Wisconsin horticulture; official organ of the Wisconsin state horticultural society

Volume X
Madison, Wisconsin, July, 1920
Number 11



“Charles G. Patten has long been recognized as a pioneer and leading plant breeder.’’

Mr. Patten now in his 89th year is as mentally alert as ever and takes a very keen intere t in all that goe; on in fruit breeding.—Lanz.

Charles G. Patten

Emminent Fruit Breeder and Horticulturist

By H. L. Lantz

Charles G. Patten has long been widely recognized as a pioneer and leading plant breeder. For fifty years he has labored with fine public spirit in an untiring effort to develop new fruits for the Upper Mississippi Valley which would be hardly enough to withstand the rigors of the exacting climatic conditions of that region. Mr. Patten’s pioneer effort in fruit breeding has given to the people of the Upper Mississippi Valley region a number of new hardy apples, pears and plums. More than that, he has developed a unique collection of foundation plant material which should be used for further advancement in the development of hardy fruits of good quality.

I shall never forget my first visit at. Mr. Patten’s breeding and testing grounds located at the edge of Charles City, Iowa. It was in September, 1917. The fruition of a life time of effort was a tangible reality expressed bv hundreds of perfectly hardy trees which were ripening loads of beautiful fruit. New apples, pears and plums were fruiting under the trying climatic conditions of a formerly fruitless prairie.

Mr. Patten was born in northern New York in 1832. lie was a farm boy and was brought up amidst the general farm husbandry of northern New York, receiving what advantages the common schools of New Yoik gave up until the time he was about 14 years of age. Following this lie had one winter in a poor school in northern New York, and three winters in Wisconsin, only one of which he considered a good “common” school. “Nevertheless,” says Mr. Patten, “at the close of the winter following my nineteenth birthday I could have obtained a certificate to teach.”

He then spent about two years in the construction of railroads, being a contractor part of the time. His “school” education was completed by studying two terms at the Delton Academy, Sauk County, Wisconsin.

He followed general farming in Wisconsin from 1856 to 1864, and then moved to Charles City, Iowa, engaging for two years in mixed farming and lumbering.

Mr. Patten is by nature a lover of plants. He saw at once the great need of fruits and ornamentals for northern Iowa, so he immediately set himself to the task of supplying that need. In 1866, without ever having seen a graft made he began in the nursery business.

“In 1866,” says Mr. Patten, “I made quite a large planting of apple seeds with a view of improving the well known varieties. I had made some effort in this work in Wisconsin.” From that time on his fruit breeding work was studiously carried on, twenty acres being entirely given over to the work. This was done in the midst of a business carried on for a livelihood and in spite of a constant struggle for health.

Mr. Patten’s methods were not haphazard, but born of foresight well planned and always looking toward hardiness and fruitfulness of tree as well as to quality of fruit. He had no training in plant breeding, but nevertheless began contributing articles for the papers in the eatly 70's and from 1875 contributed many of the leading papers on fruit breeding to be found in the reports of the Iowa Horticultural Society. These articles show the vision and prophetic eye of the true plant breeder.

None of the standard Eastern varieties such as Baldwin, Northern Spy and Rhode Island Greening were hardy enough for this region. Even many of the Wisconsin varieties failed in northern Iowa. In the early days winter killing repeatedly eliminated nearly every variety except Briar Sweet Crab. Consequently most of the farmers relied mainly upon this variety to supply' their needs for fruit. Even Oldenburg, Wealthy, Fameuse, which are classed among the more hardy sorts, were sometimes severely injured or killed outright by the fierce winters. Clearly' it was necessary to breed a new race of fruits. In looking over the standard varieties grown in the United States, Mr. Patten observed that nearly all were of American origin. He did not believe that the hardy Russian sorts were adapted to northern Iowa. Neither did he believe advancement would be made by hybridizing with native crab, the Soulard or the Siberian crabs. These were too small in size. Indiscriminate planting of seeds, trusting that something of value might come out of it did not appeal, altho Peter Gideon did produce the Wealthy in this way. This method he considered too unscientific.

lie began then, after considering all these theories, to plant seeds only of the best and most hardy varieties of apples. These were his foundation. Seedlings of superior merit were preserved and these crossed with other varieties of merit. The results were concrete almost from the start.

In 1869 Mr. Patten planted a number of seeds of Oldenburg from Wisconsin from which he secured his Patten (Greening) a variety well known, reliably hardy and productive in the Dakotas, northern Iowa, Minnesota, Wisconsin, and even in Canada it has proved its worth. Mr. Patten’s success in producing this seedling further convinced him that the best winter apples for the Upper Mississippi Valley region would have to be produced in that region. He did not believe that a good winter apple would come out of the Russian importations, and constantly set before the people the necessity of planting and testing thousands of seedlings.

Out of the thousands of seedlings grown by Mr. Patten a number of varieties have been named and distributed. Other promising new varieties are being tested.

Patten (Greening), a seedling of Oldenburg, originated in 1869. It is probably the most widely known of Mr. Patten's originations.

Eastman is a fine large and rtriped apple, a seedling of Fameuse originating in 1880.

Brilliant is another seedling of Fameuse originated in 1881 which bids fair in Mr. Patten’s estimation to become an important variety in Michigan and Wisconsin.

Silas Wilson, a bright red, attractive, sprightly, subacid apple, is a seedling of Ben Davis and evidently a cross with Jonathan, showing as it does many of the characteristics of Jonathan in both tree and fruit. It is of good quality, but not reliably hardy in northern Iowa unless top worked.

These are a few of the most notable varieties which Mr. Patten has originated and introduced. Other new promising sorts are being tested, some of which no doubt will prove to be of value.

Developments in Pear Breeding

In the early 80’s Mr. Patten secured several trees of a hardy, blight resistant Chinese pear which was first thought to be Pyrus sinensis, but which was later identified as Pyrus ussuriensis by Professor F. C. Reimner. Pyrus ussuriensis is perhaps at present the most talked of blight resistant pear of all the Chinese species which have been introduced in the United States because of the possibilities which it offers as a blight resistant stock for the best varieties of pears now grown in America. Mr. Patten came to recognize its value as a new foundation upon which to breed for hardiness of tree and blight resistance. Today there are growing on the grounds a number of seedlings of Pyrus ussuriensis which are without doubt crosses with Seckel. These seedlings are “hardy as an oak,” one of which has been a regular and consistent bearer for more than 10 years. Several thousand cross bred seedlings of these particular hybrids, crossed with such varieties as Bartlett, Flemish Beauty, Howell, Anjou and Winter Nelis are now coming into fruiting. These seedlings are very vigorous, and to date have shown no injury from blight, altho they show much variation as to hardiness, vigor, type of growth, leaf area, etc. Out of this collection with such remarkable blood lines, if one may judge from results heretofore obtained by Mr. Patten’s work, will no doubt come a distinct advance in the breeding of blight resistant hardy pears of superior hardiness.

