nies. Ten yards report 240 or more colonies; and in five apiaries there are 305, 380, 425, 539, and 860 colonies respectively. A beekeeper writes that he has had as many as 1600 colonies, and at present has 10 apiaries. There are large apiaries located at Tempe, Glendale, Mesa, and Chandler. At Glendale two beekeepers operate 1600 colonies. A beekeeper at Cashion began beekeeping with 16 colonies, and in five years increased to 500.
West of Phoenix is the Buckeye Valley, which is about 20 miles long and 10 miles wide. The irrigation system is under private control, and consists of dams which divert the Gila River and distribute it over some 50,000 acres of land. The valley is noted for its fat cattle, grain, and alfalfa seed. A beekeeper at Buckeye writes that he has 1200 colonies, and that three other beekeepers operate 1200, 600, and 400 colonies respectively. The land was formerly devoted to growing alfalfa seed; but alfalfa has in some cases been supplanted by cotton, which here yields little nectar, and as a result nearly 2000 colonies have been moved out of the valley. From the same locality another beekeeper writes: “I have 19 apiaries ranging from 75 to 150 colonies. Good alfalfa and mesquite locations will support 300 colonies.” The sources of honey are willow, March 15 to April 15; mesquite (Prosopis velutina), a bountiful yielder, May 15 to June 15, followed by a second blooming period two weeks later; and alfalfa, from May 25 to July 25 or later. The surplus comes chiefly from the second crop of alfalfa. Sweet clover starts well, but can not endure the extreme heat.
At Sentinel, Maricopa County, near the west border line, beekeeping is dependent on the native honey plants. A beekeeper writes: “I have about 500 colonies in six yards. The honey plants are mesquite, catsclaw, willow, and arrow-weed. The first two species are the most important. A record crop does not come more than once or twice in ten years. A fair average per colony is 60 to 75 pounds, which is stored during the last three weeks of May and the first week in June. Losses range from 12 to 15 per cent, annually. This locality is a natural wild range, and there are no cultivated crops, so that there is no food for the bees in late summer, and it is then my loss is greatest.” After the flow from mesquite is over, about June 10, it gets very hot and dry on the desert.
Pinal and Graham counties depend on the Gila River for irrigation. The valley of the Lower Gila River from Florence to Yuma closely resembles in climate and soil the Salt River Valley; but the flow of water is so uncertain that there has thus far been little development of agriculture in this region except under the Florence Canal. The river is not infrequently dry at Florence, sometimes for several months at a time, as from March to July, 1899. At Yuma the channel of the river has been known to remain dry for a year; but in some seasons it may discharge into the Colorado River a great volume of water. Without storage, and with such fluctuations in the water supply, the land remains largely uncultivated. The Upper Gila, near the eastern boundary, affords a supply of water adequate to irrigate about 25,000 acres between Duncan, on the east border of Arizona, and San Carlos in Graham County. This county has an elevation of over 2500 feet, and the climate is too cold for citrus fruits and eucalyptus trees; but the hardier vegetables grow throughout the winter.
In Graham County alfalfa hay is the principal crop, and four or five cuttings are harvested annually. In January, 1919, there were at Safford apiaries containing 224, 250, 340, and 517 colonies of bees. At Bryce there is an apiary containing 152 colonies; at Pima one with 196 colonies, and at Thatcher one with 68 colonies. A beekeeper writes from Solomonville: “During 12 years the crop, which ranges from 30 to 60 pounds of extracted honey, has never failed. The honey plants are alfalfa, catsclaw, and mesquite.” In Pinal County several apiaries are located near