Wisconsin horticulture; official organ of the Wisconsin state horticultural society

Volume X
Madison, Wisconsin, June, 1920
Number 10

Luck With Dahlias

Mrs. A. R. Reinking, Baraboo, Wis.

The Dahlia is a native of Mexico and South America where it can be found today. In its wild state it is a single flower of red, yellow, or purple, small but brilliant tho rather insignificant. From this humble little flower the most gorgeous and remarkable group of flowers has been developed. Every color and shade and every imaginable combination of colors except blue is to be seen in this lovely flower—there is even a green dahlia, a decided novelty but not a beauty.

The Dahlia varies in size from an inch to a foot in diameter and takes on more forms than any other flower resembling the cosmos, daisy, poinsettia, clematis, anemone, zinnia, aster, water-lily, cactus, peony, and chrysantheuin.

The first introduction of the Dahlia into Europe was in 1789 when the director of the Mexican Botanical Gardens sent some seeds to the director of the Royal Gardens at Madrid. This director was so pleased with the brilliant flowers the seeds produced he named them Dahlia in honor of a noted Swedish botanist, Andreas Dahl.

Most of the new forms of the dahlia are productions of England, France, Germany, and Holland. America contributed the Giant Singles or Century Dahlias and American gardens have added many noteworthy Dahlias of all types.

Probably there is no other flower that is grown so extensively for commercial purposes as the Dahlia for there are many farms of 40 to 75 acres and several of hundreds of acres that grow them exclusively.

bo often one hears another say, "U yes, 1 like Dahlia, but 1 don't have any luck with them, 1 can't make mem blossom. ” Now luck witu Dahlias is the same as with any tiling else, they must be under stood and handled just about right. Dahlia raising is a fascinating hobby, they do well in most any soil. Soil that will grow potatoes will grow dahlias equall well, provided they have a great amount of sunshine.

Perhaps the first reason for poor luck is that many people plant them too early—they try to get blossoms before their neighbors and unless it is an unusually moist season they generally fail to get any. The rea.on being that flowers are borne on soft, lapidly growing stems and during the hot, dry spell in July and August when the buds are formed and the plant is about ready to blossom the growth is cheeked, the stems become woody and the buds blighted. From the last of May to the middle of June is the best time in this climate, indeed we have planted as late as July 1st and produced an abundance of fine blooms.

Prepare the Dahlia bed by spading deeply. Avoid an excessive use of fertilizer as it tends to produce much foliage and few flowers. If the ground is too heavy a little sand or sifted coal ashes will lighten and improve it. A good time to fertilize is after the first buds appear. In planting dig a hole six inches deep, lay the root on its side and cover with about two inches of earth. Fill in the remainder of the hole, in cultivating as the plants grow. In doing this the roots have been planted deep enough to give the plant support in time of storm and deep enough to guard against an ordinary drouth. Avoid water unless it is done thoroughly, superficial watering tends to bring the rootlets to the surface where they are readily dried out.

During the growing season the ground should be cultivated about once a week and as soon after a rain as it can be worked. Cultivate shallow after the buds begin to appear so that the rootlets may not be injured.

Another reason for "poor luck" is that Dahlias are often planted just as they were dug in the fall. One would not think of planting a dozen potatoes in one hill and for the same reason a whole clump of Dahlias should not be planted in one hill. Be sure to divide the dumps so that there is at least one good, strong eye to each division and do not ailow more than two stalks to develop from each hill—better still, only one.

To get the best flowers it is well to disbud. As a rule three flower buds appear in a cluster, the center one being the larger but not always the best, save the best one and pick off the others. The plants will produce more and larger flowers if the blossoms are kept picked and not allowed to wither and go to seed.

After a killing frost cut off the tops and it is well to allow the bulbs to cure for a few days. Then on a bright day lift them out earefftlly,’ leave a little dirt on the crown to prevent the bulbs breaking off and dry in the sun for an hour or two. A good way to store them is by packing in boxes or barrels that have been lined with paper, place the clumps with the stems down to allow any moisture to drain out. Place boxes in a frost proof cellar but away from furnace heat and the roots will undoubtedly be in first class condition in the spring.


J. A. Hazelwood

Those who favored and secured the enactment of the Rural Planning Act by the last legislature are more than pleased with results thus far obtained. Organization has been brought about, programs outlined, and some progress made by way of execution in more than half of the counties of the state. Several County Boards have made appropriations to the Rural Planning Committee to help in carrying alnog their work. Men and women of vision have been selected in every county in the state to work with the ex-officio members provided for by Chapter 693.

A Few Counties’ Programs

La Crosse County's Committee has worked out a program whereby they are to emphasize the securing and improving of scenic spots. That County has decided to secure, as far as possible, river banks and scenic hill tops for the public. One camping site has been given to the Rural Planning Committee by one of the interested representative citizens of the County. Prospects for other woodlots to be donated to the Rural Planning Committee in that County are excellent. The Rural Planning Committee has arranged for many meetings in various sections of the County to arouse public sentiment in support of their program.

Brown County has taken up the landsmark phase of the rural planning work. They are planning to secure and mark all the historic places in and about Green Bay. The Committee has bad several meetings to (liseuss plans. No county in the state has more spots in it of historic interest than Brown County. The .first settlers of the state located in Brown County. It was the most important trading post in the state for twenty-five years. The County lends itself strongly to the work proposed to be done by the Committee.

Jefferson County has decided to emphasize another important line of work. If plans are worked out, roadside beautification will receive large attention. It is proposed to take the road from Jefferson to Ft. Atkinson and make it a still more scenic drive than it is at present. The beauty of the road today is remarkable. The drive winds along Rock River for four or five miles with a splendid growth of trees, wild shrubbery and wild flowers on the river side. It is proposed to thin out the shrubbery and trim up the trees on the river bank and side of the road and plant trees, shrubbery and flowers on the other side of the highway. The wild trees on the river bank are splendid specimens of oak, elm and ash, varying from a few feet to many feet in height. It is proposed by the Rural Planning Committee to employ a landscape engineer to work out plans.

Jefferson County's Rural Planning Committee has already obtained an appropriation of $500 from the County Board for the purpose of securing option on the ancient Aztalan Mounds. This means that the famous Aztalan Mounds are to be preserved. There are no Indian mounds in the United States that can be compared with the Aztalan Mounds in size and importance. Aztalan Village received votes by the territorial legislature at Bel-month for the eapitol of the state. This fact in addition to the Indian Mounds makes the place of great historic impotrance. It is proposed to obtain about twenty-five acres of land, preserve the Mounds, plant trees and shrubbery and otherwise beautify the already aesthetic Crawfish River bank. The place is of such importance it should be made at an early date one of Wisconsin’s state parks.

The Rural Planning Committee hopes to improve many of the roadsides in Jefferson County during this year. Emphasis, however, will be placed upon the drive above mentioned.

Other Counties

Many of the other counties of the state are working out plans to carry out the provisions of the rural planning act. Attention is to be given particularly to the creation and development of community centers. County fair parks are being generally set aside for camping sites in the state. Almost every city in the state, under the inspiration of the rural planning act, is at present considering the providing of camp sites. Almost every county is studying places of local and historic interest, places of scenic importance, with a view to securing and preserving same for future generations. Many counties are looking forward to obtaining titles to lands along rivers and lakes, and places of fine outlook from hill tops. These things are thought of with a view to preserving our native landscape. Some attention will be given to the planting of trees, shrubs ami flowers along the highways in many counties of the state. Of course, the movement is new in Wisconsin, and those who are interesting themselves in the work are not looking for mushroom development.

Following is an extract from a letter received by the Highwway Commission:

“You commended the state highway marking system and declared it to be the best in the world. If to this utilitarian statement another could be added that the state trunk highways are also to be the most beautiful in the world, your commission would place future generations under lasting obligations.

“Au example of the ‘extreme local control’ of a state trunk highway is a stretch of road in Jefferson County between Watertown and Ebenezer. For years this road was noticeably beautiful on account of the fine shade trees and abundant shrubbery that make it a joy to the traveler. Public utilities and the farmer decided that this form of beauty must go, so in place of ancient oaks, elms and maples, stretches a line of poles so ugly in perspective that a traveler, viewing it for the first time, remarked, ‘If Ali Babi had done this deed in times long past, he and his forty thieves would have been hanged to the cross arms and the boiling oil conserved.’

