meetings per year. One of these is the annual meeting, which is also held in connection with the Minnesota Horticultural Society, where we have papers and talks on the peony and iris, and usually an illustrated lecture. Then in the summer we have our peony show. It is supposed to be an iris and peony show, but you cannot exhibit those two flowers together very easily, because your irises are gone before your peonies are in their very best condition. . But this is also held in connection with the summer meeting of the Minnesota Horticultural Society, and we have to govern the Peony show somewhat by their desires. These shows, of course, are great forces of education. This last year, because of the fact that it is impossible to exhibit the two flowers together, satisfactorily, some of us decided that we wanted a separate iris show. I have the honor of being regional vice-president of the American Iris Society, and so the American Iris Society and the Northwestern Peony & Iris Association co-operated in having this show.
Now, here is just a suggestion that I want to leave with you. I went to one of our biggest banks in Minneapolis, the Northwestern National Bank, and asked them if they did not want to put on an Iris show. Well, they rose to the occasion very handsomely, and said they would. They saw in it a chance to advertise their bank in a very effective way. So we put on an iris show. The bank advertised it in the papers very thoroughly—in the daily papers, —putting in paid ads. We had the first iris show that has been held in the northwest, and it certainly was a revelation not only to the bank officials, but to the general public as well. Hundreds of people came there with their note books and took down the names of the irises. Before that they did not know there was such a plant as the Iris. They thought they were just blue and yellow flags, but they found out that they were really fine flowers. The bank gave a silver cup, in addition to the money which they expended for advertising. Now, as I said before, I leave that with you as a suggestion. You can probably do something of that kind in your own town, and have a splendid show’, without its costing you a great deal.
The iris is native of a great many countries, and there are a great many species of iris, although we are concerned mainly with only a few. There are three main classes of iris: the bearded; the beardless, and the crescent. The bearded irises are divided into three main classes: the dwarf bearded, the intermediate and the tall. Now, the dwarf irises bloom in April. They are doubly welcome, because they come so early. They come in a number of different colors. There is a beautiful blue, a white, and a yellow’. They are very fine for bed edges, borders, because they grow very low. Then there are the intermediate irises, which are intermediate in size, in height as well as in time of bloom. They are a cross between the dwarf irises and the tall bearded irises. There are a number of very good kinds in the intermediate. Ingeborg is a pure white, a large flower, very fine. Helge is a lemon yellow. Walhalla has lavender standards and light purple falls, a very large flower, very conspicuous, and very fine.
I am only going to give you a few of each kind. You may want to take notes, but if you do not, I may be able to give you some names after the meeting.
Now, the tall bearded irises are what we have been in the habit of calling the German Iris. Linnaeus, the great Swedish botanist, gave them the name first, because they resembled the Iris Gerinanica, or the Species Ger-manica; but the German Iris, so-called, is not a native of Germany’. For that reason we are beginning to discard that name, and there have been a number of other names suggested, such as Liberty Iris, Fleur-de-lis, etc.: but tall bearded iris seems to fill the bill better than any other, because it is descriptive. If w! call them Fleur-de-lis. that is somewhat incongruous, because the flower is not a native of France, and it does not harmonize ; and expressions with Liberty in them have been overworked. The description Tall Bearded Iris is I think the best of any. and I think that gradually all the growers will catalogue it as such.
Now, this is the main class of irises that we are interested in. There are in this class a large number of very’ fine varieties, enough to stagger you and confuse you. I am only going to give you a few, some of the best, low priced varieties. In fact, there are not many’ high priced Irises, because they’ multiply’ rapidly, and you can get very good irises for a small price. In the past the tall bearded irises have been classified according to the color of the standards, but there has been so much intermixing of varieties that lately' that has not
been a very satisfactory classification, and some growers are discarding it. But we use it today to a certain extent.
Now, of the white, those having w’hite standards, there is the Mrs. H. Darwin, that is a very fine iris. It has white standards, and the falls are veined a little with violet. It is quite a compact growing iris, and a very free bloomer, and a very satisfactory all around iris. Then there is the Victorine, which is very striking, white standards with a clouding of purple, and purple standards clouded with white. You see, they have gone fifty-fifty on the standards and the falls. It is a very striking iris, and a very fine flower. Then there is the Rhein ------, which
has purple falls with white edges. It is a very striking iris. Then there is Miss Wilmott, which is a pure white flower of very leathery texture, and one of the best pure whites that there is. Both the standards and the falls are white.
Aurea is a rich chrome yellow was a litte tinge of pink in it, which makes it a very fine flower. Miss Newbronner is a little darker shade. That is also a very fine dark flower, an orange yellow. Mrs. Sherwin Wight is also a good yellow, but not quite as good as the other two. Iris King is a cross between Amarilla variegata and the Maria King. The Maria King is one of the most brilliant irises we have, as a dwarf grower. Iris King has lemon standards and maroon falls, bordered with a yellow border. It is a very strong grower, with a large flower. A very odd and striking
THE GARDEN OF MY DREAMS
Mrs. Coley E. Strong
There’s a dear old fashioned garden That I never shall forget.
There’s no other garden like it in the land.
I can see it in my dreams.
There the white narcissus gleams, And the daffodils in golden glory stands.
There the Lilacs purple plumes, Sends the perfume thru the rooms, As I sit and listen to the humming of the bees,
Oh, the soft south wind is blowing. And you almost think its snowing. As the petals drift from all the apple trees.
Morning glory, Honeysuckle, screen the doorway where I stand,
Zinnias, Balsams, Calliopsis—all that sturdy happy band,
Mignonette, the Portulacca, Four o’clocks and Corn flowers, too, Cockscomb, Columbine and Asters, Covered with the morning dew.
Heaven’s blue is in the Larkspur, Marigolds are prim and straight. Hollyhocks in gorgeous beauty standing by the garden gate.