Several hardy pears have been troduced by Mr. Patten. Seckel No. 1 is a seedling of Seckel. It is perfectly hardy at Charles City and is a vigorous grower and regular bearer. The fruit resembles Seckel in form and color, but is easily a third larger in size and quite similar in quality and season.

The most notable seedling in point of size and quality is a cross of Orel 15 and Anjou. It favors Anjou in form and size, is an attractive green pear with a red cheek, juicy, sprightly, fine in grain and ranks very good in quality. Season September.

Other promising new pear seedlings have fruited which bear out Mr. Patten’s early prediction that hardy and blight resistant varieties could be and would be originated by scientific breeding, lie is living to see his prediction realized in a measure in already developed pears suited to northern Iowa, Minnesota, Wisconsin and the Dakotas.

Plum Breeding

A prominent nurseryman not long ago stated that if all the known varieties of American plums now grown in the Upper Mississippi Valley were wiped out, and the plums of Mr. Patten’s origination were to be placed on the market in their stead, plum growing would be advanced 20 years.

Mr. Patten has bred, grown and selected from thousands of seedlings, always pre; erving the best. Out of this effort has come many plums of fine size and dessert quality. Several are freestone.

These are a few of the things Mr. Patten lias accomplished in a life time of unselfish effort. He has given the people of the Upper Mississippi Valley, where climatic conditions were not conducive to fruit growing, new varieties of apples, pears, and plums of superior hardiness and of better quality. His contribution to horticulture will not only benefit the immediate region of Iowa and its contiguous territory but the whole of American horticulture.

Mr. Patten’s work has been widely recognized. He was awarded honorary certificates, by both Iowa State College and by the University of Minnesota some years ago, in recognition of his work in fruit breeding. lie is an honorary member of both the Wisconsin and Iowa State Horticultural Societies having served as president and director of the latter Society for a number of years. In 1905 he exhibited at the annual meeting of the Amer-can Pomologieal Society held in Kansas City, a large collection of cross bred fruits receiving the coveted Wilder Silver Medal which is the highest award given by this Society. At the Jamestown Exposition he again exhibited at the Pomologieal Meeting sixty varieties which he originated, again winning the Wilder Medal. At St. Louis in 1904, he was awarded a bronze medal for his exhibit of new fruits shown at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition.

Mr. Patten, through the efforts of friends, secured assistance for the prosecution of his fruit breeding work from time to time both in money and expert assistance. In 190.' an arrangement was made whe.eby the Iowa Agricultural Experiment Station, the Iowa State Horticultural Society and the United States Department of Agriculture were to co-operate with Mr. Patten, he being appointed as manager.

In May 1917, Mr. Patten’s trial grounds became the property of the Slate of Iowa, together with many thousands of seedlings to be used, and further developed by the Pomology Section of the Iowa Agricultural Experiment Station. Not only does the Staff of the Pomology Section regard this as a fortunate acquisition because of the wonderful foundation already established for hardiness of tree, but horticulturists all through the Middle West and West have recognized its value.

There are hundreds of seedlings just coming into bearing which have been bred with a knowledge of the peculiarly trying climatic requirements of northern Iowa, out of which further advances in fruit breeding work are to be made. Extensive breeding work is being done, thousands of new seedlings of known parentage having been bred these past three years. When the State acquired this collection and grounds Mr. Patten was appointed Associate in Fruit Breeding and made a member of the Staff so that this valuable experience might be retained and used.

Mr. Patten is now in his 89th year, is as mentally alert as ever and takes a very keen interest in all that goes on in fruit breeding.

My Neighbor’s Garden

Looking into my neighbor’s back yard the other day 1 saw him bent over industriously shaking a big fiat box and on looking closer 1 saw he was sifting something. My curiosity was aroused and I found that he was sifting dirt into one of his cold frames. He had filled one of his cold frames to within about an inch aud a half of the lower edge with earth and had leveled it down carefully, and was sifting a light layer of very fine soil uniformly over the top.

I asked him to tell me what lie was doing, what he had done and why.

He told me he was getting ready to sow the seeds of his biennials, his tender perennials ami some perennials which he did not have in his flower garden. These need not be started until after the spring rush, aud while it is best to start the latter part of May, it can be done any time up to the first or middle of August. As soon as a cold frame is emptied of the plants that have come through the winter in it, or the plants which have been started in the house and transplanted to it temporarily, have been set in their permanent places, my neighbor puts in some soil to replace that which has been lost in transplanting, levels it off carefully, soaks it with water, and then sifts over it, to the uniform depth of an inch or more, a fine mixture of garden soil, sand and leafmold, about one-third of each, the more leaf-mold the better. In this he makes very shallow scratches in which he sows his seeds. He says his one rule is to me plenty of soil, to cover his seed at varying depths so the

some of it will be right, and that his experience is that he more often sows too deep than too shallow. The seeds of perennials are generally small and need only the slightest covering, sometimes they are so small that they are best mixed with sand before sowing and then they need only to be pressed into the soil with a Hat board or block. They must be kept damp until after they have rooted. This can only be done by shading and covering. My neighbor covers his rows with strips of wornout sheeting pressed down so that it is close to the soil, and then covers the whole frame with burlap. The object of this is to keep the seeds and seedlings moist and to shield them from the hot mid-summer sun. In other words to approximate natural conditions. In case of a very heavy summer rain it is 'veil to put the sash over the frame so that the seeds and seedlings may not be washed away. After the seeds are sown and covered with the sheeting, the bed should be carefully sprinkled with the watering pot, and the cloth should be kept moist until the seedlings have pushed it up. It should then be removed so that the plant shall not grow spina-ling. The burlap shade should be continued until the first real leaves of the plant show. It is better to leave it on in the middle of the day for a week or so, leaving it off until eleven, and taking it off again at four. The surface of the soil should be kept moist, and when rather dry it should be stirred occasionally to break up the capillary channels, and to prevent the surface from baking. The seedlings should of course be thinned so as not to crowd and if there is time and another coldframe available it is advisable to transplant the plants, as the root growth will be better.

