north as Frankfort. While little honey is stored from the bloom, sufficient nectar and pollen are gathered to build up strong colonies for the later clover flow.

The soils of the northern half of the Southern Peninsula consist largely of glacial moraines, in the central portion of which there is a great sand plain, where the honey flora is poor and there are few colonies of bees. But that portion next to the lakes is good for bees, and is a great summer resort for thousands of people who are attracted here by its numberless lakes and trout streams and its delightful climate. The winters are not severe — the average annual temperature of January at Alpina is 19 degrees F.

More than half of the land in the northern part of the Southern Peninsula was formerly covered by red and white pine. As the pine was cut for lumber and the stump land burned over, willow-herb sprang up and flourished for two or three years, when it was succeeded by blackberry bushes. It seldom failed to yield well, and 15 or 20 years ago Hutchinson estimated that there were thousands of acres of this plant in northern Michigan; but as the pine has nearly all been cut, willow-herb in this section has had its day. On the pine barrens raspberries will not grow, or the bushes are small and stunted and the bloom nearly nectarless. But there are also in this section tracts of clay soils on which there were belts of magnificent hardwood forest. As this was lumbered, there sprang up a luxuriant growth of wild raspberry, which completely covered the land and never failed to yield nectar even in cold wet weather. But the raspberries soon succumb to the rapidly growing young trees, and the beekeeper is forced to seek a new location. On suitable soils alsike clover has become extremely abundant, and in many localities there are no bees to gather the nectar. Buckwheat is a very uncertain source of nectar and has yielded a surplus only once (1918) in twelve years. Milkweed is abundant in Emmet, Cheboygan, Charlevoix, Antrim, and Grand Traverse counties, where in localities an average of 50 pounds of surplus per colony is sometimes obtained. It, is rapidly extending over a larger area and will in the future be one of the principal honey plants of this region. Other honey plants are willows, maples, dandelion, fruit bloom, sumac, and goldenrod.

According to R. H. Kelty the best territory for beekeeping in the northern part of the Lower Peninsula is a strip of land extending along the lake shore from Alpena to Cheboygan, southward into Charlevoix and Antrim counties. Fertile lake clay soils occur in this region. County agricultural agents are vigorously pushing the cultivation of sweet clover as a soil builder. In the sand-plain region several counties report less than one hundred colonies of bees; but the four counties of Antrim, Cheboygan, Emmet, and Charlevoix at the extreme northwest end of the Peninsula contain more than 10,000 colonies, according to B. F. Kindig. The average size of apiaries among farmers is 5 to 25 colonies; among specialists 200 to 300 colonies. An apiary of Ira D. Bartlett at East Jordan, Charlevoix County, containing 160 colonies, harvested one season 17,000 pounds of wild red raspberry and clover extracted honey, and about 200 pounds of comb honey. One colony produced 300 pounds of honey. In 1923, from 160 colonies he. produced 25,000 pounds of almost pure raspberry honey. Some colonies that year were very weak; but those that were strong produced from 400 to 500 pounds, and his scale colony showed 461 pounds of white honey and 100 pounds of fall honey. The best localities are well stocked, but in the remote districts there are still excellent opportunities; but they are open to the objection of isolation, the severity of the winters, the sterility of the soil, and the danger of forest fires


Total area, 36,350 square miles. The surface is generally rolling, and is well drained by numerous streams. The highest lands, which have an altitude of about