Ragged ladies. Stocks and Pansies, Phlox d'rummondi, Poppies red, Candytuft and English daisies, all in one old-fashioned bed.
In this garden of my dreaming. Sweet beside the Southern wood
Grows the Lily of the Valley, stately blue and white Monkshood.
Birds are singing in this garden Purple grapes hang on the wall,
Its so real, I stop and listen, I can hear my mother call.
Oh, its there I’d like to wander, in that garden over yonder
Where the June pinks grew in masses soft and sweet,
With the Heliotrope and Roses,
All the dear old-fashioned posies.
In this garden with its paths so prim and neat.
This old garden of my childhood, in my dreams I see it yet,
Its a sweet and pleasant vision
One I never shall forget.
For there’s charm in this old garden, with Its dear old fashioned posies, Where the June Pinks grew in masses, near the Heliotrope and Roses. Iris is Eldorado. Eldorado hi yellowish bronze standard shaded heliotrope. The falls ai purple with a yellow throat, an yellow down the sides.
Then there is the Jaequesian which is an iris with cloude bronze standards. There are number of striking irises in th group, and Jacquesiana is one < them. The falls are crimsoi maroon. Prosper Laugier larger and brighter than Jacque iana.
Then in the purple standarc we have Kochii, which is a clar< purple, self-colored flower. Bot the standards and the falls ai the same. It is one of the indi pensible irises, and very cheaj It is rather low growing an early flowering, but a very goo one. Then we have Monsigno which is a very striking iris, an one of the best. The standarc are pale violet, and the falls ai the same color, overlaid with rich purple. Words can hard! describe this iris. It is a ver tall, striking iris. Archeveque a deep purple in the standard and the falls are red and purpl That is one of the new good one Alcazar is another very fine iri with light violet standards ar deep purple falls. I know’ this a good iris, because I have had -take second place behind it in tl last Iris show’. It won first pri: in the class for the best indivi ual blooms. Madam Pacquette a claret color, and has a very fii fragrance. Now’, that is som thing that is not spoken much in catalogues. I do not see wl it is not dwelt on more than it The iris has a very fine fragrant Madam Pacquette smells li
(Continued on page 157)
Published Monthly by the Wisconsin State Horticultural Society 12 N. Carroll St.
Official organ of the 8oclety.
FREDERIC CBANEFIELD, Editor. Secretary W. S. H. S.. Madison, Wis.
Entered at the postoffice at Madison, Wisconsin, as s cond class matter. Acceptance for mailing at special rate of postage provided for in Section 11<jG, Act of Oct. 3, 1917, authorized July 15, 1918.
Advertising rates made known on application.
Wisconsin Stute Horticultural Society
Annual membership fee, one dollar, which Includes fifty cents, subscription price to Wisconsin Horticulture. Send one dollar to Frederic Cranefleld, Editor, Madison, Wis.
Remit by Postal or Express Money Order. A dollar bill may be sent safely if wrapped or attached to a card. Personal checks accepted.
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T A H..vs .....................President
H. C. Christensen, Oshkosh......Vice
F. Cranefleld, Secretary-Treasurer......Madison
Dist., Dist., Diet., Dist., Dist.,
....Ex-Officio ... .Ex-Officio
— ......... ....Ex-Officio
Wm. Longland..........Lake Geneva
R. J. Coe................Ft. Atkinson
E. J. Frautschi..............Madison
A. Leldiger ................Milwaukee
Jas. Livingstone .........Milwaukee
J. W. Roe...................Oshkosh
C. A. Hofmann............Baraboo
J. E. Leverich.................Sparta
L. E. Birmingham.....Sturgeon Bay
Paul E. Grant............Menomonie
BOARD OF MANAGERS
J. A. Hays H. 0. Christensen F. Cranefleld
To Our Readers
The make-up of the Paper this month is very unsatisfactory to the editor and can scarcely be less so to our readers but your patient consideration is solicited. Violent changes in state printing contracts and other matters connected with the publication of our magazine are taking place which necessitates temporary changes. These troubles will all be ironed out in a short time and we will be able to get back again into our old swing. In the meantime, patience please.
L. II. Palmer, a long time member of this Society and a friend of horticulture died at his home in Baraboo early in January. Mr. Palmer had reached his sixty-second birthday.
Henry C. Melcher, Oconomowoc, died March 22nd after several weeks’ illness. Mr. Melcher was 71 years of age.
These men were alike in many respects; both quiet and unassuming in manner, men who loved best the quiet of home life; both raised fruit not less for the love of fruit than for gain; both were amateur horticulturists in the best sense of the term and of these we have too few.
Neither the date nor place for holding the Summer Meeting has been fixed. The Board of Managers met recently and each agreed to keep an ear cocked upward in order to catch any wireless or other hints.
The Life Membership suggestion in the April issue has been well received. May we hear from you?
Oak Holler, W:«.
Dear friends—I don't know as I am included in the invitation sent out by this Editor Man— to express my opinions on this Convention problem—but,
I’ve a page of my own—and I want to tell you folks something —want to hurry up before someone else says it, that I have a lot of sympathy with you fruit growers, gardeners, nursery” men, woman’s auxiliary”—all you specialist folks. Don’t blame you one bit for wanting to have a separate meeting where y’ou can discuss all your problems with those who understand and appreciate them. It is for your advantage—you get more good out of it—besides it pays in dollars.
But if you do this—what about the rest of us, I mean just we plain ordinary” folks, who are just beginning—who have a few trees, a few berries, a garden ? We who are just beginning to appreciate God’s great out doors for ourselves and our children ?
Do you realize what you stand for to us? You have done these things all your life. You love your work—if you didn't you wouldn't be successful, it means more than dollars and cents to you, even tho you forget it some times.
If a man who has made two blades of grass grow where one grew before—has done something worth while, hasn’t it been worth while to have helped to plant gardens, trees, shrubs, and flowers on many a barren spot in the state of Wisconsin?
