Madison, Wisconsin, April, 1919
Mertensia virginica: It’s common name is Lungwort. In spits of this it is a charming spring flower. Look for Mertensia late in April on the margins of shady woods.
La Societe Nationale d’Horticulture De France
In every large town in France there is a Horticultural Society which owns public gardens and holds annual exhibitions. By far the largest and most important of these is the National Horticultural Society of France.
The national organization was founded in Paris in 1827 and called at that time the Horticultural Society of Paris. This name was later changed to the one it now bears. The original membership consisted of 400 members which increased to 4,000 by 1900. Soon after organization the Society began the publication of a Journal which has appeared regularly since that time. By 1852 the work of the Society had become so valuable that it was declared a public utility. A building was purchased, numero 84 rue Grenalle, which contains several large assembly rooms, small exhibition rooms, offices, etc.
The organization has many interests and activities. Its work is divided among the following bureaus, each one being a separate and complete unit: fruit culture, vegetable growing, floriculture, orchids, ornamental trees, landscape gardening, horticultural industries, roses, chrysanthemum culture, chrysanthemum flowers and scientific studies.
The work of the last mentioned department is interesting and important. It deals with research and the spread of facts relative to lands whose fertility has been little exploited, transportation and the relation of the horticulturist to the inspector. It also deals with cooperation, mutual insurance
against accident and the loss of animals and agricultural credits.
The society itself, however, devotes its main efforts to the problems of fruit, flower and vegetable culture. They hold two meetings each month, and once each mourn they have a seasonable exhibit. These exhibits are very profitable and are given considerable prominence in horticultural literature. In the spring and fall large exhibitions are given in magnificant greenhouses which are considered to be of great importance to the horticulturist. These exhibitions are open to the public and arc very popular with all of Paris.
Besides the Journal of the Society which is published monthly bulletins upon subjects of special interest are also published. Each year the best varieties of chrysanthemums are listed and described and given publicity. In 1906 a valuable and comprehensive book entitled “The best fruits of the beginning of the 20th century," was published. The data for this publication was carefully collected and arranged according to the climate, the soil, and growers and according to the purpose for which the varieties were used. This publication was declared a very valuable work by flic government.
The Society maintains a registry for new varieties. This is open to non-members as well as members. Blanks arc furnished the grower or producer of the new variety, which are to be filled in with the necessary details of the history of the plant and the chief characteristics of the variety. These blanks together with the plant are presented for exhibition, providing the plant can be moved. If the plant is too large for such exhibition. a committee examines and
classifies it where grown. Such new plants or varieties are officially registered and the originator own all rights according to French law. All new varieties are published in the Journal of the Society and in other Horticultural publications.
The Society owns a tract of land just outside of Paris on which it was planned to start a school for orphans who wish to become gardeners. The war has seriously interfered with this work.
A complete account of the achievements of the Society is impossible for the official organ Le Journal de la Societe Nationale d’ Horticulture de France, together with a list of the membership is not received by the University. This literature is kept on file at Washington. Great prominence is given to the Society by the Revue Hortieole. The names of the officers of the Society appear as officers in other Horticultural Societies of note.
The national Society established the Union Commereiale Horticole which is a kind of labor union and mutual aid society, whose work is very practical. Through the efforts of the Society a Horticultural Federation was organized of all the Societies in France. The president, M. Vigor, was made President of the Federation.
The Society carries on a great deal of educational work. Prizes are offered for gardens and for articles on horticultural subjects.
Before the war the Society agitated gardens for working men. M. Vigor asserts that according to statistics alcoholism was reduced one third in places where gardens were provided for workingmen. In the. annals of the Society of French Agriculture, we find him asking for cooperation in this line.
During the war the Paris building of the Society was given over for Red Cross work. Although the reports are very meager for this period, it appears that the Society cooperated with the Government in aiding and encouraging all gardeners to produce food.
The National Society is the horticultural authority in France. It acts as the spokesman for the horticultural people of France in an matters pertaining to their interest both domestic and foreign.
Translated and edited by Mrs. F. C. Bauer, Madison.
Plant Raspberries and Strawberries.
It is not too late to plant raspberries and strawberries. Gar eners and even farmers who are situated so they can engage in a side line without detriment to their other farming interests can do no better than to plant an acre or more of berries this spring. I use the qualifying term “EVEN farmers” deliberately because it is the policy of the State Horticultural Society to discourage farmers from engaging in any kind of side line because the side line is apt to be neglected in favor of the main line.
Further, commercial fruit growing involves two lines of business, growing and marketing and the marketing of fruit is more complex than the marketing of farm products.
The “cash crop” farmer who has 20 to 40 acres not more than 5 miles from a shipping point and the market gardener are the ones who should plant berries now.
Also, the man with a larger farm who is willing to let his boy or girl try something besides straight farming should also be interested.