“Cannot some way be found to save the remaining beauty of the highways of this wonderful state and at the same time give the people the benefit of modern convenience ?

“France has a system of tree conservation that might, with profit, be imitated and our present wasteful methods abolished.’’

The writer of the letter truly senses the need of an active rural planning committee. There has been a habit among our road builders to destroy all trees and shrubbery within the four rod strip, as well as companies running wires. This should be stopped.

Watch Relocation of Roads

A man writes there is a road running south from Hayward where the County Highway Commission left a group of white birches that encroached somewhat on the highway but that these birches were a joy by day and a delight by night, when the auto lights showed them up.

Another reckless way in which road builders are denying the public beautiful scenic drives, is that of re-location. There is a case cited up in Sawyer County where the road ran along the shore of White Fish Lake and was a thing of beauty. It was a joy to travelers. There was a chance to get water, to camp on the lake and get a glimpse of the beautiful scene. This had been enjoyed for thirty years. A few years ago a new road was built away from the lake, and fenced this in, part of it for a pleasure resort, so there is only one place where the lake can be seen and that is where tourists cross a bridge at an outlet to the lake.

Cases above cited are only a few of many that might be mentioned where there has been thoughtlessness and recklessness in the matter of destroying beauty along the highways.

The rural planning committees of the state propose to call a halt to this work and institute in place of it a program of roadside beautification. The work is worthy of the heartiest cooperation of all. No county in the state can afford to be without a good, live rural planning committee.

My Neighbor’s Garden

A few mornings ago my neighbor sent me a generous bunch of bright crisp radishes, and a fine bunch of crinkly lettuce. They were so good and so fresh that 1 knew at once he had raised them himself, and so 1 went over in the evening to thank him and to ask him about it. It seemed to me like a marvel, for my radishes and lettuce were only just planted, but he made light of it. “Pshaw, anybody can do it if he only has a little gumption." Now by the use of that word you will know at once that my neighbor is also a New Englander, or at least of New England descent. Gumption means capacity to do things and as my neighbor meant only that one need only to have a little capacity to do things in order to raise such marvels, I was naturally interested.

“How did you do it?'’ I asked.

“Cold frame,” was his answer. “If I could only have gotten the stuff for a hot bed I could have had them a month earlier.”

So I asked him to tell me all about cold frames and hot beds.

“I can’t tell you all about either one, but I can tell you enough so that with only the slightest trouble and attention you can do just as well as I have done.”

1 will write down as nearly as I can remember, the substance of what my neighbor told me.

A cold frame is a bottomless box put down over garden soil, and covered with something which will let the most of the light in and keep some of the cold out. It need not be at all elaborate. The principal item and the most expensive one is a glazed sash. Cold frame sashes can be bought, but' an ordinary storm sash is just as good, and it can be taken off the house in the early spring and made to cover a double purpose. If you haven’t a storm sash then you may be able to get a discarded window from a carpenter. If you buy one, don’t get a double glazed one unless you can get a 3 x 3 as 6x3 is too heavy. Having gotten your sash, make a bottomless box, the outside of which is two inches smaller than your sash. If you are making it, have the sides vertical, but make one side lower than the other, making the slope about one inch to the foot. If you are making it from old lumber, or using what you have, it will make no difference if the slope is 1% inches to the foot. If it is three feet wide, the front should be about 4 to 8 inches in height and the back 7 to 14 inches. It is better to bevel the edges of the front and back so that the sash will fit closely. If you don’t want to split your board, or haven’t a rip saw sink the front board into the ground until you get a proper slope, and if you haven’t nails you can fasten your boards in place with 3 or 4 stakes at each corner. As you will want to use your frame early in the spring while the ground is still frozen, you should get your frame and your soil ready in the fall. Place the narrow edge of the frame to the south. Your soil should be as rich as possible, but friable so as to be easily worked, and as fine as possible. The ideal soil is one-third well sifted garden soil, one-third clean, coarse sand and one-third leafmould. This should be mixed in the fall and. placed in the frame. You will gain a little time in the spring if you keep it covered so as to keep out snow and ice. As soon as there is some appearance or prospect of spring, put on the sash, and as soon as the soil is thawed out on top so that the soil is not sticky, put in your seed and put on your sash and wait results. If the weather is sunny you seed will be up in a week. Don't sow your seed too thickly. You need only barely t > cover the seed and all that come up less than half an inch apart in the row are wasted. As soon as the seed is well up you must give a little ventilation in the middle of clear warm days. All you need to do is to raise the upper edge of the sash a quarter of a” inch or more, depending on the heat of the same. If the ground is distinctly warm to the hand, you must ventilate or your plants may damp off, i. e., they will wither and die. As soon as the ground gets dry on top, water the plants in the morning so the plants will dry off rapidly as water on the plants tends to promote damping off. It’s really very little trouble to make or operate a cold frame, less even than it seems from the telling. The uses of a cold-frame to the gardner are many. Egg plant, tomatoes, parsley, cabbage, cauliflower and other plants which should be started early can be raised in it, or if started in the house can be transferred to it, and can be grown until cold weather is past. It is an advantage to do this on account of the better root growth which comes from the extra transplanting. For the flower gardener it is invaluable. lie can use it in starting fine and delicate seed, which can hardly be successfully planted in the open ground on account of exposure to sun, rain and winds. If the weather is eold or if rain threatens, keep on the sash. In most cases you should shade the ground either by cotton sheeting laid over the ground, or stretched on a frame or held in place by weights on the outside of the sash. A very good shade is made by coarse sacking or burlap on a movable frame just a little larger than the sash. After the annual flowers have been started and transplanted, the biennial and perennial seeds can be put in next year. They can be handled in the same way and either transplanted in the fall, or better yet, wintered over in the frame, to be transplanted in the spring. If you can’t get any sort of a sash, use sheeting as the farmers do over their tobacco beds. If you wish, you may sow your seeds in the fall, taking care to sow them so it te that they will not germinate, leaving the sash off till spring.

A hotbed is an artificially heated eold frame. The cheapest heat for the farmer is that furnished by fermenting litter from the horsebarn. The method of obtaining the heat is very simple. About the first of March take from the manure pile as much of the strawy litter as will make a pile two feet thick and two feet larger each way than your frame. Some of this will be old and have been heated more or less. Mix the pile selected thoroughly so that it will be quite homogeneous. In a few days it will begin to heat. As soon as it gets hot, mix it again thoroughly and put it in place, tramping it down thoroughly ; put on your frame, put in your prepared soil, which you shauld have handy in boxes or barrels, put on your sash and wait for it to get hot. In a day or two the soil will be hot,—not warm—

Continued on page 185

Eradication of Ivy Advocated; Treatment Recommended in Poisoning Cases

The best ways to avoid ivy and sumac poisoning, the most practical means of eradicating these noxious plants, and the most approved method of treating cases of such poisoning have been the subjects of an investigation conducted jointly by the United States Department of Agriculture and the Public Health Service of the United States Treasury Department. Despite general belief there is good reason for believing that absolute immunity from ivy and sumac poisoning does not exist, investigators state They also found that many common methods of treatment are not to be commended. If one must handle these poisonous plants, gloves, preferably of rubber, should be worn. After the gloves have been removed they should be thoroughly washed with soap and water and rinsed several times. Inasmuch as the clothing which comes in contact with the leaves may be a source of infection for a considerable period, care should be taken in changing the garments, and also the shoes. Many cases of poisoning have resulted merely from contact with exposed clothing.

Thorough Washing Helps

One of the surest and best methods of minimizing or preventing infection after the hands, face, or other parts of the body have been exposed, is to wash and rinse them repeatedly with an abundance of good kitchen soap and hot water. The poison, after being deposited on the skin, requires some time to penetrate, and if this penetration can be prevented by thorough washing, eruption and irritation will not result. While exposed parts should be cleansed in this manner as soon after exposure as possible, it is worth while to make the attempt even 12 or 20 hours afterwards in the hope that at least a portion of the poison may be removed. A heavy lather should be produced and the washing continued several minutes. Severe scrubbing with a brush is not advisable, but several swabs or small compresses of gauze may be used, discarding each in turn, so that the poison may not be distributed by the cloth.