Hasn’t it been worth while to know you have been unselfish? We have appreciated this, and because we have we are not afraid to ask you now not to forget us when you do the things that will benefit yourselves. Give us a share, a generous share, of the things that help you. we need them. Do not forget that your words, yourself, are more than any paper or book that was ever written. Summer meetings all over the state are enlightening a lot of us—may be the Annual meetings held this way would help also.
Do not fear that you are losing your individuality, by not allow-
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ing your own desires to loom up so largely, you are teaching all who come to your meetings the greatest of lessons, that of patience and understanding, a careful consideration of what the other fellow likes. You disagree. but you disagree amicably. In short, you have the real get-together spirit and I’m glad. We know you are not going to forget us, we just wanted to tell you so.
(Continued from page 155) grapes. Nearly all irises are very fragrant.
Dalmatica. It is a very fragrant and very tall growing large flower of a beautiful shade of lavender. Her Majesty is a rose pink. The falls are shaded or veined with a deeper color. Red Cloud is one of the newer irises. The standards are rosy lavenderbronze, and the falls are of a rosy crimson. Queen of May is another pink iris; it is perhaps the pinkest iris we have. It is a rosy lavender, almost pink.
Then there is a group of irises that are frilled, called the Plicata group, and the standard iris for many years in that group was Madam Chereau. This is a white iris with a blue frill all around the edge, and a very fine iris, although it is one of the older varieties. Ma Mie is an improvement over Madam Chereau, of very much the same color, but larger and a little more striking than Madam Chereau. Parisiana has white standards, dotted lightly, and the falls are frilled lightly. It is another very striking iris in the Plicata group.
Now, this group of bearded irises, contrary to the ideas of a lot of people, does not want to be grown near the water. The bearded irises like to have their roots baked during the summer time, and they should not be grown where water will stand in winter, for instance, and rot them. No manure should be put upon them in winter. They are perfectly hardy, and they do not need any covering at all. If you have just planted them out, perhaps it might be well to put a little rough covering of some sort
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over them. I use gladiolus stalks and corn stalks, .just to hold the snow. But if they are established plants, they do not need any at all. You are less liable to have rot that way. That is about the only trouble that you have with our iris. Cover them too heavily, and they will rot.
Now, the beardless group, the Apagon group, they like to be near the water, although they will do well in a dry situation. There are a number of species in the beardless iris group, but there are only a few of them that I will mention. There is the Siberian and the Japanese. The Japanese are rather difficult, and we will pass them by, although some people have great success in raising the Japanese. But the Japanese have to be well covered in winter, in order to come through and bloom. The bearded irises like lime. You can use either air slacked lime, sprinkling it on, or you can use the ground lime stone. The air slacked lime is the quicker acting, but the results disappear more quickly. The ground limestone is slower in its action, but the results last longer. The beardless irises do not want lime. The lime for the bearded iris is a fertilizer, but another good fertilizer for beardless is bone meal, which has been mentioned here before today. The Siberian is a deep purple iris. The leaves of the Siberian iris are more slender than those of the bearded, and the flowers grow on a more slender stem. The Siberica are small flowers, of a deep violet blue.
Orientalis is a larger variety that has been discovered in China, and has larger flowers. Then there is Siberica Orientalis, Snow Queen, which is a white variety with large flowers, and a very good one. A gentleman in Minnesota has a light blue color which he calls True Blue, whirl; is a very fine variety, and can probably be purchased from almost any nursery. Then there is another beardless iris called Longipetala Superba, or Mrs. A. W. Tait, which is a soft porcelain blue.
Among the beardless iris we have the native European iris, Pseudo-Aeorus, which is yellow, and our own American variety, which grows in almost any of
the swamps. The Pseudo-Aeorus has long, narrow leaves which glow high, and it is worth while growing for the foliage alone, if it does not ever bloom. It has quite nice yellow flowers. Let me say in regard to the iris, that they can be planted most any time of the year. The best times are in August or the spring, however, although I have planted Iris almost any time; even when they were full of buds. You can take an iris, and throw it out on a dump, and go back in a couple of weeks and plant it, and it will grow again. It is not over particular. It will do almost its best under very adverse circumstances, although it will do better if it is given the proper care, of course.
A Long but Interesting Letter
Since receiving the last issue of your paper and reading the different new points on tree planting subject, all of which are very interesting, and being both a lifetime resident of Wisconsin as well as farm woman, I would like to present the other side of the question “Shall we plant trees along the State Highways?”
Where I live the farm is located on the Nos. 26 and 29 trunk lines, both sides the length of 80 acres and one the width of it. We have seen many grand old trees cut down and others had their roots cut off by the construction gang that they too will not live much longer. The road beds are so much wider and below the surface that few places permit of trees taking root. Then too the telephone and electric light men have spoiled the symmetry of so many trees, if not cut them so badly that they died, and miles of them have been cut down entirely, mostly big oaks.
