or Colorado rivers, with the exception of Bear River, which finds an outlet in Great Salt Lake. There are 271,000 acres under irrigation, and 22,000 acres of alfalfa in the two counties. Green River rises in the high mountains where there is a heavy snowfall, and carries a large volume of water, much of which is unused. The valleys through which it flows are undeveloped, and lack transportation facilities. The course of Snake River is through high mountain valleys. But the southern part of Uinta County is either sagebrush country or rolling grassy prairie; and the Upper Green River country is a continuous meadow.
In the northwestern corner of the state is the Yellowstone National Park, notable for its hot springs and geysers and its magnificent natural scenery. Its area is 3575 square miles, all of which is at an altitude of more than 6000 feet. There is a great variety of wild flowers, but the forests consist mainly of Douglas spruce and yellow pine. The underlying rock is volcanic. Frosts may occur throughout the summer, and snow begins to fall in September.
Total area, 103,948 square miles. Colorado is 290 miles wide and 380 miles long, and ranks seventh in area among the states. It is crossed near the center by the Rocky Mountains, a series of lofty parallel ranges containing 180 peaks which exceed 12,000 feet in height. Two-fifths of the territory east of the mountains are level or rolling, and belong to the Great Plains. West of the Rocky Mountains is the Colorado Plateau, or Western Slope, the surface of which is broken by isolated mountains and small ranges, and in its central portion is deeply dissected by canyons. In a more general way Colorado may be divided into two sections: an eastern broad level expanse, and a western mountainous area. Nearly all the cities and towns are located in the foothills and mountains.
The Great Plains, which occupy the eastern two-fifths of the state, have an essentially arid climate with a rainfall of 11 to 15 inches per annum. The land rises from an altitude of 3000 feet along the eastern border to an elevation of 7000 feet in the foothills, where this section is terminated by the bold outline of the front range of the Rocky Mountains. Stock-raising and dry farming are the principal industries. While dry farming without irrigation will in some years yield large profits, in other years it is a complete failure. If, however, from one to ten acres can be irrigated from wells or small reservoirs the dry farms will secure large crops in wet years and escape serious loss in years of drought. The nights are dry and without dew, and in summer the heat is seldom oppressive, although the days are clear and cloudless. Light snowfalls are common in winter, but the snow seldom remains on the ground for more than a day or two at a time. The soils of the river valleys are alluvial, and support belts of cottonwoods and willows, but otherwise the Plains are treeless. The uplands are covered with sandy loams, which are residual, or formed by the weathering of the underlying rock.
In 1919 there were in Colorado 3,348,000 acres under irrigation, of which 1,300,000 acres were in the valleys of the South Platte and Arkansas rivers. It is chiefly in these two river valleys that beekeeping is an important industry in the Great Plains. Rising in the region of perpetual snows, they descend as mountain torrents in steep narrow channels to the Plains, which they cross in broad sandy valleys. In the east-central portion of the state, as in Kit Carson, Cheyenne, and Lincoln counties, there is practically no honey flora and no bees.
The South Platte River flows through the northeastern portion of the Great Plains. On the immense area under irrigation there are thousands of acres of alfalfa and sweet clover, which furnish most of the surplus honey. A beekeeper in