Bathing with alcohol diluted with an equal amount of water is also an effective preventive. Where exposure has been more general, a bath for the entire body, followed by a change of clothing, is a good preventive measure. The hair should not be neglected. Bathing, if not accompanied by sufficient changing of water or rinsing, may result in spreading the rash to skin that had not been infected. In eases that are at all serious a physician should be consulted.

Sugar of Lead Recommended

The investigators call attention to the fact that scores of remedies and prescriptions are more or less in popular favor, but in spite of the claim they assert that no specific treatment for poisoning from ivy and sumac is yet available. Ointments should not be used in the acute stage of the disease. In the later stages, however, soothing and astringent ointments may be of value in allaying irritation and hastening cure. The extent to which it is desirable to use soln tions of permanganate of potash, hyposulphite of soda, sulphate of magnesium (Epsom salts), and other remedies, is also discussed. Sugar of lead, formerly much used, often proves disappointing if applied after inflammation has developed, and the user runs the risk of lead poisoning if this substance is applied extensively.

How to Recognize Poison Sumac

Poison sumac grows in moist ground, usually in swamps or along low, miry banks of streams and ponds. It occurs from New England to Florida, and westward to Minnesota, Arkansas, and Louisiana. The poison sumac leaves are readily distinguished from the harmless sumac and species of ash, elder, and other shrubs and trees, having a somewhat similar foliage, and the character, appearance, and color of the fruits furnish other simple means of identification. Furthermore, the poison sumac occurs on moist or swampy land, and in drier locations is found only along the borders of swamps or bogs. The number of leaflets into which the leaves of harmless sumacs are divided range from 9 to 21 and 31, while the poison sumac leaves divide into 7 to 13 leaflets.

While many persons are of the opinion that contact with these plants is not necessary to produce poisoning, it is probable that many eases supposed to have originated in this way have actually been due to direct or indirect contact. There are cases on record showing that the smoke from burning plants will give rise to irritation, and in some eases severe poisoning has resulted from this form of exposure. Regarding the popular belief that some persons are wholly immune, the investigators state that there is good reason to believe absolute immunity does not exist, although it is recognized that some persons are much less susceptible than others.

How to Eradicate Poisonous Plants

Eradication of these plants should be widely undertaken and followed up systematically. Every landowner should feel a measure of responsibility in this matter. The •simplest method is by grubbing, in which care should be taken to cover the hands properly, and also to prevent infection by means of the clothing.

The plants in fields may be destroyed by plowing them up and putting in cultivated crops. Often repeated mowing is also effective. The use of kerosene is recommended where injury to other plants or trees is not to be feared. It may be applied with a sprinkler or aspraying pump, and in many eases one application is sufficient. Arsenate of soda has been used very successfully to kill poison ivy on trees 6 to 10 inches in diameter without injury to the trees, as well as on stone walls, buildings, and along fences.

Care of House Plants

James Livingstone.

The question, how often should I water my plants, has been asked so many times that perhaps a little information on that subject may not be out of place at this time. The lot of the average house-plant is a hard one as a rule, and in their case, prohibition is often applied too vigorously. I do not wish to give the impression that all house-plants are neglected or abused, because I have often seen splendid specimens of various varieties of plants grown in an ordinary dwelling house window, and I sometimes marvelled at the skill displayed in their growth.

The plants that suffer most in the average home are those that have been grown by a florist. They have, as a rule, been grown in a warm, moist greenhouse, and, in some eases forced along under high temperature to get them into bloom for certain holidays or occasions. Unless they have been “hardened off,” to use a florist’s expression, that is, to take them from the hot temperature where they have been forced, into a home with more air and a cooler temperature and in this way hardened to the conditions found in the average home, they are apt to suffer severely and sometimes last only a few days, to the disappointment of the owner. The air is hot and dry in most homes, totally unlike the temperature these plants have been grown in. Added to this drawback is the lack of knowledge in the care of the plants by the average householder.

Some varieties of plants are more suitable as house plants than others but this is seldom taken into consideration by the purchaser. The plant is bought because it suits the taste of the buyer either as a gift to a friend or for home adornment. Plants in bloom, purchased from a florist, can’t, even under the best conditions, be expected to last over two or three weeks at the most; some kinds don’t last even that length of time, (’velamen are very satisfactory plants and when given any sort of fair treatment, last a long time, sending up a succession of blossoms for two or three months. Some varieties of Begonias do very well, such as the different varieties of Rex Begonias, Begonia Alba l’icta, Pieta Rosea, Rubra, and the old favorite, Beefsteak Begonia. These are all winter flowering varieties and if grown outdoors in a shady place in the summer, brought into the house in the fall, and placed in a sunny window, will bloom most of the winter. The most beautiful of all the Begonia family are: Glorie De Lorraine and Glory of Cincinnati. These require a great deal of care and a close, warm, moist atmosphere to grow them satisfactorily; when they are brought into a hot dry living room they do not last long. Foliage plants, while not so fascinating as blooming plants, are us uallv much longer lived than house plants. Palms, Boston Ferns, Pep-eromia, Sansveria, and Aspidistra usually do quite well and last a long time.

Knowing how to water plants seems to be a stumbling block to a great many people. A mistake is often made by placing the flower pot into a fancy jardinere and if enough water is given the plants, it soaks down through the soil, through the hole in the bottom of the pot and collects in the jardinere. It is sometimes left to accumulate there till the water becomes sour and stagnant. The result is that the soil in the flower pot becomes water-logged and sour and the roots of the plant rotted off. When a plant is placed in a jardinere particular care should be taken that the water is emptied at least once a day, preferably just after the plant has been watered thoroughly. When a flower pot is placed in a saucer, the same care should be taken to have the water poured out of the saucer. I do not like the practice of allowing plants to stand in a saucer of water. This may be all right with semi-acquatic plants, but the general run of house plants are better off without it. Be sure that the plant has good drainage, that is. don’t allow the Coninuod on page 187

President Martini Resigns

Our members will, we are certain, learn with sincere regret that President Martini tendered his resignation as president of this society at the meeting of the Board of Managers May 27. Mr. Martini’s letter follows:

Lake Geneva, Wis., May 27, 1920. Frederic Cranefield, Secy., My dear Mr. Cranefield:

Having accepted the superintendency of a large private estate in Cedar Rapids, Iowa, on June 1st it becomes my duty to submit to you my resignation from the office of president of the W. S. II. S.

I ean assure you that onlv force of circumstances prompted me to accept a more remunerative position in another state.

To the members of our society I send a cordial farewell. From the close association with the society ’s affairs that you have given me the power to obtain I can assure all that its policy is being carried out with great honesty of purpose. I sincerely deplore that my change of residence to another state makes my resignation necessary. I shall always thankfully i emember the benefits I have gained as well as the friends I have made among you and with best wishes for the continued success of the society and its affairs I say au revoir but not good bye, A. Martini.

The Secretary feels no hesitation in tendering to Mr. Martini the appreciation of his fellowmembers and their best wishes for success in his new undertaking.

Mr. Martini is an extremely likable man cultured and of dignified demeanor and has a host of friends who will regret the necessity that takes him to another state. Altho serving but a few months the earnestness of his efforts and the effects of his clearsighted wisdom will be felt in the society for a long time.

Under Article 6 of our Constitution Vice President J. A. Hays becomes acting president for the balance of the term.

Summer meeting, Racine, Aug 18th and 19th, 1920.

Local Societies and Their Activities

The Sauk County Society held the first meeting of the season at the home of Dr. and Mrs. F. R. Winslow Thursday evening April 29th. Papers on Selection of Vegetable Seed; Planting Flower Seeds; Dahlia Culture and Spraying were presented and discussed. The next meeting is set for May 28th.

The West Allis Horticultural Society met at the public library Thursday May 6th to discuss plans for future work.