Have you ever estimated the loss there is to the farmer (the present day tenant at least finds it so) where there are trees along the road. There is from 1 to 3 rods of very poor yield no matter whether it is corn or other crop. 1 think if our bee men who are so anxious to improve every foot of ground, were to receive their salaries from which such an estimate would yield they soon would be looking for some other occupation than “Inspection of Apiaries.” The “Bass Wood” is usually found in low damp places consequently does not transplant well in dry soil, is of very slow growth, and how
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many would survive tile ravages of cattle driven to and from pasture also in fly time (unless guarded) ? Then too have not the roadsides been cleaned up to have them dry up quickly and to prevent snow from filling in? Now they want them kept open all through the winter. Would it not be the height of folly to plant trees again. We have the interurban express passing on this road, besides as many as 100 autos and motorcycles in an hour ofttimes on a pleasant Sabbath afternoon and if you are not one of them, you can sit behind closed windows and doors to avoid the dust that is raised, or if there is a stock sale or baseball on during the week there are a few more days like it. The rains have but little effect for before it quits raining they have the water all spattered out of the track and before night the dust flies again. We have paid for our own oiling but this past year could not get that done. The road sides which usually have good grass and could be cut for hay are so thickly laden with dust that the animals do not eat it nor is it safe to keep cattle on the road longer than to take them to their pasture. The auto has the right of way. Perhaps you will think me a narrowminded pessimistic “Old Maid' who has never been outside of the state or county, so I will add that I crossed the states to the western coast in Aug. 1915 by way of Ogden, and if you ever had that pleasure, I think you too will think Wisconsin looked pretty good when you got back again. When I read Mr. Everett's (editor of the Wisconsin Agri) letter which he printed de-
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scribing the west, I saw that his ideas were very much the same as mine and he being a man had much better opportunities to see things. “The Sunken Garden” of Mr. Bush at Pasadena is very pretty, but if all the wealth that was spent on such a little spot, had been left in the pockets of many a boy and man and not gone ‘‘over the bar” there might be a little more beauty evenly distributed; besides it is a city which has so much wealth taken from all over the states and a long warm season to grow things. It surely looks very alluring to the visitors but the family without means could starve there before they could acquire a home, like they can nearly any where in Wisconsin if they have enough “pep” to do so and not like so many of our young people that cannot stay in one night, but must go to some show or up town to buy their supply of eigarets for the next day and not get in before 12 or perhaps 5 o’clock, then expect $50 to $70 per month besides washing and board. One would think that farmers grew money ready coined, instead of grain and cattle. Our tax on 160 acres is $217 this year and our representatives at the eapitol are constantly asked to increase the appropriation for more funds to provide an office for the many young men who prefer to don the dress up suit instead of the garb of a farmer, and the farmer’s family can work as one woman put it ‘‘until your tongue hangs out,” and in the cities they are fed at the bread line.
You will think I have wandered far afield from my subject but it takes in all that pertains to a farmer's life. Although I am not a tax payer I have 10 coloires of bees in my sister's cellar with which I spend my time which is not taken up with the garden and lawn. I too have tried a little beautifying in a small cemetery which is on this farm but have met with more approval from the passer-by than with gratitude from the ones whose ancestors I have given a respectable burial place (from Buffalo grass to a lawn-mowed sod). I would like to take you to another such a place and then one can see how much our children of today are taught to respect the resting place of the dead. It’s a little school-yard cemetery, many of the descendants own large farms and good homes, autos and all that goes to make up the home of today. But the hands that provided those comforts are not remembered. So it will be with “the boy that went across the sea;’’those who came back do not care to even speak of the life they led: so why build a constant reminder of it for the hearts that still ache for those who never came back. Soon they too will be numbered with them and the others will have new sorrow of their own. When we look about us we see how quickly a vacant place is filled, and perhaps it’s better so. For has not God his purpose when he calls one of his own to serve him. Though we mourn now some day we shall see and understand.
Now I think I had best stop for even this may be too lengthy for one so busy as an editor.
Respectfully, Emily F. Creydt.
Annual Report of Secretary
(Read at Annual Convention)
The year just behind us has been a satisfactory one to all concerned with horticulture, whether amateur or professional. So far as the commercial grower is concerned, a good season, good crops and good prices, a combination rarely experienced, should give encouragement and satisfaction.
It is probably true that the period embracing the years 1915-1920 was the most satisfactory ever experienced by Wisconsin gardeners and fruit growers so far as crops and prices were concerned. If, then, it happens that we are to face a period of lower prices and weaker markets we should meet it with fortitude and as near as may be possible without complaint.
The back yard garden movement which received such a stimulus in 1917 and 1918 has not seriously affected the market gardeners. In fact, I am of the opinion that a close examination of the situation would show that it has helped them.
The city gardener, whether a man of limited means or the man who gardens for fun has learned valuable lessons, one of which is an increased respect for the man who is compelled to make his living by raising fruits and vegetables. The city gardner is not now so sure as he was before he begun the gardening game, that the commercial gardner is a profiteer, a gouger, a robber. He has seen a “great light.” There need be no fear on the part of the market gardener that his business will suffer severely in the long run from city gardens. These gardens are the best possible advertising medium for his products. Our work then in the encouragement of city gardens must not be abandoned, we must, by word and deed, encourage those who are now interested and maintain our recruiting stations.
We find a new field for our endeavors in the home or city garden work in the encouragement of the planting and care of fruit trees. We attacked the vegetable and small fruit problem in these gardens as the line of least resistance and have overlooked the fact that most city back lots afford room for at least two apple trees, one Duchess and one Northwestern. Why not? It will not more seriously interfere with the fruit grower than the back yard garden, the market gardener; merely create an appetite for more fruit.
Along with this urge must come, from us, some potential plan for the alleviation of apple scab and codlin moth on these c ty bred trees. There is now scarcely a city in the state but has within its limits hundreds of bearing fruit trees, (there are in Mad son not less than 2000 such trees) not one per cent of which are pruned or sprayed. There is a great opportunity here for someone to practice the gospel of spraying.
The school garden work also deserves our attention. Just now it is too much like the greater part of our school system, machine made. The greatest need in this work is to find teachers who possess imagination, then the youngster who really wants a garden of his own may be able to find it in the school garden plot without referring to the numbered stake, he will be permitted to give expression to his ideas of what a garden ought to be and if it occasionally includes a weed or two no harm will be done. (The average school garden plot offends my sight by its rigid formality and sameness. If it were not a hateful expression I should say they appear like something ‘ ‘ Made in Germany. ' ‘ •
A probulem of the first magnitude which was outlined a year ago in the President’s address and the report of the Secretary seems no nearer solution now than then, the almost complete extinction of cane fruit growing in the state. This is a problem affecting everyone in Wisconsin, whether producer or consumer. Preaching apparently lias had but little effect so the Executive Committee of this Society at its session last evening adopted a plan which should give results. This plan, briefiy stated, is modeled on our trial orchard work but a much more comprehensive plan comprising thirty and possibly three hundred demonstration stat.ons, this work to be carried on through cooperation with the county agents.