We are down to rock bottom in the berry business in Wisconsin and this is a mighty fine time to start. It is unlikely that Wisconsin will furnish one-half of the berries needed on Wisconsin markets this year, with the result that high prices will be paid for inferior fruit, for berries shipped long distances are sure to be inferior. And prices should hold good for years, in fact there is no danger whatever that there will ever again be the slump in prices below the cost of production which occurred in this state twenty years ago. We now have better means of distribution and marketing is now well organized. The canning of fruits has also been improved and the demand for canned products far exceeds the supply. The writer is in receipt of two inquiries from parties who want to establish factories for canning berries. In other words the business has been stab-elized so there need be no fear of loss.
Now is the golden Time to plant both strawberries and raspberries. It is not too late in the season to do it. The offer of the State Horticultural to send a practical grower to any place, on the application of six or more persons who are interested, for a conference still holds. Our standing offer to answer questions on this or any other horticultural subject also holds.
Write to the Secretary, Madison.
—F. Cranefield in Wisconsin Agriculturist.
Appleton, Mar. 4, 1919.—The last two carloads of cabbage to be loaded in this city have been sent on their way. The total number of cars loaded at the local yards during the season was 240, each ear averaging fifteen tons. The total number of tons was 3,600, for which $72,000 was paid. Appleton is only one of several shipping points in the county. It is estimated that Outagamie county farmers were paid more than a half million dollars for their last year’s cabbage crop.
Not all of us can have a good rose garden, but there are few who have any garden space that can not have a good peony or gladiolus garden. Both furnish flowers for all purposes.
Do not leave seedlings in the seed box to become crowded. Transplant as soon as large enough to handle, if you would have good plants.
Hydrangea Hills of Snow is one of the best of shrubs for home planting because of its long season of bloom and freedom from insects.
Scabiosa, gaillardia, calendula and candytuft are all good annuals for decorating purposes. Sow liberally of them all this year.
Large, plump seeds give better results than small seeds. This is especially true of garden seeds.
Start a few gladioli and dahlias in pots or berry boxes now. They will bloom early.
Edited by Mrs. S. N. Whittlesey, Cranmoor, Secretary Wisconsin Cranberry Growers Association
Before our 1919 annual meeting a request was sent the American Cranberry Exchange for their experience with, and ideas of ventilated packages in comparison with the almost universal use of the tight barrel container for shipping and sale purposes.
Mr. A. U. Chaney responded with a very full and explicit paper giving results of a variety of containers experimented with by the exchange and individual growers, from which we make some quotations.
“The barrel is still the most popular package, and will be for a great many years to come. The trade are prejudiced in favor of the barrel, and it will be many years indeed before any other package is substituted therefor successfully. It is a convenient package to handle, and a good shipping package, and good, sound, healthy cranberries keep very well in the barrel when properly packed.
A half-barrel box we have tried out to a considerable extent this season, and have found it to be the most practical package of any yet tried, outside of the barrel. It is a splendid shipping package, and seems to be a good re-sale package. It makes a very good show in the retail store. It is a box that is almost square and is ventilated. We have found that juicy berries, over-ripe berries, and tender berries carry considerably better in this package, and keep dry longer than in the barrel, and, as far as I could see, have carried as well as in any
smaller box or crate, and it being a better re-sale package than any other package we have tried, we are about to recommend this as being generally adopted. This box holds 50 lbs. net of cleaned berries. A sample box is being forwarded for inspection.” • • • From this article an impression was made on some of the growers that the use of this box was advocated to take the place of the barrel package. In reply to this supposition Mr. Chaney writes:
“There is no idea of ever discontinuing the barrel. The halfbarrel box was not offered as a substitute for the barrel. It was only offered for a package in which to ship berries that should be shipped in the chaff, and particularly a package in which to ship water-raked berries, or very tender and poor keeping berries. We have found by experience that chaff berries do not keep as well in barrels as they do in boxes because they do not get the ventilation and where berries are shipped to Chicago or some other point for a long hold in storage, it is safer, and far better to ship them in ventilated boxes. This half-barrel box has proved an ideal box for that proposition.
“For years to come, there will be only a limited demand sold in boxes, tho this is a very desirable retail package. 75 to 85%, at least, will be sold -in the barrels. Do not think there will be any call that is worth mentioning for good, sound keeping berries for direct shipment in any package other than the barrel. There are
now a good many berries shipped to Chicago in the chaff—a good many water-raked or frosted berries that are very poor keeping berries shipped to Chicago for immediate sale—these, when shipped in barrels sometimes go down very quickly, and if shipped in this ventilated box they would stand up very much better.
“For any grower who is unfortunate enough to have that kind of berries, or for any grower who desires to hold berries, especially for late storage, the half-barrel, ventilated box would be the proper package to use. We do not want to give up the barrel— neither will the trade give up the barrel, and I hope the growers did not get the idea that we wanted to give up the barrel. If the halfbarrel box with good berries in it was used for direct sale, we would have to charge enough premium to cover the extra cost of labor and the extra cost of the package itself.”
With a demand for and where obtainable, $30.00 per barrel being paid, are any of us wishing we had held some of our cranberries for this before unattainable figure?
Here is a question from one of our New Jersey members.—“Are your people troubled by ‘scum’ or algae growth in parts of their bogs when the water is taken off in the spring? Information as to how to combat it would be of interest. Also the use of bees on bogs.”
