1000 feet, are found in east-central Indiana; and the lowest, which are about 500 feet above sea level, are along the Wabash River in the southwestern section. The northern three-fifths of the state was heavily glaciated by the Wisconsin glacier, and almost all of it, except the Brown County hills, by earlier glaciers. In the northwestern part of the state the dark-colored muck and sandy loams are deposits of extensive glacial lakes. In the central part the soils of the best beekeeping regions have been derived from the glacial till, which is in some places hundreds of feet in depth. The underlying rock of eastern and southern Indiana is limestone. The fertile soils of the southern unglaciated two-fifths of the state have been formed partly from the weathering of the underlying rocks and partly from deposits of loess. About 1400 species of flowering plants have been recorded, of which 110 species are trees.
The Kankakee Valley in the northwest is known as the Spanish-needles region, from the great abundance of this plant in the extensive swamps along the Kankakee River, and is an excellent location for migratory beekeeping and for obtaining a late honey flow. Through the center of this section, which includes Lake, Porter, Laporte, Stark, and the northern portion of Jasper and Newton counties, runs the Kankakee River, bordered by broad swamps which are annually overflowed. In Stark County the river broadens into a long narrow lake traversing the county diagonally. The honey flora of the swamps consists chiefly of Spanish-needles (Bidens aristosa), buttonbush (Cephalanthus occidentalis), and thoroughwort. On the higher land heartsease, aster, goldenrod, and buckwheat, all. late-blooming plants, contribute largely to the fall honey flow. Commercial apiaries range from 50 to 100 colonies, but comparatively few contain more than 100 colonies. Fanners keep from one to six colonies. An average surplus of 50 pounds per colony is frequently obtained, and occasionally it exceeds 100 pounds. White clover is usually unreliable, but may yield once in three or four years. Large apiaries are located near Valparaiso, Hobart, and Hebron.
East of the Kankakee River swamps the three northern tiers of counties form a belt of land 60 miles in width, where the fertile limestone soils have been buried under a thick later glacial deposit of sand and gravel. This porous soil is naturally acid, and white clover is much less reliable than in the counties farther south. There are, however, several good white-clover locations near the north border, as at Middlebury and Lagrange, where there are a few commercial apiaries. A good crop is obtained once in three or four years, the surplus averaging about 60 pounds per colony. In Steuben and DeKalb Counties in the northeast corner of the state commercial beekeeping receives little attention. White clover is the principal honey plant of this region; but buckwheat, basswood, sweet clover, and fruit bloom are minor sources of importance.
The white-clover region of Indiana, which occupies the eastern and central portions of the state, is an irregular triangular area with no sharply defined limits. On the north it is bounded by a line parallel to the Wabash River, extending from Allen County southwesterly to Tippecanoe County. Its extension westward is marked by the counties of Tippecanoe, Montgomery, and Putnam; and on the south it is bounded by a line running from Putnam County southeasterly to Dearborn County on the Ohio River. In the northern part of this region white clover is more reliable than in the southern, as the rainfall is greater, the summer temperature less, and the soil is highly calcareous. “The Miami soils area of eastern Indiana and western Ohio (extending into Michigan),” writes E. F. Phillips, “is as good as any for clovers, and is probably unequaled by any other soil area in the United States. * * * * Unfortunately there are no dependable late honey flows; but an experienced beekeeper can secure a crop almost every year from the clovers.” The