The seed which my neighbor was sowing was foxglove, Canterbury bell, English daisy. He says that foxglove and English daisy are really perennials, but that in this climate they are so sure to be killed by the second winter that they are best treated as biennials, and a new lot of plants raised each year for blossoming the next. About three winters out of five they will be killed the first winter if left in the open, so it is safest to leave them in the coldframes until spring and then to transfer them to their permanent places. In this way my neighbor makes sure of having these plants every year. My neighbor raises a lot of columbine plants each year. Although columbines are perennials, the hybrids are generally not long lived, so he raises a lot each year to replace those which have died out, or which have been rooted out for having inferior blossoms. He is always experimenting with the novelties offered in the seed catalogs keeping the plants if they please him and rooting them out if they do not. If he finds that a perennial which he likes is not hardy in the open he treats it as a biennial, winters it over in the coldframe and starts a new supply from seed. By raising his own plants lie can get a lot of plants for the money which he would have paid for one, and have a lot to give away.

Appletree Barnes Moves

A. D. “Appletree” Barnes, who has successfully conducted the Waupaca Arctic Nursery for thirty-three years, has recently sold his farm there and purchased property in Friendship. His Waupaca site consisted of about one hundred acres which lie purchased at $25 to $35 per aerr. He, at that time, iiad optimistic views for the future of Waupaca county, and has just proved that his views are correct as he recently sold his farm there at $210 per acre.

Mr. Barnes has been a firm believer in the future prosperity of the light soil belt of Central Wisconsin, and has demonstrated his faith by purchasing, during the last twenty years something over 5,000 acres of land, mostly in Adams county. He has recently purchased the Adams County Real Estate and Abstract, business, together with residence properties at county seat, Friendship; and together with his son, R. V. Barnes, he will not only look after the selling and renting of farms, but will also enter extensively into the abstract business, as well as conduct a nursery which they are now planting at Friendship.—Grand Rapids Tribune.

There are commercial preparations on the market which combine an arsenical and bordeaux. These are often adaptable to a small garden.

Shasta daisies make fine .specimen plants in a shrubbery and cut flowers.

Summer Meeting

Racine, Wednesday and Thursday, August 18th and 19th

Many are wondering why Racine was selected for the summer meeting; Brother Moyle takes it as a joke. The joke may be on him before we are thru. While it is true that the city of Racine is not a noted center of horticultural interest and while we have no local society there it is not horticulturally dead by any means.

It was not, however, the city of Racine which attracted us in making the selection but the surroundings. This southwestern corner of the state, Racine and Kenosha counties, comprises one of the biggest truck farming districts in the middle west. Thousands of acres of vegetables, largely onion and cabbage are grown in these counties and it is this sort of thing that we are going to see. Other years we have visited cherry and apple orchards, market gardens and last year a nursery. Now let’s see how the humble onion grows.

There should also be a demonstration of garden tractors,—no doubt will be.

While the citizens of Racine have not at this writing been consulted they will no doubt extend the glad hand.

While not horticulture many of our members may be seized with a desire to learn how an automobile is made. There are many of them made at Racine and Kenosha. Last but surely not least, Racine is the home of the Wisconsin Agriculturist and we may learn how that is made altho the editor of this publication doubts that any one will learn. How such things are done is beyond any human understanding. Altogether we should have a very pleasant time.

Program Summer Meeting

To date none has been arranged. There may be none. Arrangements have been made with specialists in floriculture, berry growing, landscape art and other lines of interest to our members but none of them has been asked to prepare a paper or set address. If our members will come with the de termination to ask and to answer questions a very pleasant time wiil be had by all. To satisfy those who crave a regular set program the following is assured.

Thursday forenoon — ten to twelve o’clock: Discussions on strawberries, raspberries, roses, peonies and any other Hower or fruit called for.

Thursday afternoon — two to four-thirty: Plant pests. That’s enough for two days but we must condense it to 21/2 hours. At least two and probably four experts will be present to answer your questions.

Four-thirty to midnight: A tramp to a certain spot on the lake shore where there is a bit of woods; picnic supper at the proper time followed by an entertainment by the Wisconsin chapter of Friends of Our Native Landscape. There will be a camp fire and speech making. Then if we withdraw to the shadows there may come the spirit of Americans who inhabited this land for centuries before Kellogg planted his first apple tree here, to plead with us for the preservation of Our Native Landscape.

These friends have high ideals and many of us may leave in a subdued and chastened spirit. Quite likely there are better things in this life than we have heretofore known of.

On Thursday we will journey by automobile thru endless fields of onions, sugar beets and cabbage. We may land at Kenosha for lunch, who knows? Or cares’

Milwaukee Members, Attention

Racine is only 23.1 miles from Milwaukee by rail, 27 miles by automobile and 30 afoot. There are nearly 200 Milwaukeeans bearing the W. S. H. S. brand. How many will attend


Cherries Nation Wide

The following premiums are offered for exhibits of flowers and vegetables, at the Summer Meeting, Racine, August 18 and 19,


Class I





10 vases of Asters, 1 doz. each -    — —




5 vases of Asters, 1 doz. each__    ----




Vase Asters, one color, 1 doz., for each color----




Display Dahlias, not less than 5 varieties-- —




Display Pansies_________________ _____




Display Perennial Phlox, not less than 5 varieties




Display of Gladioli, not less than 25 blooms____




Display of Annual Garden Flowers, not less

than 12 varieties nor less than 3 blooms of

each __ -__         ____ ______




Display Herbaceous perennials correctly named

not less than 10 varieties____-    ____




For best specimens Fuchsia, Rex Begonia, Be-

gonia of any other variety, Sword Fern, As-

paragus Sprengerii, for each ______

Best collection native flowers in arrangement and variety-; varieties to be shown separately, each with card attached giving both common and botanical name, not less than 10 varieties -                      ____







Class II

Snap Beans, 1 lb.

____ ___ 2.00



Lima Beans, 1 lb.                   .

______ 2.00



Cranberry Beans _ _____

_________ 2.00



Two Heads Cabbage -

____________ 2.00



Six Onions____

______ __ 2.00



Six Ears Sweet Corn

______ _ 2.00



Three Cucumbers

__________ 2.00



Three Muskmelons _

__________ 2.00



six Tomatoes                 —  .




Six Beets____ _

_____ 2.00



Six Carrots

_____ __ 2.00



Two Egg Plant _          ______

______ 2.00



Class HI

An organization to be known as the National Cherry Growers association was formed at a meeting of cherry growers held at Frankfort, Mich., May 19, under the auspices of the Michigan State Farm bureau.

An executive committee composed of representatives from the cherry sections of Michigan, New York and Wisconsin, elected the . following temporary organization to call the first national meeting next winter. M. B. Goff, temporary president, of Sturgeon Bay. Wis.; George A. Morse, vice-president, of Williamson, N. Y.; A. J. Rogers, secretary-treasurer, of Beulah, Mich., and Amos Tucker, of Kibbe, Mich., Thomas G. Mae-Dill of Sodus, New York, and H. W. Ullsperger of Sturgeon Bay. Wis. as members of the executive committee.

