ered from wild buckwheat, sumac, and blue curls if there has been an average rainfall; if not, the bees must be fed. The average surplus per colony is from 50 to 60 pounds; but by moving the apiary it is possible to secure 200 pounds. At Owens-mouth, Los Angeles County, there are over 2500 colonies in fifteen apiaries. A beekeeper writes: “I have made bees pay well here. I now have 300 colonies, and have kept 400 to 500 in some seasons. All my surplus is sold at home or by parcel post. In a good year the average surplus per colony is from 100 to 150 pounds.”
A beekeeper living at Lankershim, Los Angeles County, writes (1920): “At present my bees are in the bean district about five miles from home. They have been there three weeks, but have stored very little surplus. This spring in the orange district, 35 miles from here, they gathered a fair crop. Then I moved to the sage region, seven miles from here, where a fine crop was obtained. In the Lima-bean fields there are two or three thousand colonies in a radius of three miles for about two months, then they are moved away.” In the vicinity of Pasadena there are a great number of small yards. A beekeeper at Hollywood writes: “I have an apiary of 300 colonies at Moorpark. In 1918 I obtained 4800 pounds of sage honey. An apiary of 300 colonies in the orange groves made six tons of orange honey; but when moved to the bean fields in June they secured hardly enough surplus for winter. The average profit per colony in Ventura and Los Angeles counties is about five dollars.”
The southwestern part of San Bernardino and the western portion of Riverside counties are typical orange and sage locations, quite like those of Los Angeles County. San Bernardino County is the largest county in the United States. It has more than 200.000 acres under irrigation or included in projects, and many thousand acres of alfalfa and fruit trees under cultivation. This county produces more than one-third of the citrus fruits of California, one of the largest citrus districts being located at Redlands. East of the San Bernardino Mountains the land is largely desert, which is valueless for beekeeping. L. L. Andrews, of Corona, Riverside County, who operates 1000 colonies of bees and has been in the business for twenty-five years, writes that there are in this locality about a dozen apiaries which range from 50 to 200 colonies. A crop of honey is usually obtained every year, chiefly from orange and sage. In 1920 strong colonies averaged four pounds of honey per day for fifteen days from black sage. At an elevation of 3000 feet in the San Jacinto Mountains there is more rain, and white sage and wild buckwheat bloom later than in the lowlands.
In San Diego County, in the southwestern corner of the state, in the vicinity of Fall Brook there are more than 2000 colonies in yards which range from 25 to 300 colonies. In a period of five years there is usually one large crop, one failure, and three fair crops. In a good year 30 pounds of comb honey and 60 pounds of extracted honey may be obtained. Eight years ago a yard of 90 colonies averaged 300 pounds per colony, and made a large increase in the number of colonies. At Descanso, in the south-central part of the county, there are 13 apiaries which range from 50 to 300 colonies. “I have lived in this locality for 25 years,” writes a beekeeper, “and have had fairly good success. European foul brood was unknown here until four years ago, and till then we gave the bees very little attention and had good yields.” At Santa Ysabel in the central part of the county the best record of a beekeeper who has lived there since 1887 is 24,000 pounds of honey from 180 colonies. There has been only one complete failure in 13 years. The number of colonies in this locality is about 600. Near the coast from sea level to an altitude of perhaps 500 feet the sages are not very abundant, and are not especially valuable as honey plants — due probably to lower elevation and lighter rainfall The great sage ranges, which yield the surplus of sage honey, are above 500