If any of our readers are troubled with same condition on bogs in springtime, and have any remedy to offer, it would be appreciated if they would immediately make it known to the secretary. Also experience or benefit from bees. An instance was cited in one of the 1918 issues where it was thought bees were accountable for a larger setting of berries than would have resulted otherwise. They are pollen carriers we know.
The E. P. Arpin family were recently made happy by the safe return of their son, Captain Edmund Arpin, who entered the service in the early stage of the war. Capt. Arpin was one of the few survivors of his regiment in one of the great battles “over there. ”
Word from Chas. A. K. Rankin tells of his release from service and entry again into civil life. Happy the day when peace and safety reign and our boys once more in their home circles.
Cranberry marshes are still dormant. Though we have had a wonderfully mild winter for Wisconsin, with ice now disappearing from the Wisconsin River and smaller streams. Marshes in the Cranmoor district are still so solidly frozen that at this time, late in March, teams can be easily-driven over them.
Referring to last year, one of our eastern growers writes as follows: “It has been a hard year for me as for many others, but I am glad to have paid expenses to January 1, tho I shall not to the end of my fiscal year. The high prices now to be had for cranberries (if one has any) did not benefit me for mine were sold early, mostly before the sugar embargo was raised. In fact we kept the mails
hot in importuning the Food Administration to allow the sale of half a pound of sugar with each quart of cranberries. I think probably we did help to get the first allowance, but probably the signing of the armistice effected the later one. I was thankful that I could sell all of my fruit on the reputation of my brand, but it would have been practical ruin for many small growers if the market had not improved.”
The above experience is true of most cranberry growers last year. With the extremely high prices of it seemed almost hazardous to har-it seemed almost hazardous to harvest a berry. The feeling is one of thankfulness that we were saved from heavy losses, even tho the producers generally were not benefitted by the later high prices.
How to Control the Onion Thrips.
The onion thrips is an insect so small that it is almost invisible to the unaided eye, but it is prolific, and the most serious menace to the onion-growing industry of this country. It causes an annual loss to this crop alone estimated byspecialists of the U. S. Department of Agriculture to be at least $2,250,000. Though the insect has a particular liking for onions, it preys upon other garden and truck crops, such as cabbage, cauliflower, cucumbers and melons, and also has a ravenous appetite for greenhouse and many ornamental plants, particularly roses. To aid growers in identifying this insect and preventing the losses for which it is responsible, Farmers’ Bulletin 1007, ‘‘Control of Onion Thrips,” has recently been published by the U. S. Department of Agriculture. The first indica
tion that an onion field has been attacked by thrips, says the bulletin, is shown by the leaves, which become whitened. In advanced attacks the leaves are curled, crinkled and twisted, and finally die down permanently-. To control this pest, begin spraying with nicotine sulphate solution as soon as there is any evidence of the insect. If spraying is delayed until hundreds of young thrips are present the crop will be seriously injured. The spray material is made by the following formula: % pint of nicotine sulphate (40%), 4 pounds of dissolved soap, and 50 gallons of water. Spraying should be done thoroughly- and applied as a fine mist.
It is not advisable to plant other crops, such as early cabbage and cauliflower, upon which the thrips feed, near the onion fields. After onions, cabbage and related crops are harvested, the field should be eleaned up to destroy any breeding places of the insect. They- will continue to thrive on any portion of these plants or weeds that might remain in the field. It is a good practice to plow as deeply as possible and harrow the ground after harvest. Much of the injury can be avoided by planting as early as possible and by using quick-acting fertilizers after the onions are well set or the bulbs have begun to form. Onion fields should be watched constantly and the plants should be kept growing thriftily, since once the plants become checked in their growth from any cause the thrips will multiply more rapidly than ever and it will be a hard fight to save the crop.
Sage, dill, and other herbs are easily grown in the garden.
State Fair Notes
Brother Gus Dittmer is to be Superintendent of the Bee and Honey Exhibit at the State Fair this year and he asks that every member of the Association help in making a big display. A new item is to be added for the boys and girls, $5, $3, and $2 for the best display of extracted honey, and similar prizes for the best display of comb honey. Any boy or girl between the ages of 10 and 18 can enter. Write for a premium list.
Do not buy used combs or bee equipment from apiaries where bees have died out. Have a competent person look over all colonies of bees before buying, You may buy foul brood.
The proposed new bee law, Senate Bill 66, carrying an appropriation of $5,000 and introduced by Senator Dennhardt of Oshkosh has passed the senate and is soon to come up in the assembly. Have you seen your assemblyman ?
Hack your bees in fall and spring. The farmer builds the best he knows how, to protect his stock from cold. Why not do the same for the bees. It may be some trouble and extra expense but the increased production will more than pay for it. The better the protection the stronger the colonies. Strong colonies prevent European foul brood. European foul brood usually appears in the second hatching of brood and is at its worst in May. Plenty of stores and good warm hives protected from the wind will help the bees to rear sufficient brood to overcome the disease before it gets started.