The Bayfield Society met for discussion of seasonable topics April 24th and found the meeting so interesting and profitable that another meeting was called for early in May.

The Oshkosh Society held its regular monthly meeting Friday-evening May 14th. Plans were formulated for a peony and iris show in June.

The Lake Geneva Society meets monthly.

Corrections and Apologies

In the May number Oshkosh local was credited with 50 members when in fact there are 63. The Sauk County Society has 54 members instead of 49 as stated and Lake Geneva 32 not 26.

The editor offers four apologies, the societies mentioned please take one each and leave one in ease another mistake turns up.

State Florists Meet

The summer meeting of the State Florists Association will be held in Sheboygan in July. The date will be announced later. President J. E. Mathewson is concluding a campaign for members.

A Cash Offer

In the March issue we offered a bound copy of Wisconsin Horticulture free for ten new members. There were no takers.

There are five copies only, available, bound in “boards’’ and near-leather back and corners complete from Sept. 1916 to Sept. 1919. As the premium stunt failed to work these are offered for sale at $2.00 per volume which includes postage. The cost of binding was $1.79 per volume.


J. Mills Smith

Friends of Irving Smith, and who that knows him is not his friend, will learn with sorrow of the death of his oldest son, J. Mills, on April 18th, within five days of 19 years old.

Of splendid physique, apparently in excellent health he had enjoyed life to the utmost, and retiring, fell into the sleep of death, a victim of unsuspected heart disease. Mills was graduated from the Ashland high school and Northland College. He was a life member of our Society.

H. B. Tuttle

Herbert Bushrod Tuttle was born in Baraboo, Sauk County, Wisconsin, Sept. 23, 1850 and died April 29, 1920 after an illness lasting ten months.

He w’as the son of A. G. Tuttle of Baraboo who was, one of the pioneer fruit-men of Wisconsin. All of his early life was devoted to nursery work and the past thirty years to cranberry culture.

He was one who always strove to help those with whom he dealt. A kind friend, loving husband and father, a patient sufferer. He leaves to mourn beside his wife, four children, eight grand children, two brothers and a host of friends.

The Eau Claire Civic and Commerce Association will plant an avenue of elms bordering the new concrete highway between that city and Chippewa Falls. It is estimated that two thousand trees will be required.

Mr. Irving C. Smith has presented the city with three hundred trees, one hundred elms and two hundred maples, "which will be planted on the bay front, around school buildings and other public buildings.

This is the first time that Ashland has received such a gift, especially a gift which will help to make the city more attractive and the citizens of Ashland are especially grateful.

Ashland needs public-spirited men who are willing to give something towards the future good of the town.

Within a few year’s time these trees will have reached a size and beauty that will bring credit to their donor and enjoyment to a host of people.—Ashland Press.

Control Measures Given for Bacterial Wilt

Infection with the bacterial wilt of cucurbits does not occur through soil or seed. The striped cucumber beetle and the 12-spotted cucumber beetle are both summer carriers, and probably the only means of summer transmission of the disease in the localities that have been studied. Introduction of virulent bacteria into the interior plant tissues is necessary for infection.

These points are given in a recent United States Department of Agriculture publication detailing the results of studies on the disease, which occurs in 31 States, including the territory from Vermont and Canada to Florida and west to Minnesota, Nebraska, Colorado, and Texas. The disease also probably occurs in parts of California. Of the common domestic cucurbits the disease affects cucumbers, cantaloupes, summer and winter squashes, and pumpkins, but not watermelons.

Control Measures Recommended

Spraying with strong Bordeaux mixture and lead arsenate paste (4-5-50 plus 2) is recommended where the disease is Likely to be severe. Treatments should begin as soon as the cucumber plants develop their first true leaves and should continue at intervals of about a week until the cucumber beetles practically disappear from the field. In localities where downy mildew is also prevalent the treatments should be continued later as a partial insurance against this disease. The beetles prefer unsprayed plants as food, and undoubtedly the efficiency of wilt control would' be enhanced if a slightly earlier trap crop, such as squash, were planted along the edges of the cucumber field. The beetles could be easily poisoned there with a strong insecticide.

Pulling of wilted vines during the first part of the season, or as long as it can be done without mechanically injuring the healthy plants, will greatly assist in controlling bacterial wilt if consistently done in all neighboring fields. The diseased vines should be buried or otherwise removed from access by the beetles.

Screening in Garden Plats

Where a few plants only are grown in garden plats, screening the hills with fine mosquito netting will prevent the appearance of the disease.

For control in greenhouses the beetles, in the first place, should be kept out. Do not grow cucurbits nor pile cucurbit refuse in the immediate vicinity of green houses, as this attracts the beetles and many will later find their way into the houses. If the beetles once gain entrance to a house filled’ with growing plants hand picking is the only remedy to be recommended until some fumigant is found that will kill the beetles without injuring the cucumber plants. Besides destroying the cucumber beetles, great care must be exercised in disinfecting all instruments used in pruning wilted vines before using them again on healthy plants. This may easily be d’one with a bottle of 1 to 1,000 mercuric chlorid and a sponge.

Plant liberally of a goodly number of vegetables. Seed and cultivation are going to be cheaper than to buy the finished product this year.

Summer meeting, Racine, Aug. 18th and 19th, 1920.


Devoted to the Interests of The Wisconsin State Beekeepers, Association H. F. Wilson Editor

Every Member Get a Member

The Wisconsin State Beekeepers’ Association now has 732 members. Below we are giving the number of members for each county and we hope that every beekeeper will make it a point to secure one new member for the State Association. We must have 1,000 members by the time of the next state convention in December. Hereafter, we are going to list all associations that have 20 or more state members. Let’s see which county can have the largest membership by the time of the next convention.

State Association Membership by Counties

In each succeeding issue we will list all counties having 25 or more members in the State Association. A few new members in several counties will place them in the honor division.


Dane Co.........

. .56



Fond du Lac Co. .

. .44



Milwaukee Co. . .

. .43



Waukesha Co. . . .

. .40



Winnebago Co. . .

. .33



Chippewa Co.....

. . 31



Richland Co.....

. .28



Grant Co........

. .27



Langlade Co.....

. .24



Brown Co.......

. .23

mem be rs


Manitowoc Co.

. . 23



Shawano Co.....

. . 23



Dodge Co......

. . .19



Marathon Co. . .

. . . 19



Price Co........

. . . 19



Wood Co.......

. . . 19



Green Co.......




Outagamie Co.

. . . 16



Vernon C’o......

. . . 16



Clark Co........




Pierce C’o......


me in be ii?


Walworth Co. . .


2 5.

Calumet Co.....




Rusk C’o........

. . . 10



Washington Co. . .

. . . 10



Konosha Co.....

. . . 9


2 9.

Waupaca Co. ...

. . . 8



Columbia Co. . . .

. . . 6



Eau Claire Co. .

. . . 6



Monroe Co......

. . . 6



Ozaukee Co.....

. . . 6



Rock Co.......

. . . 6



Sheboygan Co. . .

. . . 6



Lafayette Co. . . .

. . . 4



Waushara Co. . .

. . . 4



Crawford Co. . . .

. . . 3



Dunn Co.......

. . . 3



La Crosse Co. . .

. . . 3



Marinette Co. . . .

. . . 3



Lincoln Co.....

. . . 3



Barron Co. .....

... 2



Bayfield Co.....

... 2



Iowa Co........

. . . 2



Juneau Co......




Racine Co......

... 2



Ashland Co.....

. . . 1



Douglas Co.....

. . . 1



Oconto Co......

. . . 1



Oneida Co......

. . . 1



Pepin Co.......

. . . 1



St. Croix Co. . . .

. . 1



Washburn Co. . .

. . . 1


Remember your exhibit for the State Fair.

A Beekeepers’ Meeting to talk over Marketing and Prices will be held Thursday of STATE FAIR WEEK on the Fair Ground.