The purpose of this organization is to assist the various cherry growing regions in the interchange of information on market, and on cultural practices, and to stimulate in all possible ways the best interests of cherry growing in the United States.

Door county has the outlook for most favorable crop this year. Growers predict that there will be a good crop providing the premature dropping of fruit is not abnormal.

At the cannery new machinery and a rebuild of the plant has doubled the capacity without any additional crew being required. The Cherry Harvesting association has completed arrangements for an exceptionally large number of pickers and altogether it appears that no matter how great the crop the fruit will all be taken care of nicely.—Adrocale Sturgeon Bug.

Best display vegetables grown by boy or girl under 16, in home or school garden. Ten dollars divided pro rata.

Best display vegetables from “home” garden by person over 16. Ten dollars divided pro rata.

Exhibitors in Class III may also show in Class II.

In classes I and II the exact number or quantity must be shown, neither more nor less, in order to compete.


Devoted to the Interests of The Wisconsin State Beekeepers, Association H. F. Wilson Editor


THURSDAY. STATE FAIR WEEK, a Beekeepers’ Field Meet will be held on the State Fair Grounds at Milwaukee to discuss marketing problems and prices for this year’s crop.


Have you received a copy of the grading rules and have you made application for honey stamps to the State Marketing Commission, State Capitol, Madison?

Make Wisconsin Safe for the Bees

In May and June numbers of Gleanings in Bee Culture appeared two articles of special interest u Wisconsin beekeepers. Prof. H. F. Wilson’s article on “Organization Work’’ told how the state organization had grown to oxer 500 membeis and how county organizations are being formed and are affiliating with the state association, also how educational work in beekeeping is being offered the beekeepers of the state. Mr. S. B. Fracker’s article on “Foul Brood Control” showed that Wisconsin bees are badly infected with American Foul Brood, that the former methods of inspection had failed, and that a new drastic foul brood law was in force. The present method is the area clean-up followed by rechecking for a number of years; a method which has given good results.

These two articles, when considered' together present a most hopeful situation. It appears to be the work of Wisconsin to demonstrate how to get rid of American Foul Brood by the double method of organization and inspection. In the past, diffused inspection with careless treatment was almost the sole means of fighting foul brood', and it failed because of the ignorance and lack of cooperation of the individual beekeeper. Knowledge must precede intelligent action. Many a beekeeper opposed inspection and concealed the fact that he had foul brood because he was afraid of losing his bees; but. he had been instructed regarding American Foul Brood, he would have known that all his bees were doomed without inspection and treatment, but with them the healthy would not be likely to become diseased and the bees of the diseased colonies could be saved. To inform beekeepers, the Dept, of Agriculture sends out pamphlets to them, the Dept, of Entomology sends its ablest men to lecture to those who can go to Madison to hear them, and the Dept, of Agric. of the U. of Wis. sends speakers into the different counties of the state to give 3 day bee schools under the auspices of the county associations. But without organizations the Beekeeper's Chautauqua and the bee schools would amount to very little. The individual beekeeper must be educated if foul brood is to be eradicated, because his intelligent cooperation is necessary. Here enters the work of the state and county organizations, because through them the beekeeper can most easily be reached. Then when the state gets ready for inspection and treatment, it will find' the counties ready and wanting cleanups, even vieing with each other in precedence and local assistance.


Can You Afford to Miss the Beekeepers’ Field Meet and Chautauqua?

Beekeepers who attended the Chautauqua in 1919 will tell you that they learned more about keeping bees in one week than they had previously learned in many years. No better opportunity to get the facts in beekeeping will ever present itself and this may be the last opportunity we will have of holding such a meeting as it is likely that Dr. Phillips and Mr. Demuth will not be able to give us their help in the future.

All you who expect to attend should cut out and sign the printed slip below. Please let us know whether you would like to have a tent or a room and we shall be glad to make the necessary reservations.

Please reserve a campsite or room for me at the Beekeepers’ Chautauqua, A-gust 16 to 21, 1920.

(Pill in your name and address and mail to H. F. Wilson. Madison, Wisconsin.)

Name .........................................................

Address ......................................................

One statement of Prof. Wilson’s must be borne in mind, “No association of beekeepers can continue indefinitely unless there Is a tangible asset to membership." The local must meet the needs of its members. Beekeepers must be fed something besides foul brood. There are areas where theer is no foul brood, but it is doubtful if there are areas where better beekeeping methods are not needed. Show the beekeepers at the association meetings how they can increase their honey yields and winter their bees successfully. The writer believes every member should be made to feel that he is getting many times “value received.” If he can prove that he has not. he should get this money back.

It may seem like a round-about way of fighting foul brood by building up the associations, but it will produce results just as surely as did the teaching of the evil effects of alcohol in the schools, and it will produce results in the shortest time possible. The “how” of building up a county association iB the writer’s task in hand. As beekeepers of Wisconsin let us all strive together to form strong state and county associations and take as our slogan. “Make Wisconsin Safe for the Bees, until American Foul Brood is gone from the state.

Ivan Whiting. Plymouth, Wis 

Monthly News Report blanks were sent out from the secretary’s office for the first time this month to the twenty-four local associations affiliated w-ith the state association. Sev-Original from

on teen of these locals have to date returned their reports which are as follows:

June 11—Bees two weeks behind in average of strength. Heavy winter losses and heavy spring losses. Condition of nectar secreting plants good. No extracted or comb honey on hand. Reporter, Emma Bartz, Chippewa Valley Beekeepers’ Association.

June 12—Bees not as far advanced as usual but are just starting to swarm. Nectar secreting plants are dandelion, soft maple, hard1 maple, raspberry, wild white clover, alsike, and buckwheat. No honey on hand. Expect the whole beekeepers’ meeting in July. Reporter, J. S. Sloniker, • 'lark County Beekeepers’ Associa-Association.

June 15—Condition of bees fair because of the backward spring but building up rapidly under present conditions. Condition of nectar secreting plants: alsike and white clover yielding freely at present. Local showers the past three days assuring steady nectar flow for the near future at least. Basswood rapidly advancing, probably blooming earlier than usual. Small amount of extracted honey on hand. Two field meets have been held, one on 20th of May at apiary of H. Lappley, Mazomanie, and the other on the 4th of July at Madison. The Madison local Bee club held' its monthly meeting at the home of C. L. Kocher, Madison, June 26. Dane county beekeepers are showing more enthusiasm and interest than ever before. Reporter, Robert L. Siebecker, Dane County Beekeepers’ Association.

