If we accept only the lowest figure given herewith, it is at once evident that an average sized apiary secures tons of sugar from the flowers in the immediate surrounding territory. At certain times the nectar comes in very freely, and so abundantly that a surplus is realized, which represents the honey that the beekeeper may sell and derive his profit from. But since the amount of surplus usually secured from an average colony of bees is far less than the figure given as the lowest amount of honey needed by an average colony of bees, it is evident that other sources of honey are available than the beekeeper supposes. The beekeeper leaves only a small proportion of the surplus honey with the colony to carry it over until another major honey-flow. This is usually done at the close of the season. For example, if nectar were obtained only from basswood in Wisconsin, it would be necessary for the beekeeper to leave about 200 pounds for the bees in order to carry than through until another major honey-flow. The amount of honey secured from basswood by a single colony is rarely enough to permit this. From this it can be readily ascertained that the beekeepers of Wisconsin are debtors to many minor sources of nectar, and a far greater number than they are accustomed to believe. At the close of the clover or main honey flow, the bees are constantly gathering nectar from the minor sources, and the aggregate gathered from these various sources must be very great. In so doing, brood rearing is continued on a scale large enough to permit of strong colonies to go into winter quarters. The minor sources of honey are far more paramount in Northern Wisconsin than in the Southern part of the State. Here abound many wild flowers in the fall, such as the asters, willow-herb, or fireweed, and golden-rod. These plants usually begin to bloom in August and continue until the middle of October and sometimes longer, if not killed by early frosts. In some instances even a surplus has been realized from these honey sources. While honey from these sources is not the most desirable for