Carl W. Aeppler, Class of 1917, was one of the first graduates in beekeeping at the University of Wisconsin, and became the world's largest single honey packer — "Land O'Lakes Honey".
(This is the original thesis which was rebound in 1985 by Grim Bindery because it was falling apart.)

I. Introduction.
II. The Sources of Nectar and Pollen.
a. Cultivation of plants for nectar.
b. Swamp sources of honey and pollen.
c. Value of minor sources.
d. The function of nectar.
e. Variation in nectar.
f. Variation in secretion.
g. Effect of climatic conditions on nectar secretion.
h. Gathering of pollen.
III. Annotated list of Pollen and Honey Plants.
a. Plants that yield pollen.
b. Plants that yield nectar.
IV. Picture Gallery of Pollen and Honey Plants.
V. The Pollination of Flowers.
Value of the honeybee in cross-fertilization.
VI. Clover Seed Production.
a. Bumblebees as cross-pollinators of red-clover.
b. Honeybees as cross-pollinators of red-clover.
c. The cross-pollination of white and alsike-clover.


One of the most important and also one of the most difficult tasks that confronts the beekeeper is to determine the sources from which his bees gather pollen and nectar. On account of a meager knowledge of agronomy and botany the beekeeper at times is unable to determine or identify plants that are of value in a particular locality as sources of nectar and pollen and directly a measure of the profits that might be his. The journals devoted to beekeeping at times describe various pollen and honey plants and with a little study the beekeeper can at times come to know plants that grow in his locality which heretofore were unknown to him as nectar and pollen plants. The beekeeper does not cultivate any particular plant especially for his bees, and he must therefore be observant and have a good knowledge of the honey-plants that grow in his locality. He must primarily know the dependable plants that he can rely on for his surplus honey. It is highly essential that he should possess this knowledge, for on this point rests in large measure his success and the profits that he can realize from the industry. He must have his colonies strong and ready to gather the harvest when it comes. If he has not an exact knowledge of the dependable honey plants in his locality his efforts in having his colonies in the strongest possible condition might be little rewarded. His colonies would either be too weak when the main honey flow comes on, or not have built up sufficiently until the main harvest is prac-