Meetings for March. A Bee School with an attendance of over 200 people was held at Reedsville, March 6, 7 and 8, in cooperation with the North East Wisconsin Beekeepers' Association.
A meeting of the Fox River Valley Beekeepers’ Association was held at Appleton, March 21, to
talk over the summer work and to buy supplies for the season. Arrangements for a summer field meet were made and also for a bee school in December.
Through the efforts of Mr. Klofanda, County Agent of Calumet county, a meeting of Calumet county beekeepers was held at Hilbert, March 22. Illustrated lectures on bee and bee diseases were given and a plan of organization for the county talked over. A trip among the beekeepers of the county was planned for June 5 and 6 and a field meet and picnic will be held at some convenient place on the seventh.
Two men have applied to this office for apiary jobs for next season. Any beekeeper needing help should write for information.
Spray Schedule for Apple Trees
Wisconsin farmers are beginning to realize that spraying is necessary to grow good fruit. Many, however, do not know what materials to use or how to use them. If the growers will follow carefully the plan as given lie-low better fruit will result which will amply repay the cost of application of spray.
What to spray for. The plum curculio and the codling moth are the two worst insect pests of the apple. The lesser apple worm and green fruit worms although of minor importance add to the amount of unmarketable fruit in the unsprayed orchard. Plant diseases also affect the quality quantity of fruit grown if proper spraying is neglected.
When to spray and materials to use. First spray—applied just as the flower buds separate in the clusters showing pink. Use powdered arsenate of lead l 1/2 pounds to 50 gallons of water. For plant diseases (scab) add lime sulphur 5 quarts to 50 gallons of the above spray.
Second spray—spray just after the petals fall and before the calyx cup closes. Use arsenate of lead 1 pound to 50 gallons, adding 5 quarts of lime sulphur for scab.
Third spray—applied two weeks after the second, using the same materials.
Fourth spray—this spray should be applied GO to 65 days after the third application or about the 5th to the 15th of August. Use same spray as in 2 and 3. (If weather is rather hot and sunny, Bordeaux mixture 4-4-50 formula should be substituted for lime sulfur.)
In spraying plums and cherries apply only the first three sprays.
Spraying Fruit Trees in Bloom
Is it necessary to spray fruit trees in bloom? The fruit grower should cooperate with the beekeeper in the spraying of his trees and should not spray them during the blooming period except under very unusual conditions. The results are apt to be as detrimental to the fruit grower as to the beekeeper. There has been considerable discussion as to whether or not bees secure poison which may have settled in the flowers. However, until this is definitely proven, it is safer to work on the basis that bees may be poisoned in this way Bees and other insects are of the greatest importance is cross fertilization and we have for several years know that this is not only necessary for some plants but desirable for plants that are self
fertile. Fruit growers should therefore plan not to spray their trees until after the petals have fallen.
Protect Early Cabbage and Cauliflower Against Root Maggots.
L. G. Gentner.
Every year early cabbage and cauliflower beds, especially in the southern half of the state are seriously injured by the whitish root maggots which burrow in the roots of the plants. Cauliflower is as a rule, more seriously injured than cabbage and often entire plantings are wiped out. It is sometimes necessary to replant cabbage two and three times. Infested plants which are not killed outright are usually dwarfed and sickly.
Protect your plants by placing tarred felt discs around the stems of the plants as they are being set out and pressing them down against the soil so that they lie flat The dises prevent the adult flies from laying the eggs from which the maggots hatch. They are of no help after the maggots have once begun to work in the roots. Infested plants should be dug up and destroyed. All stumps and refuse should be gathered and destroyed as soon as the crop is harvested and the ground plowed deeply.
The dises may be made by hand with a tool made for the purpose, or they may be bought from Smith Brothers, Green Bay, Wisconsin, at 20c per pound (160 to the pound) or from the Plant Protector Company, Rochester, N. Y. at $2 per thousand. Order the tarred felt discs now so that they may be on hand when the plants are transplanted.
Cabbage Injured by Striped Flea Beetle .
L. G. Gentner. Agricultural College.
In some parts of the state these tiny striped flea beetles cause very serious injury to cabbage seedlings in the seed bed. Sometimes from 25 to 65% of the seedlings are either killed or made unfit for transplanting, and it becomes necessary to ship in plants.
Control Measures.—Flea-beetles are not readily controlled by poisons but may be kept off of the plants by thoroughly spraying these with Bordeaux mixture which is made up as follows: 4 ounces bluestone, 4 ounces quicklime, 12 quarts water. Dissolve the bluestone in a wooden or earthenware vessel, using hot water, and then add water to make 6 quarts. Slake the lime by adding water a little at a time. When slaked make up to 6 quarts. Pour the two solutions together through a strainer while stirring and the spray is then ready to apply. Sometimes a combination of Bordeaux mixture and lead arsenate is used.
At times the flea-beetles attack the seedlings as soon as they begin to push through the soil. In such cases sprays seem to be ot little value and the only thing that can be recommended where this occurs year after year is to grow the seedlings under a cheesecloth screen to keep out the insects and remove this as soon as the beetles begin to disappear so as to harden up the plants.