Second Wisconsin Beekeepers’ Field

Meet and Chautauqua August 16-21

Dr. Phillips and Mr. Demuth have consented to come and hold another field meet August 16 to 21 and we hope that the attendance will warrant their giving us this special effort. 161 people were registered at the last school and I hope we may make the number 250 this year. Special effort is being made to provide lodging quarters and meals at the very minimum. We are already making arrangements for a larger tent than was available last year and a regular camp ground will be laid out beside the Lake. This field meet will afford a splendid opportunity for an outing and it is fully agreed that all meetings will end in time for the usual afternoon swim. Professor Barr of Milwaukee has been asked to take charge of the entertainment and the boat trip and picnic similar to the one held last year.

A preliminary program is issued at this time. Other details will be given in our next issue.

Monday, August 16

9 A. M.—Behavior of Bees in the Fall—E. F. Phillips.

10:30 A. M.—Fall Management—G. S. Demuth.

1 P. M.—The Purchase of Bevs from the South—Kennith Hawkins.

2-5 P. M.—Local men on any subject excepting wintering and diseases.

Tuesday, August 17

9 A. M.—Behavior of Bees in Winter—E. F. Phillips.

10:30 A. M.—Outdoor Wintering— G. S. Demuth.

1 P. M.—Behavior of Bees in Winter (continued)—E. F. Phillips.

2:30 P. M.—Cellar Wintering—G. S. Demuth.

4 P. M.—Local Speaker (on wintering if desired).

Wednesday, August 18

9 A. M.—Behavior of Bees in Spring —E. F. Phillips.

10:30 A. M.—Spring Management--G. S. Demuth.

1 P. M.—Symptoms of the Brood Diseases (2 hrs.)—E. F. Phillips.

7:30 P. M.—Development of Beekeeping Practices—G. S. Demuth.

Thursday, August 19

9 A. M.—Behavior of Bees during the Honey-Flow—E. F. Phillips.

10:30 A. M.—Colony Morale—G. S Demuth.

1 P. M.—Queen Rearing—G. S. Demuth.

2:30 P. M.—Factors Influencing Nectar Secretion—E. F. Phillips.

4 P. M.—Variations in Wisconsin Honey Sources—H. L. McMurry.


Friday, August 20

9 A. M.—Behavior of Bees in Swarming—E. F. Phillips.

10:30 A. M.—Swarm Control—G. S. Demuth.

4 P. M.—Distribution of Brood Diseases in Wisconsin—S. B. Fracker.

7:30 P. M.—Development of Bw Disease Control—E. F. Phillips.

Need of Better Marketing

By Iona Fowls

Last season’s crop practically sol i itself. It needed only to be displayed, and straightway it attracted the attention of the sweet-craving public, and. because many of the people had faller, into the habit of spending freely the honey sold readily and with no special effort on the part of the beekeeper. Just how long such conditions will continue we do not know; but from present prospects it is evident that there is a shortage of colonies, due to insufficient and poor stores during last winter. Also, reports indicate that the honey plants are in unusually good condition. Further, it is claimed that the per capita consumption of sugar has been increasing so rapidly since the country has gone dry in spite of the certain increase in cane and beet sugar production, it will for several years be impossible for production to increase as rapidly as consumption. All of these conditions, pointing toward a good market in the immediate future, h« lp us to forget the marketing problems of the past and overlook the certainty that they will again recur in the future.

The present bright outlook is bound to attract others to beekeeping. And many of those now in the business will materially increase their output. In fact, they are already doing so, many having doubled' or tripled their production within the last year or two. Now we do not really fear an overproduction of the amount of honey that could be consumed if the public fully realized its value. But suppose that demand does not keep up with supply; suppose that production continues to increase rapidly; then a bumper honey crop is raised thruout the country and at the same time, perhaps consumers are found with less ready cash than at present— a condition that is bound to arise soon. Just about that time we would suddenly waken up to the fact that our present tactics in marketing will not do, and that even in time of prosperity we should all have been doing our best to increase demand and to use more business-like methods in the disposal of our crop.

Beekeepers in rather inaccessible parts of the country often find it necessary to sell at wholesale. Others, pven in more thickly settled districts, sell in the same way. feeling that they cannot afford to compete with big bottling concerns in the disposal of their crop. They point out that this is an age of specialization. They say they are experts in raising honey, not in marketing. If such a beekeeper takes the trouble to become as well posted as possible before making the sale, he may get a fair price and be relieved from further worry during the rest of the year. At the present time this works out nicely; but the year will come when the market will bo weak, and he will then be left high and drv with his honey or else be eomnelled to sell below its real value.

Those who retail at least a part of their crop in their own and neighboring towns have the advantage that every pound thus sold advertises the entire crop, present and future; for there is no better ad than a fine grade oi honey put out under the producer’s name. Selling in this way leads one to raise the very best grade possible, and many beekeepers find a distinct pleasure in retailing honey which they themselves have produced. Their pride and pleasure in the selling give them a cheerful optimism that is in itself an inducement to buy. If the trade is followed up closely and the customers kept always supplied, in a very short time one may double the amount of honey consumed in a given locality. In many places Where one ton of honey was consumed annually a few years ago, as much as ten tons is now required to supply the trade.

Systematic advertising in the local newspapers, exhibits at county fairs, an occasional address or demonstration in the schools, and fine window displays, all help to increase the demand. Perhaps the last is as satisfactory a way of advertising as any. A very attractive display may be made by placing mirrors at the back of the window, thus causing a multiple retlections, and in front of the mirrors tiering the jars of honey in the form of pyramids, with sheets of clear glass just the right size between the tiers. The sheets of glass make it possible to leave equal spaces between jars so that by a judicious use of lights a beautiful effect may be obtained. It also adds to the interest to place in the window an observatory hive of bees so that the passers-by may watch the bees, as they suppose, “making honey.” The novelty of seeing live bees always attracts the public.

For the beekeeper who has the time and inclination, there is no doubt that it will pay him well In dollars as well as in satisfaction to retail at least a part of his crop in his own locality; and, if he raises a good article, he will be helping not only himself but also all other beekeepers.

There are a number of factors that are at. present preventing the best marketing conditions. Most of them may be grouped under the heading, “Poor Business Methods.” In some cases the beekeepers accept prices far below what they consider the true value of the honey. Others sell to the grocers and then canvass from house to house, selling at a price lower than the grocer can afford to meet. A few beekeepers have been foolish enough, after disposing of their own honey, tn buy an inferior grade hoping to keep their trade. There could of course be no better way devised for losing it.

Some have s^nyvn that d! stressing state of mind of being “perfectly satisfied” w*th nresent conditions. It ’s a fortunate thing that this feeling is nn* general, otherwise then* would little chance for improvement in the future. Some of us are far from satisfied with present conditions. In some localities the beekeeper with a good article is unable to sell until the market has been cleared of all the poor, half-price honey rushed in by the small beekeepers in the vicinity. We have also heard of honey sold in the same package in which it was purchased, yet sold at an increase of 100 per cent. The final selling price was only fair; so it is evident the producer received altogether too small an amount to pay him for the time and labor expended. There are also reports of buyers paying different prices for the same grade of honey, in the same vicinity and on the same day. Such conditions call for—not satisfaction but decided objection, followed by united action of the beekeepers.

Some have felt no special attention necessary in the disposal of the honey crop, since they believe the law of supply and demand will automatically take care of the matter of marketing. A few years ago a large firm began spending hundreds of thousands of dollars in advertising honey. Demand responded by shooting ahead of anything dreamed of. This firm did not sit idly awaiting demand but went out and made it. Today all beekeepers are profiting by it. And yet, what they have done is very small in comparison with what can be done.

We beekeepers working individually can increase demand and Improve marketing conditions but think what a tremendous force we would be working along this line collectively. Some day we are going to do it. I do not know how soon this will be, but some day in the not too distant future, the beekeepers of this country are going to work together for the individual and common good, just as the orange growers, raisin producers and others have done. Are we going to do this now under present prosperous conditions or are we going to wait till more adverse conditions force the matter on to our attention? If we are foresighted enough to look past the present and see the time when honev will sell less readily than during the past winter, we shall not only see the necessity of working up a larger, more dependable trade individually but also shall realize the imperative need of immediate and concerted action of beekeepers as a whole.

