honey plants of second importance, and are given as little attention as forage or pasture plants. Much variation in the secretion of neotar has also been noticed in the case of fall flowers in various parts of the State. In the northern part of the State asters and golden-rod are known to secrete nectar in a reliable way every year. In the southern part of the State, the secretion of nectar from these sources is not nearly so reliable. Soil and moisture conditions are perhaps the two most important factors for this difference. In some of the counties of Northern Wisconsin, we have what we might term a restricted area for beekeeping. There are numerous plants that secrete nectar that are not found in the Southern part of the State. Wild raspberry abounds in some localities in the sunnier, and in the fall willow-herb or fireweed has garbed the cut-over-lands with its dress of red and purple. Willow-herb is not so prevalently found in Northern Wisconsin as in Northern Michigan, yet in certain areas it is awaiting the time when beekeepers will settle in those localities so that the nectar that is now being lost can be gathered by the bees and made available to man.
Effects of climatic conditions on nectar secretion. The physiology of nectar-secretion is little understood by beekeepers, and many do not realize the relative importance of temperature, humidity, barometric pressure and other environmental factors which bring about abundant nectar secretion. If these factors were more carefully studied, the beekeeper would be in a better position to forecast his crop and manage his apiary accordingly. Practically all species of nectar-secreting plants are affected by adverse weather conditions. In the case of continued dry weather the tree sources are usually the least affected, whereas, the smaller plants usually cease the secretion of nectar. The season of 1916 was a good example of this. White-clover was very abundant throughout the entire State. While a good crop of clover was harvested by most beekeepers the amount of surplus obtained was