June 7—Bees below normal for this season of the year. Nectar secreting plants only fair. No honey on hand. The winter loss according to the older beekeepers was the heaviest in twenty years. Reporter, Edward Hassinger, Jr., Fox River Valley Bee Assn.

June 5—Several beekeepers have reported slight winter losses. General condition of bees fair. Not much nectar at present. Good prospects for white clover. A few small lots of comb honey on hand. Amateur Bee Club formed. All beekeepers very interested. Many receiving package bees. A summer picnic will be held Aug. 1 to make arrangements for state fair exhibit. Reporter, Geo. W. Davies, Grant County Beekeepers’ Assn.

June 12—About 50 per cent died in winter, otherwise bees in go* d condition. No honey on hand. Reporter, W. R. Abbott, Jefferson County Beekeepers’ Assn.

June 17—Condition of bees not any too good. The past winter was not a very severe one but a very long one. The beekeepers who kept their bees in confinement faired the best. The ones who got their bees onto the summer stands earliest suffered severe losses by severe frosts. Others who left the bees in a week longer report nice results. Nectar plants were nearly one month late in opening up to the bees. Practically no honey on hand. Beekeepers very enthusiastic and many who suffered losses are starting with renewed energy. Also many new beekeepers getting into the game. Langlade county is destined to become a good honey producing county. Beekeepers coming in from other counties. A Mr. David Blanchard and family have just moved to l^anglade County’ from Michigan bringing with them 150 colonies of fine bees. Reporter, C. S. Levkom. Langlade Co. Beekeepers’ Association.

June 14—Condition of bees in general pretty" good, better than expected'. Careful feeding did the trick when that method was applied. Condition of nectar secreting plants good. An exceptional flow of dandelion, raspberry’ and alsike. Clover and white clover just beginning full flow. Will be on in a week or ten days. Much rain this week. No honey on hand. Beekeepers showing a great deal of interest and enthusiasm. Two field meets will be held at the yards of Lewis Francisco and Mrs. Baesman. Reporter, I. C. Painter, Marathon County Beekeepers’ Assn.

June 6—Bees wintered fairly well. Late spring, however, caused a good many to dwindle badly. Dandelion and fruit bloom was good, while clover prospects good. No honey on hand. Foulbrood campaign seems to have been quite successful. Another inspection will be given in July. Reporter. C. I). Adams, Milwaukee Co. Beekeepers’ Association.

June 9—Winter and spring loss about 50 per cent. Most colonies weak but building up fairly" well. Dandelion and maple yield good in this locality. Strong colonies stored as high as 40 lbs. Clover flow will be on in about 10 days. No honey on hand. Reporter. Martin Krueger, Northeast Wis. Beekeepers’ Assn.

June 5—Bees in very good condition. All winteied colonies in two hive bodies with brood. Gathered considerable dandelion honey. Clover not showing up yet. Association meetings will be held in July. No honey on hand. Reporter, H. J. Rahmlow, Price County Beekeepers’ Assn.

June 4—Wintered loss about 75 per cent, present condition as remainder perhaps 33 per cent normal strength at this time. Honey plants in splendid condition. Bees too weak to make heavy surplus anywhere in this county. About 1200 pounds extracted honey on hand. Reporter, E. R. Wilson, Rusk Co. Beekeepers' Association.

June 13—Condition of bees below average. Only about one-half of colonies strong enough to begin work in supers. Heavy winter losses. No honey on hand. A meeting will be held June 16. Condition of nectar secreting plants good. Reporter, Wm. Hannemann, Kewaunee Co. Beekeepers’ Assn.

June 12—Condition of bees, generally" the bees are in poor condition, but during the last two weeks have made wonderful improvements; as near as I can ascertain about 75 per cent of the colonies died last winter and spring, most of them since the 1st of April. Condition of nectar secreting plants; dandelion gave us a very good' yield. It saved many colonies from starving. Fruit blossoms did not give us as good a flow as usual. White clover and alsike are just coming and we look for a big crop from the colonies that are strong.. Three meetings have been held this spring. Beekeepers are very interested. Reporter, L. T. Bishop, Sheboygan Co. Beekeepers’ Association.

June 3—In general bees are in fair shape. Nat much nectar coming in at present time. Very’ little honey’ on hand. A great many’ beekeepers are increasing their number of colonies. Reporter, L. E. Cass, Vernon Co. Honey Producers’ Assn.

June 14—Beekeepers lost from 10 to 90 per cent during winter. Many* weak colonies. A great deal of white clover but weather extremely" dry. No honey" on hand. Reporter, W. T. Sherman, Walworth Co. Beekeepers’ Assn.

June 13—Heavy winter losses and disease. Bees not as strong as they should be at this time of the year. Not much swarming to date. Considerable clover in bloom but not yielding yet as it is too dry. Bees did well on fruit bloom. No honey on hand. Reporter, H. E. Greenwood, Winnebago Co. Beekeepers’ Assn.

June 7—In general the bees are in poor shape with large spring losses. Plants were a long time coming out. Now unless we get a rain soon I believe the bees will have a hard time to keep alive. No honey’ on hand. Several inspections were made and in one case found a very’ bad case of European foul brood. Samples were sent to Madison and Washington. No meetings were held since the bee schools. Reporter, W. A. Sprise, Wood Co. Beekeepers’ Assn.

Standardizing and Organizing the Honey Industry in Wisconsin

By A. Swahn, Ellsworth.

As this paper is in reality" a sequel to the one I wrote on “Practical Bee-Keeping Extension Work" for the Chautauqua held at Madison in August, I will begin about where I left off at that time.

For the benefit of those who were saved the torture of hearing that paper read, will state briefly that the substance of it was along educational lines for the novices in the business, together with a few suggestions which might be worked out to advantage for the experienced. In that paper my hope was to make some suggestions which would make bee keepers out of our present bee owners, and’ to eliminate the menace of foul brood and other foul methods so often found among the novices. Besides this I had hopes that my suggestions might lead up to plans by which Maximum production would be obtainedwith Minimum labor and expense.

Now if you please, we will for the moment, imagine that my dreams in that direction have materialized, and that the Wisconsin bee-keepers have so modernized their Apiaries and methods as to be producing maximum honey crops. The next step is to market that crop to the best advantage of both producer and consumer.

In order to market in a satisfactory manner we must first standardize our product and methods and organize our industry in about the same manner that other industries standardize and1 organize. This envolves a great deal of thought and will take time and experiment to perfect, but it can be done. My efforts will only be to suggest a possible nucleus around which w'e may in time build a permanent standard for the betterment of our industry.