Shipping Packages For Honey

The large number of claims that have been entered against the railroad and express companies for damage on shipments of both comb and extracted honey are o’oar evidence t**at something is radically wrong with our shipping packages. "Many beekeepers have purchased the cheapest packages available, expressing the view that they receive just as much for their honey in the cheaper package as when a more expensive package is used. This in the past has been true to a certain extent but is re-acting against the industry in advanced rates and unless something is done to decrease the risk of loss by the public carriers in transportation, either shipments will be refused or the rates wiM be advanced to a prohibitive point.

COMB HONEY—Much" of the trouble is caused by comb honey being shipped either by freight or express in the twenty-four section shipping case without further protection. This case was never intended for shipment in less than car lots without protection, and it is the exception rather than the rule that th<e honey Is received in good condition when shipped in this manner.

For L. C. L. shipments, comb honey should be packed in crates or carriers built to hold eight cases, providing room for at Qeast four inches of packing, (straw or similar material) in the bottom of the carrier. The straw in the bottom of the carrier is absolutely necessary and unless this is used and shipment is made during cold weather, many of the sections will be broken loose and the combs cracked by the jar in handling the crates., It is not advisable to use larger crates because of the weight, making the package so heavy that it cannot be carefully handled while in transit.

There is no doubt, that there are some beekeepers who believe themselves unjustly treated by the party purchasing their honey because of deductions having been made for loss in shipping due to improper packing. They have been inclined to question the statements of their principals, assuming that it was me refly a desire on their part to take advantage of the shipper. There is no question thasome such cases may have occurred. But in many instances if the shipper could see his product when it was received by the customer, he would then understand the need for greater care in preparing his crop for shipment.

EXTRACTED HONEY—The five gallon tin can, packed two in a case is the best and most satisfactory package for bulk extracted honey. In these days of high prices there has been a tendency to make the cans of too light grade of tin and also use a poor grade and thinner lumber in the cases making the entire package too light. The reason for this has been insistent demand on the part of the beekeeper for the cheapest package that could be obtained. There is already a strong sentiment not only among the buyers of honey but also shippers in favor of heavier cases. The California Honey Producers* Association have taken steps in advance along this line and have officially adopted a case which more nearfly meets the requirements of both E C. L. and carload shipmenu,.

Tne shipper of toaay must recognize that ultimately he is the one who must pay tne loss resulting from inadequate and improper pacKing, This will come in eitner neduced prices tor his product or increased rate of freight on the particular commodity. In the past the snipper nas been very ready to absolve nimseii irom aid Diame by simple statement that the goods were in good condition when delivered to the R. R. Co. and if not in good condition when received by the buyer the transportation company was responsible and should pay the claim. Because of this indifference, the past lew years nave seen a great number of claims entered against the R. R. companies which has caused them to consider the question of making the rates high enougn to cover the loss which they have to pay and leave a reasonable prvfit for carrying the goods. It is not the ob ject of the writer to absolve the transportation companies from blame, only that we should look the matter square in the face and shoulder the responsibility that is clearly ours. Then when claims are entered for losses that are clearly the result of carelessness or accident, they wlfll be paid without question. Satisfied customers are the greatest asset of any producer and in the near future when the real test of honey distribution is coming with an enormous increase in production with a conservative estimate that the beekeepers market must be doubled, no one can afford to overlook any factor that may insure his product reaching the consumer in tne best condition possible.

Very truly yours,

J. A. Warren,

Representing A. I. Root Co., Medina, Ohio.

Local Association Notes

I am desirous of calling your attention to the new national association, the American Honey Producers’ League.

The League is, without doubt, an organization of beekeepers, for beekeepers and by the beekeepers, which should fairly represent the best interests of beemen of all sections of the United States. I believe what is good for the West is also good for the East and what is good for the East is also good for the West.

Evidently because it is of the beekeepers, for the beekeepers and by the beekeepers, it is being opposed by certain outside interests. I understand that propaganda is being sent out with the purpose of discrediting the movement and causing dissension among beekeepers.

It seems that beekeeping is about the only industry not organized nationally and I believe that the time is now opportune for a national organization of actual producers. Tne tact that the meeting at Kansas City was attended by delegates from twenty-five or more state and regional associations representing more than half of the commercial beemen of the United States, and that the action of this meeting was unanimously endorsed by the Buffalo meeting, are proofs that there is a demand for an effective organization.

It must be understood that it is NOT a purpose of the League to form a nation-wide selling agency, as claimed by its detractors in spite of repeated denials, but its purpose is to assist all member associations in whatever activities will benefit the industry in general. The objects as set forth: Better Distribution, Uniform Equipment, Beneficial Legislation, a secretary not three days but every day in the year, Crop Reports. Advertising. Can we afford to turn these down ? If the constitution is defective, it can be amended. If the officers do not represent us as they should, we can elect others. The League will be what the beekeepers make it. Of course, it must have the moral and financial support of the beekeepers, for without this it will be powerless to carry on its work.

• • •

On an average colonies are not as strong on this date as after a more normal winter and spring. However, if the season continues late all colonies will have time to build up before the clover flow. Honey movement is very slow, but better than last month. Clover appears to be in good condition.

Edward Hassinger. Jr..

Fox River Valley Bee Ass’n, Greenville, Wis.

Uses of Honey

Honey is used both in its natural state and as an ingredient of cooked food. In this country it is more commonly used uncooked than cooked, and practically all comb honey is consumed in this way. Honey is much more commonly used m cookery in Europe than in America, though commercial bakers and confectioners in the United States use much larger quantities than many persons realize.

The simplest way of using honey is to serve it like jam or sirup with bread, breakfast cereals, boiled rice, pancakes, and . other mi Id-flavored foods. As ordinarily used on bread, an ounce of honey “spreads” as many slices as an ounce of jam. When it is to be used in the place of sirup some people dilute it by mixing it with ho* water, which has the effect of making it not only less sweet but also easier to pour.

Honey or a mixture of honey and sugar sirup can be satisfactorily used

for sweetening lemonade and other fruit drinks. Sirup of any kind is more convenient for this purpose than undissolved sugar, and when charged water is to be added it has a further advantage since it has less tendency to expel the gas.

Honey can be used in place of sugar for some kinus of preserving, and there is reason to believe that fruits cooked in it keep very well indeed. Bar-le-Duc currants, which form a very delicate and expensive article of commerce, are often made by cooking currants in honey. They are frequently served with cream cheese and crackers or other form of bread. A satisfactory substitute may be secured by serving honey and tart fruit, either cooked or uncooked, with cottage cheese and bread and butter. Three ounces of cottage cheese curd, two ounces of bread, tw’O-thirds ounce of butter (either added to the curd or spread on the bread), two ounces of honey, and six ounces of strawberries or other watery fruit would make a reasonably well balanced meal. Sometimes honey alone is served with cream cheese. Crisp crackers, spread with cream cheese and honey, form a good combination from the point of view or nutritive value and taste. Honey m«.y be substituted for sugar in baking apples.


Continued from page 177

but hot. When the first fierce heat is gone, in two or three days, when it is down to about blood heat, put in your seeds. You will have to watch the ventilation very carefully, as damping off is much more likely to occur than in an unheated frame. If you wish to take the trouble you can save manure by having a pit for your manure which should be just a little larger than your frame. You can start your hot bed two weeks or a month earlier than you can your cold frame and produce your early vegetables in half the time. Before trying to transplant from a cold frame or a hotbed, you must harden off your plants by leaving off your sash,— part of a day at a time at first, gradually lengthening the time of exposure.


Conducted by tho Department of Economic Entomology College of Agriculture

Raspberry and Blackberry Insects

The Tree Crickets

The females of tree crickets injure plants of blackberries and raspberries by depositing their eggs in punctures which run lengthwise in the canes. Some are often two inches in length and contain on the average about 30 eggs each.

The rows of punctures either kill the upper part of the cane or so weaken it as to prevent the full development of the fruit. This loss is considerable in Wisconsin especially where the vines grow near neglected fields.

The young which hatch from these eggs are not harmful since they are predaceous, feeding principally on aphids and other soft-bodied insects.

Tree crickets can be held in check by systematically pruning out the infested canes and burning them.