Another problem, not new and one that will be discussed at length during this meeting, is the Farm Orchard. We have had wise counsel on this subject in the past and will have wiser counsel and material aid in tiltfuture. The average small farm or home orchard as it exists today is one of the worst drawbacks to successful commercial fruit growing we have in the state. It’s worse than a liability, it’s a curse. Let’s solve this problem without further delay. If we can do it we will have done our share toward keeping our Society and our state in the front rank of progressive institutions.
The marketing of Wisconsin grown apples has seemed a big problem in the past but is one that is growing smaller ami smaller as the years go by, or rather as the quality of our product improves. When we have entirely eliminated the “barnyard apples” from back of the barnyards of Wisconsin and apples intended for the trade are grown only by well trained and
experienced fruit growers we will have gone a long way toward the solution of our problem. There will still remain the big factor in marketing. This is too big a subject to discuss in a report of this nature but it may be said in passing that, “the old order pass-eth.” Wideawake fruit growers, acting independently and thru cooperative shipping association, have wiped out the commission and consignment corruptions and compelled the wholesale buyers to become merchants in fact, rather than gamblers and in many cases petty thieves. A further readjustment is just in sight and it behooves the grower to keep in close touch with events. Cooperation is going to mean more than a mere claptrap word in the future.
The further development of commercial orchards in Wisconsin is work in which this Society should not be “weary of well doing.” We have done much but have really only made a good be-g'lining. Door county could double its acreage of tree fruits and handle the output easily. The scant 800 acres in the Kicka-poo region eould be increased to 10.000 acres and still only scratch the surface. There is abundant room for thousands of acres more of apple and cherry orchards in Wisconsin and there is every reason why the trees should be planted. In spite of the vast plantings both in the East and West there is little doubt that a careful census of bearing trees would show a tremendous decrease each year. Somebody must take up the slack, why not progressive Wisconsin horticulturists aided by our Society?
More than twenty years ago I took the stand that Wisconsin orchards should consist almost wholly of fall maturing varieties, Duchess, Dudley, Wealthy, Famous and Mackintosh the leaders. Each succeeding year’s observations since that time has only served to strengthen my opinion in that respect and the season just passed served to clinch it. Thousands of barrels of winter apples are now lying under the snowbanks in New York and Michigan and those sold brought the grower from 25c to $1.00 a bushel. Long before these apples ripened Wisconsin growers had sold their fall apples for 6, 8, 10, and 12 dollars a barrel.
In this proposed development of fruit growing there are two distinct lines of procedure open to us; first to promote the development of large commercial orchards, urging the extension of these already planted and opening new districts; secondly encouragement to the smaller grower. There are splendid opportunities near cities of two thousand population or more for enterprising growers to plant orchards of five to ten acres to supply local markets. When we have accomplished the planting and organized for co-operative marketing not alone in the different communities but a state-wide organization it still remains for the growers to get in touch with these in other states. Until recently fruit growing was the only major branch of agriculture that had no national organization, there is now however a new light on the horizon. Tae American Pomological Society having seventy-five years of honorable history back of it, has been reorganized so as to include commercial fruit growing in its activities. You will I am sure be satisfied if not pleased to know that representatives of this Society authorized by your executive committee have had a prominent part in shaping the policies of this new organization which promises much good for the fruit growing industry.
Rural Planning i s not dead, only drowsing, and will wake up soon. This great work, or work that may be made great, is in the hands of the Rural Planning
Commission with whom we have offered to cooperate. Let us join hands with every department in promoting this work.
I have mentioned only a few of the things we ought to do. There are so many others that a mere recital would take many pages. I have enumerated only those which are so near to us that we cannot avoid seeing them. A broader policy, one looking ahead fifty or one hundred years would fill a volume.
Your secretary realizes that this report might have been more consistent had it begun with a record of accomplishments during the past year rather than suggestions for the future but that which has been done is merely history, that which remains to be done concerns us most.
Your officers and executive committee have aimed to execute to the best of their abilities the work before them.
The Trial Orchard work is declining in extent owing to the fact that the plans under which the orchards were held are maturing and no new ones have been executed. It has been the policy of the Committees in charge of this work that it be allowed to expire by limitation and that the Society expend its efforts in new fields. If in doing so we accomplish one tenth as much good as we have in promoting fruit growing thru the trial orchards we may be well satisfied. A discussion of the orchards will be offered by the Trial Orchard Committee.
The publications of the Society during the year were practically the same as those of the preceding year. Wisconsin Horticulture, including two supplements; January, Proceedings of American Pomologieal Society and April, Control of Insects and Diseases; tile Annual Report and several leaflets. It has been the policy of your secretary as Editor of the Report to include in it only matter of permanent value
have acquired somewhat of a reputation wherever grown. At no time has there been such an interest in dahlias as now. Trial collection (list price $2.40) mailed anywhere in L’. S. with cultural instructions on receipt of $2.00.
Oregon Beauty, Dec. large oriental red
Kone, Show, dark rose Fioradora, Cactus, dark blood red
Cecelia, Peony-flowered, lemon yellow
Queen Wilhelmina, Peony-flowered, pure white
John Green, Peony-flowered, yellow center, scarlet tip
All grown in Wisconsin and not subject to any F. H. B. quarantine.
J. T. FITCHETT Janesville, Wis.
and to secure such a careful revision of the fruit and flower tree and plant lists that it might serve as a reliable guide to prospective planters as well as an all year reference book.
