the uplands which to-day comprise the larger part of the buckwheat-honey country of New York. But south of Lake Ontario the land is more fertile, and a narrow strip along the lake is devoted to fruit-growing. The two regions are separated by the Mohawk Valley, the former bed of a glacial river, of which the Mohawk River is the successor. During the recession of the ice in the glacial era the waters of the Great Lakes were dammed up, and a great river flowed over the ledge at Little Falls, finding an outlet in the valley of the Hudson. On the retreat of the ice, morainic deposits compelled this ancient river to seek a new outlet through the St. Lawrence River, which is nearer sea-level.

The proposed Adirondack Park, which includes portions of St. Lawrence, Franklin, Essex, Hamilton, and Herkimer counties, is the poorest section of the state for beekeeping. The valleys are filled with stony and sandy loams, which are unsuitable for growing clover, while large surfaces of the crystalline rocks of the mountain flanks and summits were swept bare of their covering by the ice. According to the state census for 1917, Hamilton County had only 136 colonies of bees, 193 acres of buckwheat, and 544 acres of fruits. In northern Herkimer County the area in farms does not exceed 6 per cent, of the land, and an apiary of 75 colonies is too large for the best results. In Warren County, on Lake George, the apiaries usually contain less than 10 colonies, but there are a few which number over fifty. The honey plants are white clover, alsike clover, basswood, and sweet clover. Buckwheat is of little value here. The larger part of Lewis County also offers few attractions to the specialist, but at Lowville there is some good clover territory.

North of the Adirondack region are enormous deposits of almost pure sand. The soil is acid and the clovers do not thrive upon it; but raspberry is abundant and yields well. Raspberry honey is produced in commercial quantities year after year near Massena Springs. It is the only source of surplus, and about 50 pounds of extracted honey per colony is obtained. As little honey is gathered in the fall, it is often necessary to feed for winter stores. Even in this locality wild cherry and other small trees and shrubs are reducing the raspberry area. A portion of Franklin County should be included in the raspberry region, as from Malone southward. In the raspberry section black bees are the rule, and the methods of beekeeping are poor.

Westward of the Adirondacks, along the St. Lawrence River in St. Lawrence and Jefferson counties, there is a remarkable belt of white and alsike clover, producing an unsurpassed grade of white honey. There is no finer clover area in this country. In St. Lawrence County there is a large area of calcareous glacial till soil, and a small area of this soil is also found along the northern edge of Franklin County. It also occurs in the southern part of Jefferson County; but the northern part is covered by glacial terrace soils which are nearly neutral or tend to acidity. The secretion of nectar by the clovers is less reliable on the terrace soils, and “strangely enough,” says E. F. Phillips, “some of the best beekeepers have established outyards in poor clover areas through lack of knowledge of soil differences.” Other nectar-yielding plants of value are willows, soft maple, dandelion, wild raspberry, basswood, and 300 acres of fruits. There are 6000 acres of buckwheat; but it is of little value in this region. Commercial apiaries in St. Lawrence County average about 100 colonies, but there is one at Pope Mills in which there are over 200 colonies. The average surplus in a good year is 50 pounds, but occasionally 100 pounds of comb honey per hive are obtained. Once in about eight years there is an entire failure. Both American and European foul brood occur to some extent; and half the colonies in some yards are lost by outdoor wintering — a needless loss, however. A famous location for beekeeping is Black River, in Jefferson County. A