The best of garden seed is the cheapest in the long run. Demand seed not of low cost but of high quality.
Don’t let your membership lapse if you want a copy of the 1919 Annual Report which will be® issued within a few weeks. The Report this year is just a little® better than ever and no member® can afford to be without it. Much® time has been spent on revising the lists of recommended trees® and plants and the spray calendar.® When you receive a notice that® your membership has expired take action because nothing whatever happens after that except the simpie little act of removing your® name from the mailing list, unless® you send fifty cents. A dollar pays for two years.
It is well that Dante died so soon for had he lived until 1914 he would have suffered deep humiliation. His splendid imagery, his superb portrayal of the devil and his cohorts have been far outclassed by William Hohenzollern and his Huns.
When early in the Great War we heard rumors of the fiendish, atrocious, bestial acts committed by the German army in Belgium, acts it appeared, not merely tolerated but premediated and executed according to a definite plan, when we heard of the killing of thousands of defenseless civilians, old men and women and children and the mutilation of others we were dazed and many were incredulous. When the rumors of these acts of savagery were substantiated a shudder of horror spread through the whole civilized world.
When later this horde of savages, which had spread over northern France were compelled to retreat the civilized world believing that the very utmost limits of depravity had been reached by Germany were to be undeceived. The great factories were looted, all movable machinery sent to Germany and the balance destroyed. This mainly concerned the factory workers and owners but the farmers and fruit growers were not to be spared. Every fruit tree and vine teas destroyed, every well poisoned and every house and barn leveled to the ground. No, the fruit growers were not to escape. Agricultural as well as industrial France was to be destroyed and the French made to understand once and for all time that no being so insignificant as a Frenchman should oppose this infinitely superior race so well fitted to rule the world. As a demonstration of “kultur" and fitness to rule Germany destroyed the fruit trees and vines of invaded France as well as the homes of the fruit growers.
The horticulturists of Fiance, through their national Society, have appealed to the horticulturists of Wisconsin for help. Shall we fail them? As citizens of Wisconsin and the Nation we have responded liberally to every appeal for help from stricken Belgium and France but here is a chance to help the growers of fruits and flowers who are in deep adversity.
Within a few weeks our fruit trees will be loaded with bloom and then with ripened fruit. There will be no apple blossoms in Northern France this year, only withered branches and the stumps of trees. Scon the lilac and the syringa will brighten our lawns with their clusters of fragrant Howers but no Howers will bloom about the heaps of ruins that were once the homes of happy people who loved fruits and Howers even as we do. Will you help them?
Whatever we give will be expended as we indicate so let us “Plant a Tree in France." Seventy-five cents will plant a tree. How many will you plant? Send your contributions to Secretary Cranefield, Madison, Wis., who will forward them to the National Horticultural society of France whose officers send the following appeal:
THE HIDEOUS RETREAT
The Huns were retreating sullenly from the Aisne. French refugees were flock ng wistfully back to what were once their homes. French soldiers, on leave from the front, were trudging forward on fearful pilgrimages through charred roads and pulverized villages to see what was left of their farms.
The Boche has done hideous things. Only those who have anxiously watched their own
things grow can fully understand. The Hun had cut down everything he could see, even the lilac bushes —only what was in the ground, alive, they could not kill—according to a vivid report in Collier’s Weekly.
One soldier was amazed to find his grape-vines standing. They were budding. He reached tenderly for one of the rough brown stems. It stirred oddly. The sweat broke out on his forehead. For twelve years he had patiently cultivated these vines. He took
hold of the lower stem. It had been severed from the root with a fine vineyard saw, and its sap was oozing from the stump. For three years he had fought the Hun in the trenches. But he had never known that there were people in the world who could do this cold, calculated harm to a grape-vine.—-From Fourth Liberty Loan Poster, 1918.
Americans the Best Gardeners
Much has been said concerning the remarkable results secured by gardening conducted along intensive lines. The French gardener, in fact, has been held up as the last word in this particular line of effort. The Oshkosh Northwestern says:
“Frequently it has been urged that the people of this country should study and adopt French methods, in order to secure better results from the gardens cultivated in this land. Now, however, comes a surprising report that some of the war gardens which have been operated by Americans in France have been made to produce even better results than similar gardens conducted by the native French gardeners. The Americans, in other words, actually have beat the French gardeners at their own game—which is the usual result when the energetic and resourceful Americans seriously set themselves to accomplish any given task.
“The report of this accomplishment is gratifying and also promising. It is a matter of satisfaction to know that clever Americans are able to hold their own in a competitive test of this character, while their success furnishes the intimation that when they come home they will be able to duplicate in American gardens the records they have made in France. Moreover, by setting an example along this line they will stimulate a general desire and effort by other gardeners in this country to improve methods of cultivation, thereby to secure better results in producing food. Unquestionably the Americans who have been abroad have learned a good many useful and valuable things—information that will be of lasting advantage to them and to the rest of the American people. It has been a school of liberal education for American soldiers and other workers, and the entire nation will profit from this experience.’’