Our pure food laws require certain standards of cleanliness and purity to be maintained in the manufacture of other food products, yet—honey the choicest of all known sweets, is sold from hives reeking with foul brood and’ other foul conditions, and is sometimes extracted under conditions which are not the most sanitary.

This of course does not apply to the majority, but it does apply to some. We have laws regulating such matters it is true, but unless these law’s are enforced they are useless. A standard of cleanliness and purity in the Apiary, as well as in the extracting house sho”ld' be insisted upon, so w’e can go to the market and offer for sale Pure Honey.

The matter of cleanliness was brought to my attention very forcibly about a year ago by one of our leading physicians. I had on display in my store window a lot of extracted honey in glass jars. He noticed it, and came in to talk about it, and made the statement that he could never again eat “strained honey” as he called it. I of course made it a point to learn why not. He told me that on one of his visits to a farmer becowner and patient of his, he saw some honey strained and ever since that time he has been unable to eat it While this was an extreme case it goes to show that one knocker like him can do more harm than ten boosters can repair. With all my explanation of the difference between the old' process of straining and the modern process of extracting I was unable to sell him honey.

Cleanliness should be the first round in our ladder of standardization, and every apiary where honey is offered for sale (if there is only one hive) should be inspected and certain standards insisted upon. I will put quality as the second round in our ladder, because the bees will give us the best quality in every case if we will give them the chance. All we have to do is to grade it according to color, kind, etc. When our work of standardizing is completed we are ready to step up to the next and last round in our ladder—the standard of price.

While it will always be unwise to establish any fixed price for any certain grade of honey, it is possible and wise to establish a rule not to sell until we know that we are getting the top market price direct from the consumer. This takes us through the field of standardizing and brings us up to the next step in my paper—Organizing.

This is a subject which brings us face to face with our Bank account and1 our bread and butter. While cleanliness and quality should of course be our first aim we must not ignore the fact that proper organization and co-operation will do a great deal to make our industry more remunerative.

The subject of Organization envolves many perplexing conditions which have been hard to overcome in the past. They can, howevei, be overcome and nearly 100 per cent efficiency reached1, if we put our shoulders to the wheel and organize and co-operate on business principles, and not be afraid to put a few dollars behind the effort.

In the past many attempts have been made to organize and with varied results. No organization will amount to much on the mere verbal promise to maintain any certain price and still be compelled to sell on an open and uncertain market. On the other hand I do not believe in compelling any one to hold for any stated price. Supply, demand and other causes for fluctuation in the market will make this impracticable. Neither do I believe in local organizations. The successful organization must be state wide and take in most of our best honey producers; and then in order to get results we must put a little money behind it, and also some sound business principles, and confidence in its ultimate outcome, and remember that there will be may obstacles to overcome from time to time, and we must not expect 100 per cent efficiency from the start. Such is fax from my expectations. All I hope to accomplish by this paper is to suggest a plan which may at least form a starting point for a complete and successful organization such as I hope to see in the near future.

The plan I have in mind and the one I will recommend is along the same lines as the plan of the Amalgamated Apple Growers Association of Oregon. In this Association each member pays into the treasury a certain amount per acre of growing orchard, and all the selling is done through the Association by one man who has full charge and who looks up the markets and obtains the best price possible for the members. A similar plan should1 be adopted by the honey producers of Wisconsin. The sale of honey should be much more simple than the sale of fruit.

I suggest that the organization be started by a few active beekeepers who should get together and arrange to get in touch with all the leading honey producers in the state and solicit them to join a “Beekeepers Co-Operative Association.” After a sufficient number have signified their willingness to join this association, officers should be appointed and the treasurer bonded for the full amount he would be expected to handle at any time. After this is done the money should be collected in, up to an amount sufficient to guarantee the lnancial security of the association. We should now look up a manager who would be competent to handle the large business which we can develop. I would advise paying this manager a salary sufficiently large so as to enable him to put in his whole time at it, and then see to it that he gets results. Good results in any business costs money and they are worth it.

This association should not be limited to selling honey alone it should be used in buying supplies as well. What will it mean to the members if they can make 10 per cent or more in the sale of their honey through the association, and then save as much mor in buying their suppliesIt will mean that the middle man will be cut out at both ends. A good manager under the directions of a good' advisory board will do wonders fort he bee-keepers of Wisconsin.

If the plan I will now continue to outline has any merits we should get it in motion at once as it will take time to develop it, and we should be all re'kdv for next year’s crop. We must not start however, until we have the co-operation of about one-half of our leading bee-keepers assured. It is too large a proposition to go into on a small scale. As to its ultimate success wil’ say that if the apple growers in the west find this method of marketing and buying profitable why

cannot the honey producers also profit by it.

If all our bee-keepers were good business men it would perhaps, be comparatively easy for them to find good retail markets, but there are a great many who. while expert in the production of maximum crops of first quality they are not always able to find satisfactory markets for their product. This sometimes causes them to become afraid that they will not be able to dispose of their crop, and as a result will se’l at a price below what it should bring. This will have a tendency to demoralize the market in that vicinity at least, and will make a much better field' for the unscrupulous buyers who are always looking for just such conditions.

Another factor also comes to notice, and that is, that at times some of our producers are pressed' for ready cash to meet some obligation and will sell to the first bidder, and learn after it Is too late that if they had' but waited a little w'hile longer they could have realized a great deal more. In other words "United we stand—Separated we fall.”

For cases like the above where there is urgent need of money, arrangements should be made to either advance on the crop, buy it outright or find some member who would buy it. Always see to it that it is handled either directly or indirectly by the association, and not let it be sold to any one at a price below the regular market.

I favor a strictly c' -operative plan. We should first decide on the number of members necessary to organize, then ascertain the approximate running expenses and sinking fund necessary for its success, then divide this by the number of members, or by the number of colonies represented to get the amount each one should pay. This should represent the par value of one share of stock, and I would not advise allowing any member to own more than one share of this stock.

So much for the general plan of the proposed association. I will now try to show approximately what it will cost each member to maintain such an organization.

I will estimate running expenses -sufficiently high so as to be sure ot sufficient funds.

Manager’s salary per year. . .$3,000.00 Secretary and Treasurer. . . . 1,000.00 Traveling expenses, manager 1,500.00 Stationery and incidentals. . .   4 00.00

Office rent ................ 300.00

Total ...............$6,200.00

Our state records show that we have approximately 100,000 colonies and 10,000 bee-keepers in the state.

We will estimate that we can secure one-half that number as members of our organization. With a yearly running expense for tne association of $6,200 we find tnat it will cost the bee-keepers 12 2/5 cents per colony. This will not bankrupt any of us.

