loams, and the climate is semiarid with an average annual precipitation of 17 inches. In the northwest the salt plains, perfectly level tracts covered with snow-white crystals, are wholly devoid of vegetation. This section of the state lies west of the 97th meridian, or west of Alfalfa and Canadian counties and the Wichita Mountains in the south. With the exception of a few small apiaries there are no bees in the extreme northwest. A dense area of kaffir com and milo maize furnish an abundant supply of pollen.

In Washita County there are probably 250 farmer beekeepers. With few exceptions they neglect their bees, and are ignorant of the methods of modern bee culture. In some instances colonies are located five miles from a dependable supply of water. A surplus of from 75 to 90 pounds has usually been gathered from alfalfa, cotton, goldenrod, and broomweed. Broomweed is common only after very wet springs and summers. Cotton yields best on hot, moist mornings, but it is not dependable. Alfalfa secretes nectar most freely on very hot days following a good rain.

In the southwest corner of Oklahoma there are nearly half a million acres of cotton, and a large area of alfalfa. Muskmelons are also extensively grown. Notwithstanding this great area of honey plants, relatively few bees are reported from the southwestern counties, or from the counties along the Red River. Conditions for outdoor wintering in central Oklahoma are excellent, and the hives are seldom moved from their summer stands. Severe cold weather does not often last longer than two or three days, and usually it is warm enough on one or two days nearly every week for the bees to obtain a flight. The critical period is in the spring from early in March to the middle of May. During the larger portion of this time the weather is cool and the winds are high, and the bees are able to gather very little nectar. Unless there is an abundance of winter stores or feeding is practiced, many colonies dwindle down to a mere nucleus or die of starvation. The summers arc long, and usually favorable for gathering nectar. With three or four successive crops of alfalfa and many other nectar-bearing flowers, there is a light continuous flow from May until October. But in Oklahoma, as in Kansas, the future of beekeeping will he largely dependent on the increase of the acreage of sweet clover.


Total area, 146,572 miles. In land area Montana ranks third among the states, only Texas and California being larger. It is three and one-half times the size of Ohio. The eastern three-fifths belong to the Great Plains, and the western two-fifths are occupied by the Rocky Mountains with their spurs and outlying ranges. Montana is a semi-arid state with an average precipitation of 13 inches in the eastern portion, and of 20 inches among the mountains. Throughout a large part of the state the rainfall is sufficient in most sections for maturing grain crops without irrigation. The irrigated acreage is about 1,679,000 acres, 75 per cent, of which is in the valleys of the mountains. Of the 92,998,400 acres comprising the land surface of the state, it is estimated that 6,000,000 acres can he irrigated from all sources, including streams, reservoirs, and wells. In addition there are 10,000,000 acres of bench lands which are suitable for dry farming. Probably 50,000,000 acres can be utilized only for grazing. The cereals are very largely grown by dry-farming methods; but three-fourths or more of the acreage of clover and alfalfa are irrigated. At least 50 per cent, of the acreage of small fruits and orchard trees is also irrigated.

The eastern portion, or the Great Plains, rises from an elevation of 2000 feet along the eastern border to approximately 4500 feet in the foothills of the moun-