Effect on Lime-Sulphur of Freezing.
A member asks how freezing affects lime sulphur. The question was referred to Prof. Geo. F. Potter who answers as follows:
Freezing appears to have a variable effect upon lime sulphur. I have frozen two samples of the same lime sulphur in the same freezing chamber at the same time, with the result that one sample would be utterly spoiled, while the other one was entirely uninjured. When the lime sulphur is spoiled by freezing, the sulphur which is in solution is precipitated out and falls to the bottom of the container in a finely divided form. The solution loses its rich dark color which is due to sulphur in solution. The injury is detected by the change in color in the solution and the presence of sulphur particles in the bottom of the container.
If a part of the sulphur is precipitated out, the solution is weakened. It would not harm the trees but might fail to do its work properly.
Considerable apprehension has been shown by Horticulturists and in Horticultural literature concerning the use of lime sulphur which has been frozen but in which precipitation which I just mentioned, did not occur. I be
lieve that there are no grounds whatever for this apprehension, because freezing cannot change the sulphur into any form which would be more injurious to the plant than the form in which it is originally dissolved.
THE AMERICAN POMOLOGI-CAL SOCIETY
A Call for Recruits.
"Its object shall be the advancement of the science of pomology,” is the declaration of the Constitution. It shall exist ‘"for the purpose of promoting and encouraging the culture of fruit,” states the Act of Incorporation under the laws of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. In the call issued by Marshall P. Wilder nearly three-quarters of a century ago, delegates were requested from ‘‘all agricultural, horticultural, pomological and kindred societies in the United States and the Canadas,” and the object of the Association was declared to be “to promote pomology and the sciences upon which it depends:” and delegates were requested “to bring with them specimens of the fruits of their respective district.” The last retiring president, Professor Hutt, in 1917, declared that the Society ‘‘is the clearing house for advanced pomological ideas, and the supreme court on varieties, nomenclature and pomological ethics. ’ ’
These statements are broad enough to cover a continent, free enough for a democracy, interesting enough for every lover of fruits. Note that the word fruit is not defined; so is the society flexible, and able to adapt itself to the needs of each generation.
A long and honorable history is one of the safeguards of the Society. It was organized in 1848, seventy years ago. It has had a continuous history. No other similar society is so old. Its membership has carried many honorable names from the first. Its re
ports are important practical guides and indispensable historical records. Its word has always been authority. The Society has a proud record.
At first the purpose of the Society was distinct and clear. Recently its place or mission has been obscure; so many subjects and interests have needed attention that its energies were in danger of becoming diluted and confused. Now, however, its field is clear again because other societies have been organized to cover certain industries. The recently established Congress of Horticulture will take care of the commercial and legislative phases. The Society for Horticultural Science represents what may be called the professional aspects, those specially interesting to science men in the government and the institutions. The American Pomological Society may now return to its original simple function to promote and encourage the production of fruit.
It Speakes to tiie Lover of
To the real amateur, to the lover of fruits, the American Pomologi-eal Society makes its appeal. To thousands of persons in all parts of the United States and Canada, in country and city and suburb, the Society comes with help and encouragement,—to the one who has but a small patch of berries, a little vineyard, a few trees of pleasant fruits or nuts, a little grove of oranges, specimen trees of persimmons or avocados, or of plants transferred experimentally from the wild. To the naturalist who searches for fruits in wood and fields the Society also offers itself, and to investigators anywhere who bear enthusiasms for their work with fruits.
Equally does the Society welcome the commercial grower, however large his plantations: it will appeal to him primarily in his amateur or fruit-loving interests. Many of the enthusiastic amateurs are also large and forceful growers for profit.
All this means that the Society makes its primary appeal to the human interests attached to the growing of fruits. Its membership, therefore, should be many thousands rather than many hundreds. It retains for itself its original field of amateur fruit-growing and also of systematic pomology (with the fascinating subjects of varieties and nomenclature), as well as the scientific aspects that appeal to those who like fruits just because they are fruits.
Many plans are under way to make the old Society useful to all these people in the provinces and states. It is hoped that a regular exchange of specimens and scions may be arranged with all the membership, being organized through the secretary's office so that proper inspection may be safeguarded. There should also be a regular publication going to the membership. A wide and intimate correspondence should be developed. The experience of the entire country should be made available. All this requires a secretary giving his entire time to the work, and this depends on a large membership.
The Secretary will send you this letter, together with instructions for joining the Society. I trust it will seem good to you to attach yourself to it.
L. H. BAILEY, President.
(The membership fee, two dollars, should be sent to E. S. Lake, Secretary. 2033 Park Road, Washington, D. C.).
An English gardener says that salsify or vegetable oyster sprouts that come up from plants left in the garden over winter may be cooked and used like asparagus if they are not allowed to grow more than six inches tall.
Purchase and plant more perennials in the flower garden and borders this year. They return each year with little work.
For information on gardening, time to plant, distance apart to set plants, kinds to buy and a thousand and one other useful hints on gardening consult the February Supplement. If by any mischance you failed to receive a copy or need an extra one send
for it. Thirty thousand copies have been distributed free so far but there is still a supply for all who ask for a single copy. Supplies for schools and city garden committees must be limited as the Society lacks funds for a reprint.
