are covered with goldenrod. Honey-dew in some seasons is very abundant; but, as it is often bitter and dark-colored, it spoils the honey with which it is mixed.


Total area, 4956 square miles. The state is divided by the Connecticut River Valley, which has an area of 600 square miles, into two upland sections which rise from the low seashore to a height of over 1500 feet along the north border. The soil is not very productive, as the original soil was removed during the glacial age; but it is more fertile in the Connecticut Valley, where thousands of acres of tobacco are grown. The forests have been largely cut away.

It is the opinion of a veteran Connecticut beekeeper that this state can not be considered a good location for beekeeping, and should not be ranked more than third rate when compared with New York. The honey flora does not differ greatly in the different counties. In the eastern upland the ravages of disease have nearly exterminated the domestic bee. In Windham County, in the northeast corner of the state, practically all the bees have been killed off, and there is here an opening for one or two beekeepers who will be content with small crops. In New London County conditions are a little better; but only a small percentage of the bees survive. Nine-tenths of the farmer beekeepers have abandoned the business. The largest apiary is the home apiary of Allen Latham, of Norwichtown, which numbers 70 colonies. His out-apiaries seldom exceed 20 colonies, but they contain nearly 60 per cent, of all the bees within a radius of 10 miles. The more important honey plants are huckleberry, the clovers, sumac, and goldenrod, while fruit bloom, locust, maple, and dandelion are of value. Mustard in the oat fields has become a source of honey in June. Of the plants which yield a surplus none is reliable every year except sumac. The smooth sumac (Rhus glabra) flourishes on rocky hillsides and in poor sandy or gravelly soils. In the rocky glacial drift it is found in profusion, and much of Connecticut would be worthless without it. The clovers are often not dependable, and goldenrod yields only every other year, or even less often.

The southwestern part of the state is regarded as best adapted to bee culture. At Stamford the apiaries range from 1 to 20, and there is one of 40 colonies; but ordinarily there are not in this state more than 5 or 6 colonies to an apiary. The honey plants are clover, basswood, sumac, asters, and goldenrod, while willows, fruit bloom, maple, and locust are of secondary importance. Litchfield County, in the northwestern corner, which contains the highest land in the state, is much better adapted to bee culture than Windham County, and is the home of a number of successful beekeepers; but Hartford County, which lies in the Connecticut Valley, probably contains more beekeepers than any other county along the north border. A large area is devoted to the culture of buckwheat, and thousands of acres of tobacco are grown. Where the tobacco is “shade grown” and permitted to bloom, it yields a dark honey which is excellent for winter stores.


Total area, 49,204 squares miles. The state is triangular in outline, extending 300 miles along the Hudson River from north to south, and 326 miles from west to east. In the northeastern part a roughly circular area, sparsely settled and too rugged for agriculture, is occupied by the Adirondack Mountains, between the short ranges of which are numerous glacial lakes. The southern and western portions of the state form an elevated plateau, sloping northward toward Lake Ontario, in which the great continental ice sheet plowed out the Finger Lakes and many other valleys, removed the original soil, and left a thin sterile covering on