We will now see if this expense in reality comes out of the bee-keepers pockets or out of the pockets of the former middlemen. Our state records do not give us the average production per colony so We will have to estimate that, and' we will make it low for the (‘lass of be^-keepers we expect to get as our charter members.

Putting comb and extracted together w'e will estimate an average of 50 pounds per colony. V7e W’ill have represented in our association 50,000 colonies and that will give us a total production of 2,500,000 lbs. available for our manager to dispose of. 14 c per pound on this production will give us $6,250.00 or more than enough to pay all expenses of the association. Tn other words, if our manager only succeeds in getting 14 cent per pound more for our honey than we could have sold it for individually, he has been a good investment for us, as ne has saved us the trouble of looking up our own markets. He will be a poor manager indeed1 if he cannot get us several times that much more. If there is anyone here who would not be willing to pay % cent per pound for the maintenance of such an organization let him speak up and showgood reasons why not.

So much for running expenses—we will now provide for working capital. As before stated there will always be a good many producers who, for various reasons will want to dispose of their crop before the association manager is ready to call it in for shipment. This situation must be taken care of. Cash must be provided for that purpose, and it might also be advisable at times to buy outside the association members, as by so doing we may possibly get new members from time to time. When our manager is asked to buy before he is ready, jr before he has located an outlet for his honey, a discount should be demanded of % cent per pound on such purchases to cover interest on the money advanced, no matter if it is only held a few days. It will be difficult to determine just how’ much of a fund will be necessary for this purpose, but we will provide what we think will be sufficient. I suggest that wre provide a iund on the supposition that 2 5 per cent of our honey will be offered* for sale before tne association manager is ready to accept it for shipment. This will mean that we must provide a fund amounting to $125,000.00. This will mean a loan to the association of $25.00 each for one-half of our Wisconsin bee-keepers. If after a season’s experience this fund is found to be more than necessary, it will be a very easy matter to pro-rate it back to the members. There should be no trouble in raising this money as there is no possible chance to lose it. In the first place it is in reality only a loan and will always draw’ interest. When not in use the Bank will pay interest on it, and’ when in use as before stated the cent deduction on all premature purchases will amount to the same as interest. Then too our Treasurer w’ill be fully bonded so there is no chance to lose it there. As our money will either be safely deposited in a bank or invested' in honey I am unable to see any possible chance for a loss. I do not • laim that this plan is above criticism and correction In detail, but I do claim that it is right in substance, and do claim that it can be worked out to the great advantage of our Wisconsin bee-keepers.

In conclusion w’ill say that if it meets w’ith the approval of those present why not put the wheels in t.lotion right now’ and' see W’hat can be done to perfect the details and get ready for our 1920 crop. I am ready and willing to give my assistance and backing in any way possible for the promotion of this or any similar plan for the betterment of our bee-keepers. I thank you.

A. Swahn.

Spray for Potato Leafhopper and Prevent “Hopperburn”

The potato leafhopper is a very small, destructive, light green insect. It flies and hops readily and may occur in vast numbers for two or three years in succession. Its greatest injury is done to potatoes, although it feeds upon many other plants. Injury is of two kinds: loss of plant juices through feeding, for this is a sucking insect; and the appearance of a so-called disease termed “hopperburn” which is transmitted to the plant while the insect feeds.

This leafhopper was very abundant during 1918 and 1919. Severe losses occurred in some sections of Wisconsin as well as in many other states. Probably the pest will appear this summer in harmful numbers. In order to prevent injury and raise a full Continued cn page 207

Can We Help the Blind?

Quite recently there has been organized The Badger State Advancement Association of the Blind, chartered by the State of Wisconsin. The following letter has been received by the editor nf Wisconsin Horticulture:

June 10th, 1920.

Dear Sir:—

The Badger State Advancement Association of the Blind, an Association composed entirely of blind or partially blind residents of this State, has just been granted a charter by the State of Wisconsin.

That there always has been a great need for an organization of this kind is emphasized by the fact that there is not a single school or institution in the State of Wisconsin where the adult blind can learn a trade or obtain special training of any description that will enable them to become useful and self supporting citizens. It shall be our purpose to raise the stigma of pity and helplessness and place our members on a self-reliant, independent basis.

Believing that you are anxiou: to lend us your co-operation in this movement, we respectfully ask that you insert a news item in your publication regarding this organization. We are desirous of obtaining a complete list, of all blind people in this State and should your city number among its population any blind or partially blind, we would be pleased to have you forward ns their names.

We are contemplating the purchase of a Home and Factory, which will be conducted along the lines of the famous Lighthome in Chicago, where all blind will be welcome to learn a trade and make a living wage.

Publicity is essential to the success of this association, therefore, we are asking every newspaper in Wisconsin to give us as much publicity as possible.

Yours very truly, Jos. A. Bell, Publicity Chairman,

Milwaukee, Wis.

Blindness is the most terrible affliction that can befall any living being. The blind appreciate our sympathy but do not want our pity. The one thing they crave above all else is a chance to do something, an opportunity to work so that they may feet that they are a part oi the community rather than a burden ami a drag upon it.

What, if anything, is there in our work that the blind can do?

Ten Perennials and Then Ten More

At the June meeting of the Sank County Horticultural Society W. A. Toole was called on for a list of 10 hardy perennials that everybody can grow. Here is the list: Iris, phlox, peony, poppy (oriental), pyrethrum, achillea, larkspur, aster, gaillar-dia, colliopsis. A list of ten seems very small to one who grows hundreds of kinds so Mr. Toole asked permission to add another list as follows: Lily of the valley, fuschia, mertensia, golden marguerite, columbine, gypsophila, dianthus, astilbe campanula, veronica.

May Control Chrysanthemum Midge

The chrysanthemum midge entered the United State? from Europe a few years ago and is now an established greenhouse pe: t, rays the United States Department of Agriculture. It was first reported in this country from Michigan and is now known to be present in more than twentystates and in Canada. It is regarded as one of the most important pests to be reckoned with by ehrysantheum growers.

While principally a greenhouse pest, it occurs on outdoor plants even as far north as Ottawa, Canada. The injury to badly infested plants is such as to destroy their value for commercial purposes. In the tender portion: of the plant are laid the eggs from which tiny maggots hatch. The maggots then bore their wayr into the plant tissues thereby- causing galls. Apparently, this midge was brought to America without its quota of parasites and it is not yet certain that native parasites of gall midge fauna are preying upon it effectively.

