the southern part of the state the climate is semi-tropical, but in the northern part it is more nearly temperate.
While the valley of the Humboldt River is perhaps the most productive part of the state, as it produces more than one-half of the hay and forage crops, and has also a large acreage of cereals, another very fertile region is found near Pyramid Lake in Washoe County. Near Reno the apiaries contain from 100 to 150 colonies, and in some instances a larger number. Alfalfa and sweet clover are the only important honey plants, although dandelion, fruit bloom, and white clover deserve mention. Alfalfa honey in this locality is nearly water-white. Lyon County, in the western part of the state, although one of the smaller counties, containing a little less than a million acres of land, is the leading county in the production of honey. The soil, when reclaimed, is well adapted to the production of hay and forage crops, cereals, vegetables, and deciduous fruits. The water used for irrigation is taken from the Carson River, which rises in the Sierra Nevada and empties into Carson Lake. Within a radius of 35 miles of Yerington there are some 50 commercial apiaries which average from 50 to 100 pounds of surplus, according to the season and the strength of the colonies. Good locations are also found in Douglas County, west of Lyon County. In Mineral County irrigation is dependent on the Walker River, which rises in the Sierra Nevada and flows into Walker Lake. At Schurz, at the north end of the lake, there are apiaries which contain from 25 to 100 colonies. In none of the alfalfa-growing states does alfalfa secrete nectar more freely than in Nevada. Other honey plants of importance besides alfalfa and sweet clover, are willows, yellow cleome, and milkweed. All of the irrigated tracts of western and northern Nevada are suitable for beekeeping.
Total area, 69,180 square miles, of which 3114 square miles are water surface. Washington is divided by the Cascade Range, which extends north and south across the state, into two unequal parts, which differ widely in physical features and climate. The western section consists of the broad basin of Puget Sound Valley flanked on the west by the Coast Range and on the east by the Cascade Range. Puget Sound is about 100 miles in length; but it was formerly a great arm of the sea, extending southward into the Willamette Valley of Oregon; and high tides still overflow thousands of acres of land which it is possible to reclaim by dyking. Among some 55 species of deciduous-leaved trees and shrubs are broadleaved maples, vine-maples, willows, Ceanothus, raspberries, blackberries, currants, cornels, bearberry, huckleberry, thornbush, and snowberry, all of which yield a little nectar.
The chief natural feature of the section east of the Cascade Range is the valley of the Columbia River. The Okanogan Highlands lie north of the river, and are forested to a great extent with an open growth of coniferous trees. West of the river are the eastern foothills, a rugged region which affords good grazing for cattle. East of the river is the Columbia Plateau, which a vast overflow of lava has covered with horizontal beds of black basaltic rock. It is an arid treeless region, producing little except sagebrush.
The following list of honey plants in the section west of the Cascades has been compiled from data furnished by H. A. Scullen:
Fireweed, or willow-herb (Epilobium angustifolium), is the source of most of the surplus produced by commercial yards. Considered from the standpoint of acreage it is equal in abundance to any two other plants in the state. But at present it supports a much smaller number of colonies than alfalfa, partly because it often grows in localities difficult of access, and partly because beekeepers do not