October. It is excellent for stimulating brood-rearing and for winter stores. Dry plains of Texas and Arkansas; it is less common in dry seasons. Honey granulates quickly. It is a slender weed with clean stiff branches, a handful of which makes a good broom or brush.
BRUNNICHIA (Brunnichia cirrhosa).—A perennial vine, 10 to 20 feet long, climbing by tendrils. The leaves are ovate, and the greenish bell-shaped flowers are in clusters. In the Yazoo Delta in Mississippi it is abundant, and in June produces great sheets of bloom which attract many bees. It is classed among the surplus-honey plants of the state. In the lowlands of Texas it is also reported to yield a small surplus. This species belongs to the buckwheat family (Polygonaceae), and is closely allied to smartweed.
BUCKBRUSH (Symphoricarpos occidentalis). — Wolfberry. A branching shrub, three to five feet tall, common in Washington and Idaho. In Idaho it is one of the most important honey plants, yielding in some sections a surplus, on an average, of 25 pounds per colony. Near Fraser, in the northern section of this state, the honey is secured in large quantities. The extracted honey is water-white with a very pleasant flavor, and is slow to granulate. After three years a bottle of it had not crystallized. Buckbrush blooms from June 15 to July 20. The flowers are white tinged with pink, bell-shaped, woolly within, and occur in small clusters in the axils of the leaves. They secrete nectar freely and are very attractive to wasps, whence the flowers of this genus have been called wasp-flowers. The fruit is a white berry which is eaten by pheasants and cattle. It is also abundant in western Iowa, where it yields well in dry weather. The honey is very similar to that of white clover. In the Missouri River basin, especially on the loess bluffs, this is a very common species.
Coralberry (S. orbiculatus). Indian currant. This species extends southward from Iowa to Texas, and is abundant along the Missouri River. It produces small red berries resembling red currants. The flowers, which are smaller than those of the snowberry, appear for two or three weeks, and secrete a large quantity of nectar.
Snowberry (S. racemosus). A northern species found from Alaska to Nova Scotia, and southward on the east coast to Pennsylvania, and on the west coast to California. In Iowa in summer a large amount of excellent honey is obtained from it. It has large white berries and is frequently cultivated for ornament.
BUCKEYE (Aesculus glabra). — The Ohio buckeye is a large tree with small nectariferous flowers, found from Pennsylvania to Kansas. Considerable honey is obtained from the California buckeye (A. californica). The horse-chestnut (A. Hippocastanum) also belongs to this genus. It is adapted to bumblebees, bur, honeybees obtain both pollen and nectar. (Fig. 30.)
BUCKTHORN (Rhamnus catharticus). — The common buckthorn is often planted for hedges. Cascara sagrada (R. purshiana), the bark of which is so extensively used in the manufacture of drugs, occurs in Mendocino and Humboldt Counties, California, northward to Washington. In Sonora, California, it is the principal honey plant. It blossoms about three weeks after fruit bloom is over, and on an average lasts for about 25 days, although there are stray bushes near ditches or cultivated grounds which send out new shoots of bloom until September or October. The comb honey is so dark that it does not sell readily, but is well liked by those accustomed to it. It is not purgative, but is an excellent remedy for chronic constipation. It does not granulate.
Coffeeberry (R. californica) is a smaller shrub, 4 to 5 feet tall. Common in the foothills of the Sierra Nevada and Coast Range. Honey amber-colored, flavor good, slightly cathartic; also called pigeonberry and Herba del Oso.
Redberry (R. crocea) is only 1 to 3 feet tall, blooms from February to May, and is valuable for early brood-rearing. Southern California.
BUCKWHEAT (Fagopyrum esculentum). — Buckwheat honey has a dark purplish color, and looks much like old New Orleans or sorghum molasses. The body is usually heavy. The flavor, to one who is accustomed to clover and basswood