Raspberry Cane Borer

This undoubtedly is one of the worst pests of raspberries, both black and red varieties, that occurs in Wisconsin. The adult is a slender-bodied beetle about one-half inch in length and dark in color except the prothorax, which is yellow. The beetles appear in June and the female deposits her eggs singly in the pith of the tender shoots about six inches from the tips of the canes. First, she makes two rows of punctures about half an inch apart; these punctures encircle the cane and cause the tip to wilt. Between these rows of punctures, but nearer the lower row, she inserts her egg.

The young which hatches from the egg bores down the cane and continues its work until the second year; by this time the cane usually dies. The burrow winds thru the pith and at frequent intervals an opening is made in the

(Jails caused by the presence of the Red-necked cane borer. The one on

the left shows cane





grown larva in its




on the right shows


k i n d



largement made at






bark through which the larva easts forth its excrement. The second spring the larva pupates and then changes to an adult and the life cycle begins over again.

Treatment: The wilted tips as-mentioned above are easily noticed and they should be cut off below the girdles and destroyed. At pruning time any of the infested canes should be cut off close to the ground and burned. The infested canes are easily de-teeted by the openings the larvae make to the outside.

The Red-necked Cane Borer

This borer ranks next to the raspberry cane borer, if it does not equal it in the amount of injury done to blackberry and raspberry canes. The adult is a beetle which causes irregular swellings or galls from one to three inches in length. The galls are gradual enlargements of the canes and are easily noticed by longitudinal splitting of the bark. The infested canes are so injured as to stunt the growth and proper development of the fruit.

The larva forms a gall above ground and then makes its way-through the pith of the cane anil forms another similar gall at the base of the stalk. It then goes up the cane until full grown at which time it changes to a pupa and then to an adult.

Control Measures consist in pruning out and burning all infested stalks.

The Raspberry- Byturus

The Byturus is another pest which is destructive to the opening buds of the red raspberry. This insect is treated in detail in the June issue last spring. It is easily cheeked by spraying with lead arsenate two pounds to 50 gallons of water.

Raspberry and Blackberry Crown-

Borer or the Raspberry- Root Borer

Look up your last November number and turn to page 42. There you will find a summary regarding its life history and control. Additional evidence as to the occurrence of this insect in Wisconsin has come from a couple of places near Madison. Farmers should keep a careful lookout for the large whitish larvae and Unmediately destroy infested canes down to the roots as the borer if permitted a ehanee to become neil established would probably prove the most severe pest of raspberry canes.

Three other insects that often injure the raspberry and blackberry plants are the cane maggot, not known to occur in Wisconsin; the leaf miner, which seldom proves troublesome; and the raspberry sawfly, the larva of which is about % inches in length, light green in color, and covered with blackish tubercles which give the worm a spotted appearance. They feed upon the leaves, eating out irregular holes and leave only the larger veins. They are easily controlled with a spray of lead arsenate, V2 pound to 25 gallons of water.

Chas. L. Fluke, Jr.

Holes made to the outside of the cane by the Raspberry cane borer.

Grasshoppers Numerous This Year

The young grasshoppers are already appearing in large numbers and everything points to an epidemic of these pests this year. Farmers and county agents should be on the lookout for them and

Larva of the Raspberry cane borer in its burrow, nearly ready to change to an adult.

use poisoned bait before they have a ehanee to ruin our crops.

Make poisoned bait as follows:

" Materials Needed

Bran, alfalfa meal, or

midlings___________25 pounds

Paris Green or White

Arsenic ___________1 pound

Low Grade Molasses___2 quarts

Lemons or Oranges____6

Water_______________3 gallons

Mix the above materials as follows :

Mix together thoroughly while dry the Paris green and bran. Dilute the molasses with the water and add the lemons, finely chopped up, to this mixture. Stir the molasses, water and lemon mixture into the bran and Paris green. Add just enough water to make the bait crumbly but not sloppy. Scatter broadcast, not in piles, over the fields where the grasshoppers are found, using 5 to 7 pounds to the acre. This is best done toward evening or early in the morning.

This bait is also good to use against cutworms.

Chas. L. Fluke, Jr.


Continued from page 179

hole, in the bottom of the pot, to become clogged. If the hole is allowed to become clogged, the soil will become water-logged and sour and the plant will soon die.

When the plant is watered, enough should be given so that it runs through the hole in the bottom. Sometimes a plant is allowed to become so dry that the soil shrinks away from the edges of the pot and when the water is given, it runs through between the soil and the pot without wetting the center of the ball of earth. In this ease the best thing to do is to place the pot in a pail of water up to the height of the soil in the pot. The water will gradually work its way up through the entire ball of earth. When the surface of the soil has become wet the plant should be taken out and allowed to drain thoroughly.

IIow to tell when a plant needs water is a puzzle to a great many people and many a fine plant has been killed from this cause. The old-fashioned way of rapping on

the rim of the pot is the most reliable way, and when once the trick is learned, no further trouble will be experienced. To explain this method I would say, take an empty flower pot, a plant you know is very dry, and a plant that has been thoroughly watered. Place the three side by side. Bend the fingers of the hand slightly and with the knuckles of the second joints rap on the rim of the empty pot. ft will give a clear, empty sound. Now rap on the rim of the one you know is awfully dry, it will give a sound similar to the empty pot. Rap the rim of the plant that has been thoroughly watered, and it will give a dull sound, almost as if you were rapping on a solid brick wall. If this practice is continued, one soon becomes an expert and the amount of moisture in the soil of any pot plant can be determined b ythe sound. The greater the need of the plant for water the clearer the round will be.

The Opening of Flowers

Willard N. Clute in Gardeners’ Chronicle.

There is probably no more interesting chapter in botany than that which concerns the opening of flowers. The casual observer noting the general resumption of activity by the world at large as the day breaks is likely to jump to the conclusion that flowers follow the general custom of opening with the advent of day and closing as night approaches. It is true that many plants have this habit, but it is far from the rule among plants. In fact, the phenomena of the opening and closing of flowers, or anthesis, as it is called, are extremely complicated and call for the best efforts of the botanist to explain. Just as the form, color and odor of flowrers have been modified or even developed with reference to pollinating insects, so the time at which flowers open and the length of time they remain in this condition is determined by many extraneous agencies, many of which may possibly not be known at present.

Not only is there much variation in the time at which flowers open and close, but the greatest diversity exists as regards the length of time the individual flowers remain open. Certain orchids, if unpollinated, may remain open for six w-eeks or more and in general the absence of pollination tends to lengthen the life of the flower. Tulips, Easter Lilies and the like may be made to remain open for some time longer than they naturally would if pollination is prevented. Contrasted with these examples is a little weed, common in cultivated grounds which is known as “flower-of-an-hour” because its blossoms do not remain expanded much longer than the period indicated in the common name. The blossom of the wild grape is still more remarkable, for just as the bud expands and the flower seems about to open the whole corolla falls off and thus the flow’er, though exposing stamens and pistils, can in a certain rcmse be said not to open at all. The garden plant called okra, though it ordinarily opens its flowers, may, on occasion, follow the example of the grape, and it is but a step from these to cleistogamous flowers like the summer flowers of some violets which entirely lack petals, and though perfecting much seed, always remain budlike.

In ordinary flowers some days usually elapse between the time the petals first unfold and the date at which they wither and fall from the plant. The corolla, in the least interesting forms, remains continuously open until anthesis is past, but in others the flow’ers may close temporarily several times in response to moisture, lowered temperature, darkness or possibly other things.

The opening of our early spring flowers, such as Crocus and Dog-tooth-violet, is frequently determined solely by temperature. If the temperature of the air and soil rise above a certain point they seem obliged to open. In fact, the same phenomena seem to govern the very production of such flow’ers and it has been found possible in many cases to ascertain the exact number of heat units necessary to produce a given blossom. It is a matter of common knowledge that the first flowers of any kind do not appear just anywhere. We must seek the earliest in the sunny and sheltered nooks where the required number of heat units are first received.