We have worked in close cooperation with the departments of horticulture, plant pathology and entomology as well as with the various branches of the State Department of Agriculture. Our connection with the Wisconsin State Beekeepers Association has been strengthened during the year and the pleasant relations established will undoubtedly continue. Beginning with January of this year the Beekeepers Auxiliary will add nearly 800 names to our mailing list, each one of which will some day be
We are growers of Senator Dunlop and Warfield exclusively and through many years of careful selection we have a superior strain.
We also have Everbearing Strawberries, Raspberries and all other bush fruits, shrubs and trees.
We have but one quality,— the best, and can supply any quantity.
Catalogue on request.
converted to horticulture. While there may be many readers of horticulture who do not read the four pages devoted each month to beekeeping they must keep in mind that the addition of these pages has not reduced the number of pages of horticultural reading matter. We have aide1, the State Fair Board in such ways as we could and maintain cordial relations with them.
We have spent all the money allotted us by the state and ever' other dollar that came into our
possession going on the theory that the money was appropriated to be spent. We hope it has been wisely spent.
But one new local Society has been organized during the year, the La Crosse County Society.
An account of the work of the established local Societies during the year has been placed on file ami will be published in connection with this report.
Much attention has been given to groves and parks for thousands of years. Public groves and hanging gardens were common all over Egypt and Israel when the Savior was born. Out of doors was inviting to the scholarly Athenians and to the athletic Spartans. The crumbling walls of coliseums and stadiums and columns of amphitheaters that we now see in ancient Greece and Rome were built in parks. Shakespeare tells us in his dramas of the woods and groves and the ways in which parks were used for joy and recreation.
Europe and Parks
France and England for centuries have been spending millions in order to develop national and municipal parks long before this nation was born. However, it took America to undertake developing of great national parks and wonderfully beautiful municipal parks,—as out-of-door homes, recreation fields, playgrounds for joy and health,—in large areas and numbers.
J. A. Hazelwood.
If you have any part of last year’s crop on hand you can realize the need of increasing the demand for honey. Help yourself and your neighbor by sending in a dollar bill to the advertising campaign.
Contributions to Advertising Campaign of American Honey Producers League
Wisconsin Honey Producers’
Wisconsin State Beekeepers’
Geo. A. Brill, Elk Mound ... 1.00
Dr. E. F. Phillips, Dr. Demuth, E. R. Root, Mr. Hawkins, Mr. Atkins and perhaps Mr. C. P. Dadant will be with us at the Beekeepers’ Chautauqua at Chippewa Falls, August 15th to 20th. By that time you ought to have the honey crop off and be ready for a little vacation. Why not spend the week with us?
April 12—Condition of bees: good. Clover coming good. We will hold a summer picnic and demonstration at the Mongin Bee Yards on August 2 7th. The bee association pooled their orders for bee supplies and made a saving of 18 per cent. We will have a booth at the coming industrial show at Green Bay and advertise the merits of Wisconsin honey.
Reporter, J. N. Kavanaugh, Brown County Beekeepers’ Association—40 members.
April 9—Bees are in good condition with a lot of pollen coming in. About 5 per cent winter loss, half of this being due to poor honey and lack of requeening. One fourth extracted honey on hand.
Reporter, Leo Germain, Chippewa Valley Beekeepers' Association—21 members.
April 11—Condition of bees good. Put out early but doing good. Some need feeding if poor weather continues. I fear spring losses. From 10 to 20 per cent winter loss. Mild weather, uneasy. hence starved. Some queen less. Fruit trees coming in bloom. Dandelions growing fast. Extracted honey held for feeding. Anxious for county wide cleanup on bee diseases. Annual meeting of this association held April 23rd.
Reporter, A. A. Brown. Scc’y.-Treas. Dodge County Beekeepers’ Association—21 members.
April 15—Condition of bees good. Per cent of winter loss and cause: 10 per cent. Short on winter stores.
Reporter, J. G. Mckerlie, Grant County Beekeepers’ Association—21 members.
April 8—Bees are in excellent shape, very strong. No winter loss, 100 per cent perfect. Clover looks fine. Very little extracted honey left.
Reporter, Edward Hassinger. Jr., Fox River Valley Beekeepers’ Association.
April 11—Condition of bees fine. 5 per cent—Starvation 1 per cent, clogged entrances 1 per cent, poor queens, 3 per cent. On low land clover seems to be alright. I don’t know about high ground. It was very dry last fall. About 2.000 pounds extracted honey on hand.
Reporter. F. E. Matzke. Green County Beekeepers’ Association—18 members.
April 12—Condition of bees above average. 25 per cent loss on account of poor fall management.
Reporter, W. R. Abbott, Jefferson County Beekeepers’ Association.
April 9—Condition of bees good. Wintered fine. Outdoor wintered two and three frames brood April 1st. Outdoor: 190 colonies examined two smothered; cellar wintered 100 examined, 1 starved, 6 died from dysentery. Condition of nectar secreting plants good as far as can be estimated. Soft maple in bloom. About 2.500 pounds extracted honey on hand. On April 15 a demonstration was planned at Blanchard’s apiary but weather conditions interfered and the meeting was held indoors. A demonstration in May will be held at a nearby apiary and in June a tour of the apiaries in Langlade County is planned. Association is coming up in fine shape; beekeepers enthusiastic and meetings so far have been well attended.
Reporter, Mrs. D. A. Blanchard.
Langlade County Beekeepers’ Association—45 members.
April 8—Condition of Bees: 100 per cent of those that went into winter quarters in fair condition. Only queenless colonies reported in bad condition. Probably 3 per cent winter loss on account of very late swarms and queenlessness. Everything in good condition including clover. About 7,500 pounds known to be unsold. Both amateurs and ■“old timers” inquiring where they can buy a few more colonies. The members of our association purchased $762.48 worth of supplies at a discount of $150.00 below list price. Several later orders are expected. Lower prices seem to have had much effect on the “spirit of beekeepers.”
