seed either free or at a nominal cost to the farmers living within flying range of his bees, many farmers would be only too glad to take advantage of the opportunity. The study of pasture mixtures is not as fully understood here as in some of the. European countries. Alsike-clover can also withstand acid soil conditions better than red-clover so that in the future it should occupy a more prominent place in the pasture and hay mixtures on Wisconsin farms than has existed in the past.

Buckwheat is another cultivated plant that is of value to Wisconsin beekeepers. However, this plant is cultivated only in limited areas, especially in the northern part of the State. Farmers are accustomed to plant buckwheat on new or virgin soil to help "Subdue” the land. When buckwheat is sown it leaves the soil in a mellow condition for the next crop. It has often been noted by beekeepers that are situated in sections where buckwheat is grown that it produces nectar most extensively on the lighter types of soil, and seldom, if ever, on the heavy types of soil such as we find in the unglaciated region of Wisconsin, and on heavy clays. There is no plausible explanation for this phenomenon. Buckwheat secretes nectar most abundantly in the morning, and it is rare to find bees working on it between the hours of one and four P.M. On account of the limited acerages of buckwheat in Wisconsin, it cannot be considered a very important honey plant. It is, however, grown extensively in some limited localities and the beekeepers that are so situated can derive surplus honey from this source.

Swamp sources of honey and advantages. Pollen and honey-plants that grow in swamps are not nearly so subject to changes in moisture supply and as a rule are supplied with an abundance of available moisture. From this point of view they are more dependable as a source of nectar than cultivated plants that are growing in dry soils and which are further affected by a drought. The sources of honey in swamps and waste lands of similar nature are more likely to remain the same year after year. They are not subjected