crop of alfalfa which yields the largest amount of nectar. Sweet clover grows profusely along the ditches and in the irrigated fields, and is yearly becoming more valuable as a source of honey.


Total area, 84,990 square miles. The northeastern section of Utah is traversed north and south by the Wasatch Range, and east and west by the massive Uintah Range, two high mountain ranges forming a part of the Rocky Mountains. The eastern portion of the state is occupied by a series of very high plateaus, in which the rivers run in canyons, ranging from a few hundred to several thousand feet in depth. Widely distributed over this area are small detached groups of mountains. The land is chiefly used for grazing, but there are many small valleys which can be irrigated. The plateau section is bounded on the west by a line extending from St. George on the Virgin River, through Nephi, near the center of the state, to a spur of the Wasatch Mountains west of Cache Valley on the north border. The western portion of Utah, which is separated from the plateaus by a steep slope, and also the larger part of the state of Nevada, belong to the Great Basin, a desert region which has no outlet to the sea. The broad, nearly level desert valleys are interrupted by numerous steep mountain ranges running north and south, and produce little vegetation except sagebrush. The streams of this region either sink in the sands or collect in lakes in the lowest part of the valley basins. The largest of these deserts is Great Salt Lake Desert, to the northeast of which is Great Salt Lake.

Most of the cities and towns are located in the border land between the plateau region and the desert region. This belt of land, which includes the southern extension of the Wasatch Mountains, begins with Cache County, on the north border, and extends to the southwest corner of the state. The larger portion of the irrigated area, and consequently of the alfalfa acreage, lies in this central tract, where the waters from the higher levels are brought down to the sandy loams around the margin of the Great Basin region. In the north-central portion of the state the rainfall is about 15 inches, which is sufficient for growing grain crops on the higher levels without irrigation; but throughout the remainder of the state the annual precipitation ranges from 5 to 10 inches. There are great desert areas which are waste land, or which can be utilized only for grazing.

The best locations for beekeeping in Utah are in the Uintah Basin, in the northeast corner, south of the Uintah Mountains; Emery County in the east-central part; and the mountainous agricultural belt extending through the center of the state. The native honey plants are so few that beekeeping is almost wholly dependent on alfalfa and sweet clover. Other species worthy of mention are willows, fruit bloom, service-berry (Amelanchier elliptica), choke cherry (Prunus melanocarpa), hawthorn (Crataegus rivularis), dogwood (Cornus stolonifera), mountain mahogany (Cercocarpus parvifolius), Rocky Mountain bee-plant, wild currant, mustard, black locust (cultivated), and basswood.

The Uintah Basin in the northeastern corner of the state is an excellent location for the production of honey; but as the nearest railroad is at Price, 120 miles distant from Vernal in the center of the Basin, it costs one cent a pound to haul out freight. Alfalfa is grown extensively for seed, and in 1923 six million pounds were shipped from this county. There is thus an immense pasturage for bees, and irrigation and warm days and cool nights always ensure a large honey flow and the highest quality of honey. One of the largest producers in the Basin gave the following figures as fairly representative of the crops that can be secured. In 1920, 2245 cans of 60 pounds each were produced by 630 colonies. This was an