How to Propagate Roses
The propagation of roses for one’s own use is an essential part of the work of the home rose gardener if he would reduce expenses and add a new interest to rose growing.
The plants are propagated from seed, by hardwood cuttings, softwood cuttings, layers, budding, and grafting. The rose species used as shrubs, such as the Rugo-sa, Carolina, Prairie, and Wichu-raiana, are propagated by root sprouts and the others named by hardwood cuttings. The Wichur-aiana is naturally a trailing plant which takes root near any eye. By cutting rooted stems into pieces so that each one has some roots and an eye each, one will make a plant.
Climbing roses are mostly propagated by hardwood cuttings. Cut-flower roses are grown from hardwood cuttings, greenwood or softwood cuttings, and by budding or grafting.
Hardwood cuttings are taken from the dormant wood of winter, while softwood, or greenwood cuttings are taken when the plants are in active growth. To make a hardwood cutting, good, strong, well-ripened shoots of the past summer’s growth should be selected. These are better if cut between the time the leaves fall and freezing weather. If left until cold weather there is danger of injury from freezing. They should be cut into pieces of 5 or 6 inches, with the upper cut just above a bud, and should be tied in bundles with raffia or with string that does not rot easily if exposed to dampness. After labeling plainly they should be buried in moist sand, tops down, and placed in a cool cellar or buried in the open ground below danger of frost.
They should be planted in the open ground in the spring about or a little before corn-planting time, so that one or two eyes, or not over one inch of the cutting, is above the ground, which will leave 4 or 5 inches in the ground. Care, must be taken not to injure the calluses that have formed while the cuttings were buried. Sometimes better results are obtained by planting in partial shade.
Frequently cuttings made in winter or early spring do nearly as well as those made in the fall, but in the north there is always danger of the wood being injured during the winter.
Softwood, or greenwood, cuttings are made soon after blooming from wood of the current year’s growth. This may be taken from the stems that have grown roses or those that have not. There are claims that it makes a difference which sort of shoot is used, but good, strong shoots are the most important consideration. These should be cut to three eyes. All the leaves should be removed except the top one, and all the leaflets should be removed from this except parts of two. These cuttings may or may not be made with a “heel,” which in this sense is a piece of older wood at the bottom of the cutting. The cuttings should be planted at once in light loamy soil or in sand in a bed where the atmosphere may be inclosed. A coldframe or spent hotbed is a suitable place if the glass is shaded or a cheesecloth frame is used instead of the sash. For a few cuttings many people have success by inverting over them a fruit jar or a glass dish. The cuttings, however, need to be shielded from the direct rays of the sun when under glass, to prevent
burning. The object of the inclosed atmosphere is to prevent undue evaporation from the leaves before roots have formed sufficiently to support the plant. When roots have freely formed, the plants should be transplanted to good soil, watered well, and shaded for a few days from the midday sun. Subsequent watering should be moderate until they are well established.
Budding and grafting are not necessary in order to get satisfactory results in growing roses either about the farm home or on the city lot.
Planting and Caring for Cut-Flower Roses
In deciding the time to plant cut-flower roses, say specialists of the U. S. Department of Agriculture, the gardener must take into consideration the kind of plant, the location, and to a certain extent, the season. The roses may be obtained either as dormant or potted plants. It is best to use the former. If budded or grafted roses are used they must be planted deeper than own-rooted roses would be, because of the liability of shoots starting from the stock below the scion, the point of union between the stock and scion should be planted 3 inches under the ground. By planting in this way the scion will have an opportunity to form roots from the part of the stem in the ground and thus become at least partially own rooted. Planting the stock so deeply discourages the formation of new shoots from it. If any appear they must be removed at once.
Hybrid perpetual roses should be set from 2 to 3 feet apart, de
pending on the vigor of growth and the locality. When the greatest mass of bloom is wanted the vigorous ones had better be 3 feet apart.
Tea roses should be planted from 18 to 30 inches apart, depending on the vigor of growth and proposed treatment.
The hybrid tea roses have a greater range of character of growth even than the other kinds discussed, and the proper distance for planting corresponds. The planting distance is from 20 inches to 3 feet, being greatest in the warmer regions where they get an abundance of water and least where they are retarded in growth by cold winters or dry summers.
The China and Bourbon roses should be planted about as far apart as the hybrid perpetuals.
One of the special requirements of cut-flower roses is cultivation. They should, therefore, have the ground in which they are planted entirely to themselves to facilitate frequent stirring of the surface. Cultivation should begin early and continue until within six weeks of the dormant season. The first spring cultivation should be deep enough to work into the soil the winter mulch of manure or a good special application of manure if there is no mulch. The later cultivations should be just deep enough to maintain a surface dust mulch.
The quality of the blossoms produced as cut-flower roses can be controlled largely by pruning. For the production of individual blossoms of greatest perfection, as well as to secure a succession of bloom, severe pruning must be practiced. When a large number of blooms of small size is the aim, the pruning is less severe. Where the greatest amount of bloom is desired, without regard to the size or quality of the individual flowers, the least pruning is done.