Reporter, C. D. Adams, Milwaukee County Beekeepers’ Asosciation—50 members.
April 8—Condition of bees 100 per cent better than last year. Winter loss about 5 per cent due to queenlessness. Clover was thought to have been killed this winter but looking the fields over it seems to be fairly well/ About 25,000 pounds extracted honey on hand.
Reporter, Martin Krueger, Northeastern Wisconsin Beekeepers’ Association—51 members.
April 11—Fine, as good as they ever came out in spring. From reports I judge bees had wintered unusually well in this section of Wisconsin. Very small amount of extracted honey on hand.
Reporter. B. J. Thompson, Pierce
County Beekeepers’ Association—13 members.
April 13—Condition of bees good. 1 per cent winter loss probably due to old queens. The quarterly meeting of the association was held Saturday, April 30th at Richland Center.
Reporter, James Gwin, Richland County Beekeepers’ Association—28 members.
April 7—Condition of bees fine. 5 per cent winter loss—pollen clogged, dysentery'. Clover 85 per cent. New seeding all alive, old partly killed out. Dandelions look fine. 20 per cent extracted honey on hand.
Reporter—Ivan Whiting, 18 members. Sheboygan County Honey Producer’s Association.
April 14—Condition of bees fair. About 5 per cent winter loss and condition of bees at present is poor. Condition of nectar secreting plants is good. About 1500 pounds extracted honey on hand.
Reporter, Leonard E. Cass, Vernon County Honey Producer’s Association—3 embers.
April 12—Condition of bees good, with plenty of bees in hives that had sufficient stores for winter and spring. Per cent of winter loss and cause: 10 per cent, lack of stores and uneasiness in cellars. The outlook at present is good for a honey crop, as clover has wintered well and has got a good start. Very little extracted honey on hand. A beekeepers meeting was held at Hancock Aprii 27. The spirit of the beekeepers is good.
Reporter, Lester Baldwin, Waushara County Beekeepers’ Association—24 members.
April 12—Condition of bees is good on the average. With a favorable fall, brood rearing was continued late so that plenty' of young bees went into winter quarters. Per cent of winter loss and cause very little, will not average over 3 per cent. My’ own is less than 2 per cent due to queenless colonies. Condition of nectar secreting plants: prospects good at present. Prospects did not look very favorable a month ago, but recent rains have given the clover a good start. Many' of the beekeepers are becoming interested in the new marketing organization. It is hoped that it will be rounded into shape by the time the crop is off the hives. Personally I feel that we can sell every pound of Wisconsin honey in Wisconsin, if we all put our shoulders to the wheel and boost things along.
Reporter, C. W. Aeppler, Wau-, kesha County Beekeepers’ Association—31 members.
April 13—Condition of bees as far as I can hear or learn about normal or say 75 per cent. Per cent of winter loss and cause: Among farmers quite heavy, some as high as 85 per cent; those who are making beekeeping a business about 12 to 15 per cent. Condition of nectar secreting plants: White clover, also a’sike. is looking very' fine. About 10 per cent extracted honey’ on hand.
Reporter—W. T. Sherman. Walworth County' Beekeepers’ Association. 14 members.
April 13—Bees are in good condition. Unless conditions should change all colonies ought to be in the best condition when the honey flow begins. Winter loss has been about 5 per cent, due to lack of stores and foul brood. It is impossible to determine the condition of nectar secreting plants at this time. Clover has suffered. Winter killed to some extent, especially alsike. Very little extracted honey on hand.
Reporter—A. H. Seefeldt, Washington County Beekeepers’ Association—26 members.
In order to produce a maximum crop of honey’ in any locality it is necessary to be familiar with the principles of bee behavior. In a locality’ where American or European foul brood is present it is not only necessary to know bee behavior, but also to know the behavior of the organisms which cause the diseases. At the present time our knowledge of the diseases is somewhat limited, but we have at least a very’ good working idea of them. Before attempting to treat colonies for either of the diseases, it is very important to know which disease has to l?e handled, as the behavior of the germs causing one disease is entirely different from that of the other. For example, the American foul brood organism is capable of producing spores which are extremely hard to kill. The spores exist indefinitely’ in the dried up remains of the larvae. The scales stick fast to the cell walls and the bees are unable to entirely remove them. In the case of European foul brood spores do not appear to be formed and the dry scales can be removed fairly easily by the bees. It is. therefore, not necessary to shake colonies affected with European foul brood, whereas it is absolutely' necessary’ to do so in the cas»* of American foul brood, otherwise the colonies should be destroyed to prevent the spread of the disease.
Bees when gathering nectar place a considerable quantity' of it in empty cells in the brood chamber. In this way, if American foul brood is present, some of the nectar is likely to go into cells containing particles of the scales. \As soon as this happens spores of the disease float out into the nectar. Since nectar is moved around a good deal in the hive in the process of ripening it, the spores of American foul brood are more than likely to find their way' into the supers. This makes it necessary’ when treating for American foul brood to not only thoroughly’ boil or destroy all brood combs, but also any’ super combs which may have been on a colony infected with the disease. Where only one cell of American foul brood appears in a colony, it is absolutely necessary to treat the colony. If the diseased cell is cut out. other infected cells w’ill appear within a very' short time. Cutting out diseased cells does not remove the cause as the spores are likely to be in honey' in any’ part of the hive. In order for the beekeeeper to produce a maximum crop of honey in an American foul brood locality it is necessary- to examine the brood combs carefully every few weeks during the active season. The strongest colonies may possibly contract American foul brood first, as they have a larger working force In the field than weaker colonies, with which to over power colonies weakened by the disease. However, when a strong colony contracts the disease it quickly loses strength and in a comparatively short time may be robbed out.