Control Measures Worked Out

Many experiments have been conducted by the specialists of the department in working out control measures. The results are summarized as follows in Department Bulletin No. 833, just issued :

“From the life history, as well as from the experimental data thus far submitted, it is clear that certain points must be kep-in mind to secure the best practical results. First, there are always several generations present in greenhouses during the spring and fall occurrences; second, the adults emerge and mate during the very early morning hours, and egg laying quickly follows: third, preliminary control experiments show that the egg stage may be controlled by means of spraying or dipping the cuttings or plants; fourth, it has been demonstrated that the adult can be killed easily at the time of emergence by consistent spraying; fifth, fumigation experiments in a commercial house proved that the adult is easily killed by fumigating either with nicotine papers or hydrocyanic-acid gas; sixth, experiments applicable to general propagation practices show conclusively that such measures offer a reasonable safeguard an protection against doubtful stock and infested material without injury to the plants.

Insect Readily Controlled

"By adherence to a definite control program, involving any of the above cited measures, either singly or in combination, the insect can be readily controlled.”

The bulletin is a complete technical discussion of the chrysanthemum midge. Copies may be had on application to the department by persons interested in chrysanthemum culture.

Formula for Making Kerosene Emulsion

Hard soap------------’/> pound

Water (soft)----------1 gallon

Kerosene______________2 gallons

Dissolve the soap in boiling water, remove from fire and add the kerosene slowly while agitating the mixture. This is best done by a hand pump, forcing the mixture through the hose and back into the container. Continue until the mixture is creamy white and no oil separates out on standing. This is your stock solution.

Use one part emulsion to 5 to 10 of water according to nature of pest.

• * *

It is just as we thought. Many are writing us this spring regarding oyster shell scales. If you will look up your last October number of Wisconsin Horticulture, you will find a short but concise description, with pictures, of our common scale insects. Control measures are also discussed.

• • •

Better spray machinery.

Better spray materials.

Better applications.


Better fruit.

More money.

Better satisfaction.



By Dr. Henry Van Dyke

These are the things I ask

Of Thee, spirit serene:

Strength for the daily task.

Courage to face the road,

Good cheer to help to bear the travelers’ load

And, for the hours of rest that come between,

An inward joy in all things heard and seen.

These are the things I fain

Would have Thee take away;

Malice, and cold disdain.

Hot anger, and sullen hate,

Scorn of the lowly, envy of the great

And discontent that casts its shadow gray

On all the burdens of the common clay.

These are the things I prize

And hold of dearest worth:

Light of the sapphire skies.

Peace of the silent hills,

Music of birds, murmur of little rills,

Shadows of cloud that swiftly pass. And, after showers, The smell of flowers,

And of the good brown earth,— And best of all, along the way, friendship and mirth.”

Plant Lice on Rose Bushes

Nicotine sulphate (40% solution) is effective against the little green plant lice on rose bushes

and sweet pea vines. Use I1, teaspoons of the sulphate to a gallon of water; add about 2 one-inch cubes of dissolved laundry soap to make the spray : pread. Be sure to add the soap as the solution is not nearly as effe: tire without it. This spray will also aid in checking the whitish leaf hoppers which make the leaver appear spotted and also the rose slug, an insect which skelotiniz** the leaves.              C. L. F.

Watch for currant worms on currants and gooseberries. When they appear mix enough pari* green with fine air slaked lime give it a greenish caste and the:, when the foliage is moist, dust it over the plants. Arsenate of lead sprayed on the same as for potato bugs is also effective.

Don't market apples in a Hour sack or dirty box and expect to get a good price. Clean, well graded, unbruised fruit in a clean package always sells at a good price.

If onions do not ripen evenly, it is well to bend the tops to the ground.

Send for book giving experience of many growers and full details.

Tne Skinner Irrigation Co., 237 Water St . Troy. Ohio.


Continued from page 204

Top of potatoes, every grower should know wha.t to do and then do it.

The insect lives over winter in the adult stage hidden away in weeds and grass. In the vicinity of Madison, Wis., it becomes active again about the first of •June. After feeding upon various plants for a couple of weeks, it seeks potato fields and soon begins to lay eggs.

Bordeaux mixture made to the 4-4-50 formula will repel this leafhopper and thereby largely prevent the appearance or spread of the “disease.” The material must be applied to the underside uf the leaves but may also be applied to the upper side. When combined with lead arsenate and applied to the under side, it is equally effective against the leafhopper and Colorado potato beetle and is less subject to the effect of rain.

The first spray should be applied shortly after the leafhopper has appeared—about the 21st of June near Madison. A second spray will be needed in ten days or two weeks depending upon the amount of new growth, the abundance of the leafhopper and the amount of rain. A third spray must be applied in about tw0 weeks from the second. Now and then a fourth spray may be well worth while.

The watchful grower may usually time his spraying so that with an arsenical added to the Bordeaux, several potato insects and certain potato diseases may be aimed at with each application.

Experiments have clearly shown that the yields from rows of potatoes sprayed several times with Bordeaux mixture are from two to three times greater than yields from rows sprayed only with an arsenical.

John E. Dudley, Jr.,

Bureau of Entomology, U. S. Dept, of Agriculture.

The Plum and Pear Slug

Plums, pears, amt cherries are all attacked by this insect and in severe infestations orchards have the appearance of having been swept by fire. The damage is done by the larvae which feed upon the upper surface of the leaves, eating only the epidermis and leaving the veins and under surface to wither up and turn brown. Some of the leaves will fall and in some cases the trees become almost defoliated. This stunts the tree and interferes with bud formation. Sometimes the trees will put out new leaves but these in turn inav be attacked by the second brood of slugs unless remedial mea tires have been applied.

The slugs spend the winter within their cocoons which are

formed in the soil. In the spring they change to pupae and in a short time to adults, which are four winged, glossy black flies about 1/5 inch in length. They appear in May or June and the females, which are provided with sharp saw-like ovipositors, lay their eggs on the under surface of the leaves. Within two weeks the eggs hatch and the young larvae escape to the surface through a semi-circular cut in the epidermis. They soon become covered with a blackish sticky slime; the head end enlarges and gives the larvae the appearance of slugs.

At different times the worms shed their skins and at the last molt they lose their slimy coverings and become light orange yellow in color. They then fall to the ground, enter the soil, pupate, and emerge for a second brood which appears i.i August and September.

Slugs Easily Checked

The plum slug is very easily checked if the proper materials arc used at the right time. Arsenate of lead is the safest and best. U§e it at the rate of 2 pounds to 50 gallons of water. Insert powder, 1 part to 5 parts air-slaked lime, may be used by merely dusting it over the leaves. Any of the contact sprays such as nicotine sulphate, 1 part to 800 parts of water are also effective.

Charles L. Fluke, Jr.

More evergreens could well 1 raised on every farm.