When dormant roses are planted in the spring they should be pruned at the time of planting, leaving only two or three stems with four or five eyes on each. This will leave them 6 inches or less in length. After the first year, pruning should be done as soon as freezing weather is over. All weak wood and crossing branches should be removed every year. For fine specimen blooms on hybrid perpetuals the remaining shoots should be shortened to four or five eyes. For the greatest mass of bloom only one-third to one-half the length of the shoots should be cut away.
in regions where cold sometimes injures roses, teas and their hybrids should be trimmed later than the other classes, or about the time growth starts. They should be trimmed in the same manner as the hybrid perpetuals. China, Bengal, and most roses should be treated the same as the teas and hybrid teas, except that it is not desirable to cut them quite so closely. Bourbon roses should have only half the length of the shoots removed. Summer pruning is desirable.
A special type of pruning should be practiced in fall in sections where winter protection is necessary. Under such circumstances it is desirable to cut back the tops in the fall to within 30
inches of the ground to allow of more easily covering the bushes. This should be followed in the spring by the regular pruning. The long stems left in this fall pruning help hold the winter mulch from blowing away and from packing too closely. They are also long enough to allow considerable winterkilling and yet have sufficient eyes left to insure ample growth for the next season’s bloom.
Protection and Special Care
In the northern half of the country, cut-flower roses need winter protection. This may be provided by coarse manure, straw, or leaves applied after the preparatory pruning already described. Evergreen boughs, or even branches from deciduous plants, are often helpful in holding the other materials in place, besides being a protection in themselves. Individual specimens are often wrapped in straw and burlap. There is some danger of trouble from mice in the use of straw and strawy manure, especially during hard winters, this is minimized by banking earth about the plants before mulching. This banking of earth is also a most effective preventive of injury from cold. Earth banked up about the plants to a height of a foot or more makes an excellent protection, especially if covered well with manure after the ground first freeze. The earth cover must be promptly removed in early spring, as soon as danger from freezing is past. In some sections it is advisable to protect cut-flower rose plants from strong winds by shrubbery borders, evergreens, vine-covered fences, or other windbreaks
The Planting of Rural Home Grounds.
It is a pleasure to note the interest that is being taken by the rural communities in the beautifying of the home grounds. While there is scarcely a homestead without its trees, shrubs and flowers, the effects produced with the same materials are vastly different.
The planning and planting of the rural home grounds for beautiful effect mostly involves some sacrifices. Often we notice too many trees obstructing the views of surrounding landscapes and again we notice a lack of trees.
Now no one knows better than the private gardener how hard it is often to convince the owner of a homestead of the benefit derived from the removal of one or more ill-placed trees, and around the farm house, I take it, such trees are often left standing because of some sentiment that may be connected with them, but if ill-placed there is no more reason why they should remain as there is a reason for an ill-placed picture remaining on the walls of the home, and every woman knows that a picture or pictures on the walls will look better in one place than in another, and in order to produce harmony must hang “just so!”
If we find that we have too many trees or trees, of the wrong character we must make sacrifices and dig them out, and do some more digging if we have no trees at all. Carolina poplars and Cottonwood of all kinds are undesiable trees for the home grounds, while they are quick growing they shed too many leaves all summer and keep the place littered up continually and so give it an untidy appearance. I might mention
however, the Lombard poplar, with its spire-like top and trim shape as a possible exception.
Spruce, Pine and other Conifers never look well if used in mixed planting, but when Conifers are used exclusively and in large masses most beautiful effects can be created. The lawn should always be open. Arrange the shrubbery in solid clusters or borders with irregular outline along the sides of the lot and a few properly selected shrubs placed directly against the house will enhance its appearance by breaking the sharp outlines. When arranging for planting we must take into consideration: the exposure, sun or shade, and should select shrubs with regard to their flowers and berries, also their autumn foliage, their size, time of flowering and their hardiness. Shrubs with yellow foliage never look well, always appear to be sickly. Shrubs that succeed in the shade are the different privets, barberries, bush honeysuckles, snowberries, mock orange or syr-inga, hardy hydrangeas and then we have the hardy ferns for shady
places. In grouping shrubbery borders one can always make a better show by planting a solid mass of one kind in a given place, adjoining, if the the border is long enough, with another variety of several plants. Spiraea Van Hout-iis you all know is adapted for many purposes, and whether used for hedge planting, grouping or as individual specimen plants it should be found on every place the same as the high bush cranberry, a variety of snowball with flat clusters of white flowers and beautiful brilliant red berries that remain all winter, as the birds will not touch them. Then we have the snowberries, the Indian and also the flowering currant, the bush honeysuckles, the beautiful weigelias, and the lilacs that make effective back grounds for smaller shrubs. A few well placed cut leaf sumachs always give a touch of refinement to any shrubbery. But it is not necessarily the number of varieties that go to make successful ornamental plantings, it is the way they are placed that brings out the tasty arrangement.