Temperature, however, may cause the closing flow’ers, as we see in the case of the Waterlily, which, though it opens its flowers as soon as the day breaks, closes by mid-day. The same is true of Morning Glories, and possibly of other flow’ers that open late in the day and last until the next morning. That it is really temperature that causes the flowers of Morning Glory, Four O’clock and the like to close seems proven by the fact that late in the year, when the temperature has lessened, these flowers remain open all day and the Morning Glories become all-day glories.

The effects of light upon the opening of some flowers are very marked. Waterlilies, picked in the early morning before they have opened and kept in the dark will open w’henever brought to the light. Thus one may decorate the house with full-blown Waterlilies at evening. The dandelion, also, is very sensitive to the light and refuses to open unless the day is sunny. Often a few hours of cloudy w’eather in the middle of the day will cause the flowers to close. Sir John Lubbock, experimenting with these plants, found that if a blooming dandelion in a pot wras exposed to bright lamplight it would remain open all night.

Darkness also apparently has an effect upon the opening of flowers, as in the Night Blooming Cereus and various other cacti w’hich commonly do not unfold their petals until well a-long toward midnight. There are a host of other blossoms whose main period of bloom is during the hours of darkness. Many of these have common names that indicate the fact, as Four O’clock, Evening Primrose. Night Flowering Catchfly, Pretty-bv-night, and the like. Flow’ers of tb s kind commonly remain open until the sun is well up and seldom open the second time.

That darkness like temperature, may have opposite effects upon different flowers is seen in the fact that it is usual for many blossoms to close as night approaches. This is so common a phenomenon that its very commonness gains it little attention. It will probably be difficult for one to name off-hand a flower that does close at night. Of'this class, however, is the Day Lily, and so is the Daisy, whose name, literally the day’s eye, is truly significant.

The amount of moisture in the air ’’s also at times sufficient to influence the opening of flow’ers. The scarlet pimpernel, a common weed w’ith tiny red blossoms, is known in some sections as “poor man’s weather glass." Its flowers are so sensitive to moisture that they invariably close with the rise in humidity that betokens a storm and some hours in advance of it. The chickweed, common in cultivated grounds everywhere, is said to have the same habit. Many other flowers close in time to escape an actual wetting by the rain, while still others, though they do not close, are able to assume positions that keep the raindrop out of the flow’ers. The wild geranium turns its blossoms upside down.

It is doubtless a fact that many of the phenomena of anthesis attributed to temperature, light and the like may. in the last analysis, turn out to be in response to the visits of insects. For instance, many of the flowers that open at dusk do so because they are polli-

nated by crepuscular insects. Further support is given this theory by the fact that many of these give out a fragrance at dusk and at dawn only, when such insects are abroad. It is hard, however, to reconcile the behavior of the oyster plant and goat's-beard with any theory of adjustment to insects, for they close at exactly the time when insect visitors are most abundant. The goat's-beard, in fact, has received the comomn name of John-go-to-bed-at-noon because the flowers close so promtly at mid-day that one could almost set his watch by them.

It is a noticeable fact that flowers most affected by the agencies mentioned are all of the kind known as entomophilous, that is, insect pollinated flowers, since they open for the express purpose of receiving insect vision. It is likely that all the responses they make to temperature, light and the like are really made with pollination as the ultimate end in view. Finding, however, that these phenomena are so intimately related to the flight of insects that they can be used as guides they have apparently been adopted. If an insect, for instance. does not emerge from its cocoon until a certain degree of heat is received and does not roam abroad unless the day is fair, the flower that is adjusted to the same amounts of heat and light is certain to be in condition to be pollinated when the insect is flying. It may be possible to trace similar adjustments through all the variations in anthesis throughout the world of plants.

that those who can smell at all would not disagree in the case of such strongly scented flowers as pink azalea, wild crab, wild grape and arbutus, but in flowers reputed to be only faintly fragrant, the question now arises, are they" fragrant, or is our own nose at fault?—American Botanist.

Fragrance in Wild Flowers

A new angle in the fragrant wild flower situation has been developed by a note from Dr. A. F. Blakeslee in Science. He found two forms of garden verbena, one of which was fragrant to him and one of which was not. Happening to call the attention of an assistant to the flowers, the latter reported the odorless one fragrant and the fragrant one without odor, so far as he was concerned. This led to further experiment with the result that out of a considerable number of people tested, some found one form fragrant and some the other. The subjects were tested blindfolded so that no color suggestion vitiated the results. If this condition is found to exist with regard to other flowers, we may have to have new tests to decide which flowers are fragrant and which are not. We have repeatedly suggested that all flowers may be fragrant to the insects that visit them and here, at least, we have evidence that even fragrant flowers may be odorless to noses that can distinguish fragrance in other forms. It is likely

The Control of Apple Scab

Scab is by all odds the most serious diseas e with which Wisconsin growers have to contend. The situation is particularly aggravating because of the fact that the disease seems to vary in different sections and seasons. A grower may spray “by the book,’’ or bulletin this year and get a crop 90 per cent scab free and next year with the same treatment have 90 per cent scab. On account of this many growers have about concluded that the bulletin writers were either doing some wild guessing or else they were repeating what someone else had said

and without knowing very much about scab.

The best help we have had lately is from Prof. G. W. Keitt, who has been studying scab in Door county for two years. Like all investigators who mean to get to the bottom of things he is reluctant to make positive state-

incuts until the work is completed, pleted.

Here are a few of the “high lights’’ from a special bulletin by Prof. Keitt:

“The fungus passes the winter in the dead leaves on the ground where in the spring it produces spores which are discharged into the air. When these spores lodge on the young leaves or fruits of the apple they germinate and produce the disease.”

“The studies of the fungus showed that the winter spores began to be discharged in abundance from the old leaves on the ground on May 15th ten to twelve days before the time for the ‘pink spray.’ ” (This at Sturgeon Bay, Editor.)

“The spores are discharged in abundance only when it rains.”

In the course of the experiments Bordeaux mixture, lime sulphur, dry lime sulphur and a mixed schedule were used. On certain badly scabbing varieties such as Snow, Lubsk Queen and McIntosh an extra or “pre-pink” spray was applied, “as soon as the young fruit buds were exposed in the clusters, well before their separation.” While a cautious tone marks all of Keitt’s bulletin the following recommendations (for (Door county) are offered “temporarily until further results are available.”

Apply the “pink” spray as soon as the buds are well separated in the clusters, and the blossom buds show pink just before blooming.

Apply the “calyx” spray as soon as the petals are off. If blooming is irregular begin when they are three-fourths off.

Apply the following spray 10 days after the “calyx” application.

Apply the last spray at the time best suited for controlling the second brood of codling moth, provided this is not so near harvest that the appearance of the fruit will be marred by spray. This will probably be about the middle of August in Door county. For further information on this point address the Department of Economic Entomology, College of Agriculture, Madison.

If the final application must be made in excessively hot weather, use Bordeaux mixture instead of lime-sulphur.


Thoroughness and timeliness of application are necessary if scab is to be controlled satisfactorily on such varieties as Snow, Lubsk’s Queen, and McIntosh.

Lime-sulphur without arsenate of lead is not nearly so strong a fungicide as with the arsenate. In all applications use arsenate of lead at the rate of 1 pound of the powder to 50 gallons of spray.

Apple Spraying

A good spray schedule, one which has been tested.

Spray No. I. Lime sulfur one gallon to 12 gallons water. For scale insects and to be applied before the buds open.

Spray No. II. Lime sulfur five quarts to 50 gallons water. Add 2 lbs. of lead arsenate for leaf feeding insects. This is the pink spray and should be applied when the buds open up in the clusters.

Spray No. HI. Lime sulfur the same as in spray 2. Use also 1 pound of lead arsenate to 50 gallons of the spray. This is the calyx spray and should be applied just after the petals fall and before the calyx cup closes. For diseases, codling moth and plum curculio.

Spray No. IV. Same as No. 3 applied two weeks later.

Spray No. V. Same as No. 3 or 4 and should be applied 65 to 75 days after spray No. 4. This application is primarily for the codling moth and if put on before the 12th of August it doesn’t do the greatest amount of good. Tests carried on at Madison show that the eggs do not begin to hatch until after Aiigust 12 to 15

Wood ashes are a good fertilizer to apply to fruit plants in small quantities.