verton, in the northern part of Marion County, the average surplus does not much exceed 25 pounds of honey, but single colonies have secured a much larger surplus. In every half dozen years there is likely to be one failure. The honey plants are maple, willows, evergreen, blackberry, fruit bloom, and white clover. The evergreen blackberry escaped from cultivation many years ago, and is now common throughout the Willamette Valley. It yields an amber honey of good body and aromatic flavor. Extracted honey is produced chiefly in this locality. Some years ago there were three apiaries in the adjacent mountains in a fireweed region, but they have disappeared. At Jefferson a good crop is obtained nearly every year. Beekeeping in Linn County is essentially the same as in Marion County.
The southern part of the Willamette Valley is occupied by Lane County, in the mountains of which are the sources of the Willamette River, which flows northward through the valley to the Columbia. Bees are kept mainly for pollinating the fruit trees in this county. There are thousands of acres of fireweed in the sections from which the forest has been lumbered, which make the finest kind of bee pasture. In the foothills there are openings for many more beekeepers.
A heavy rainfall in the spring is the rule in the Willamette Valley. In some years, according to E. J. Ladd, hut little or no honey is secured from hundreds of acres of fruit trees in full bloom; but if the weather is favorable the strongest colonies gather a small surplus from this source. Bees fly many days in January. In February they bring in pollen from the willows, and from mustard, which is very abundant. In March dandelion stimulates brood-rearing. In April swarms are common, and the colonies are booming in May. Soft maple and vine-maple yield well in April, and fruit trees bloom in April and May. In June come white clover and alsike clover, and in July late berry bloom. Settled clear weather may be expected after July 4, and rain is rare until September. Clover dries up, and the bees must depend on berry bloom and late flowers. The surplus is stored in ten days to three weeks, and it is the alert beekeeper who succeeds. Some rarely fail; others seldom get much surplus. The average per colony is about 25 pounds. No fall crop is dependable here, and the colonies lose rather than gain in weight. Excellent crops are in some seasons obtained by moving the bees to the mountains, where whole slopes are pink with fireweed. The lumbered districts with their great areas of this honey plant offer opportunities of great promise to strong colonies where the rainfall is 50 inches or more.
South of the Willamette Valley the Cascade and Coast Ranges converge to form a mountainous region occupied by Douglas, Josephine, and Jackson counties, where most of the beekeeping is carried on as a side line. The crop is not always certain and is frequently small, which in part is due to negligence. At Jacksonville, Jackson County, the honey plants are manzanita, chamise (Adenostoma fasciculatum), madrona, poison ivy, sweet clover, white clover, and vetch. There are few commercial apiaries in this district that are getting good results.
Eastern Oregon, which comprises about two-thirds of the state, is a semi-arid region, where agriculture is mainly dependent on irrigation, and alfalfa and sweet clover are almost the sole reliance of the beekeeper. In the northern portion there are many streams from which water is diverted for reclaiming the fertile land of their lovely valleys, but the Snake River, which forms a large part of the eastern boundary of the state, flows through a deep canyon with precipitous black basaltic walls 2000 to 5000 feet in height — an impassable barrier. In the northeast the Blue Mountains modify the climate and offer many rich valleys and tablelands. Near the close of the Tertiary age a tremendous lava flow covered the southern portion of eastern Oregon with volcanic rocks to a depth of two thousand feet. It also extended over eastern Washington, southern Idaho and northeastern California, covering a total area of 200,000 square miles. The whole southeastern section