tivation throughout the Southwest, and many acres in the Palo Verde Valley were not harvested in the fall of 1920.

Cotton does not yield as much nectar per acre as alfalfa, and in localities where it has largely supplanted alfalfa beekeepers are not securing as large a surplus as formerly. In the vicinity of Chandler, Arizona, 90 per cent, of the alfalfa has heen ploughed up and the land planted with cotton. In the Buckeye Valley alfalfa has been largely replaced by cotton, which here yields so little nectar that 2000 colonies have been moved out of the valley. The larger acreage of cotton and the longer blooming season will to some extent compensate for the decrease in the alfalfa acreage.


About two-fifths, or 40 per cent., of the world’s cotton is grown outside of the United States, chiefly in Egypt, India, and China. India is the most ancient cotton-growing country, and five centuries before the Christian era the clothing of the people consisted chiefly of cotton garments. It produces about 18 per cent, of the total cotton crop of the world. In Egypt, which ranks third in the production of commercial cotton, the crop can be raised only under irrigation. The land suitable for this purpose is restricted to the Delta and a strip along the river about a mile wide. The Asiatic cottons, cultivated as a commercial crop, are varieties of G. herbaceum. China produces about 16 per cent, of the world’s cotton; and Russia, Peru, and Brazil also yield a small amount.

COW-ITCH (Cissus incisa). — A fleshy vine with warty bark, sometimes growing 30 feet long; leaves trifoliate, coarsely toothed; flowers small, greenish, in clusters (cymes). On sandy shores from Florida to Texas. A surplus is reported from Gunnison, Mississippi, and from Texas. It grows on low heavy bottom soil. At Bay City, Texas, it was formerly the main dependence, but a succession of dry seasons have nearly destroyed it. Where abundant, it furnishes a surplus of good light-amber honey. The black berries are sweet, and in the fall honeybees often gather the juice. Cultivated for ornament. Snow-vine, or pepper-vine (C. arborea), also a honey plant, belongs to this genus. See Snow-vine.

COWPEA (Vigna sinensis). — Nearly 7,000,000 acres are planted with cow-peas in the southern states. Nectar is obtained from nectaries on the flower-stalks, and not from the flowers. At Hollis, N. C., cowpeas are a most valuable source of honey in late summer. The honey is thick, deep yellow in color, and has a very strong flavor. At Fremont, Mo., honeybees have been observed working on the extra-floral nectaries throughout the day. Cowpeas are grown for forage, for food, and soil improvement. A trailing or twining vine with white flowers in small clusters. It belongs to the pulse family. (Fig. 52.)

CRANBERRY (Vaccinium macrocarpon).—There are thousands of acres of cranberry bogs on Cape Cod, Mass., and in New Jersey and Wisconsin. In June they are covered with innumerable pinkish-white blossoms, which are adapted to pollination by bees. Pollen falls from pores in the ends of the anthers on the head of a bee seeking nectar, but otherwise the anthers do not open. While bees greatly increase the crop of berries by their visits, they do not obtain a large amount of nectar in return. (Fig. 53.)

CREOSOTE-BUSH (Larrea tridentata). — At the close of the flow from mesquite thousands of bright-yellow flowers come out on the creosote-bush, which yield enough nectar to keep up brood-rearing and to furnish a little bluish-yellow honey. Grows in the arid region of the Southwest and in Mexico.

CROCUS (Crocus vernus). — A beekeeper in New York states that near his apiary there are some 10,000 bulbs of crocus, which when in bloom present a beautiful sight. Early in April he found in every hive at least three pounds of unsealed honey. As there were no other flowers open in the vicinity and the bees worked freely on the crocus bloom, the honey must have come from this source. Where