In the case of European foul brood the weak colonies are usually the first victims of the disease. Since we all agree that prevention is better than cure, we should eliminate to the greatest possible extent the occurrence of weak colonies in the spring by providing the best possible conditions for wintering. Another operation in the treatment of European foul brood is the introduction of prolific Italian queens. Where much disease is present it is helpful to place the diseased brood above a queen excluder with the new queen below on one or two combs of healthy brood and empty combs in another hive body.
The introduction of Italian queens would be profitable even if European foul brood were not present as Italian bees are in general much better honey producers. In other words the fundamenta’s which prevent European foul brood from becoming serious in an apiary are the same as far as they go in producing a maximum crop of honey.
European foul brood spreads more rapidly when no honey is coming in. It is, therefore, a good plan under such conditions to feed a one to one solution of sugar sirup to the infected colonies. This procedure is especially beneficial in the spring.
When a careful look out is maintained for disease it is usually possible to make the treatment for American foul brood at the beginning of the main honey flow. By so doing the largest possible field force has been obtained for the honey flow and at that time there is the minimum quantity of honey in the hives. The important point to bear in mind in treating American foul brood is that the spores of the disease are in the honey and if any healthy colonies get any of it, they are more than likely to contract the disease.
The treatment should always be made during a honey flow to prevent robbing. Much care is necessary to prevent honey from being spilled on the ground and on hives, and also to prevent the bees from gaining access to the diseased combs of honey and brood. The combs should be cut out of the frames in a bee tight room and boiled in a closed vessel for at least 4 5 minutes, or destroyed by burning in a hole at least one foot deep to prevent honey from flowing over the surface of the ground. The earth must be packed into the hole again as soon as the fire has burnt itself out.
In an apiary where a few colonies are to be treated, the utmost care should be used, otherwise all the colonies may get the infection and possibly spread it to other apiaries in the neighborhood. With the efficient foul brood law that Wisconsin has, in many cases it pays to destroy the colonies rather than try to treat. By so doing there is less danger of spreading the disease. Where the beeket per has the protection of a good law he is less likely to get the disease from other apiaries, and should therefore do everything within his power to clean out the disease from his own yards. The sooner this is done the more profitable honey production will become in an American foul brood locality; and by good methods of beekeeping European foul brood will cease to be the cause in the reduction of the honey crop. E. W. Atkins,
G. B. Lewis, Co.. Watertown, Wis.
Regardless of the plan to be used, the principle is the same in every case, removal of infected honey and disease bearing combs. After trying several methods of accomplishing this and observing the results, the following method is considered the most simple and is reasonably safe if carefully done.
1. Colonies that are known to be diseased should not be given extracting combs prior to the treatment. If colonies have been supered and the bees have built comb between the frames, lift off the extracting supers and starting with the one next to the brood chamber, draw a knife between each frame and separate it from the next. Do not do this until the super is placed back on the hive. The operator should carry a can of steaming hot water with him and drop the knife into the water while moving the supers. Be careful not to allow any honey to drop outside the hive. This operation should be done the day before treating so that the bees will clean up the edges of the comb. The job of treating will then be less messy and the chances of dropping honey outside the hive will be greatly reduced.
2. Select an empty hive body that is bee tight and nail a tight bottom to It. Then, place a cover on it that can be moved freely back and forth when diseased combs are being put into it.
3. If the colony is only of medium strength, use one brood chamber with full sheets of foundation. With unusually strong colonies use two. Place an empty super on these to brush the bees into.
4. Place the hive body which is to receive the disease combs, to the left and rear of the colony to be treated, and place the supers of foundation and empty super at the left of the diseased colony.
5. Now lift the diseased hive from the bottom board and place on a tight fitting board at the right of the old stand. Then place a tight fitting board at the right of the old stand. Then place a queen excluding board on the bottom board still on the old stand and set the clean hives and super on top of the queen excluder. The excluder will help a great deal to keep the bees from absconding.
6. Slide the cover of the diseased colony slightly to one side, life out a frame and stand the frame on top of one of the frames below the empty super into which the bees are to be brushed. The bees may then be brushed off and honey will be thrown onto the frames and less honey will be carried into the new hive than when the bees are shaken from the frames. As soon as the bees are brushed from the comb, place it in the hive body at the left and cover.
If more than one hive body was on the diseased colony stack them one above the other with a bee tight board below and the cover above. When the frames from one body have been removed, shift the empty body to the top of the hive body now holding the diseased combs and use it to hold the next set of frames.
7. As soon as a colony has been treated, remove all Infected combs to the storeroom before treating the next colony.
8. Do not watt until fall or winter to melt up the wax and clean the combs but do it at once. Otherwise you are almost sure to have your yard accidentally reinfected before fall.
With the most careful treatment reinfection may appear in a few colonies either the same or following year and these should be treated or destroyed as soon as a few cells appear.
Pushing straight across the continent with the pioneers for 47 years, half a hundred lines mark the cities where Lewis now makes “Beeware” available to American beekeepers.
Dependable in workmanship as the jeweled watch—checked for quality by workmen grown old in the service—this superiority makes “Beeware” worth more than it costs.
Wisconsin beekeepers have the “Beeware” factory at their very door for their distribution. You should read pages i and 40 of our free catalog. A trial will convince you. Ask us today!
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Have all the standard varieties as well as the newer sorts. Can supply you with everything in
Fruit Trees, Small Fruits, Vines and Ornamentals.
Let us suggest what to plant both in Orchard and in the decoration of your grounds.
Prices and our new Catalog sent promptly upon receipt of your list of wants.
After June 1st, untested queens, $1.00; tested, $2. One frame nucleus with untested queen after July 1st, $5.00. Two frame, $8.00. Full colonies after August 1st. Orders booked now with 10 per cent down.
Should send for our booklet on the new MODIFIED DADANT HIVE. The hive with a brood chamber sufficient for prolific queens. OUR CATALOG IS FREE.