tributaries. But losses from evaporation, seepage, and diversions for irrigation in Colorado, now exhaust the summer flow of this river.

The enormous supply of underflow or under-ground water should not be overlooked. In the stream valleys this supply of water is available at moderate depths by pumping, and more than one-fourth of the land irrigated in the state is supplied from this source. In the upper Arkansas Valley from the Colorado line to Dodge City it has been estimated that 100,000 acres could be irrigated by pumping. But on the high plains the ground water occurs at such great depths that the cost of pumping is too great to permit of a large use of water from wells. There are thousands of acres in western Kansas for which water is not available for irrigation purposes.

In western Kansas in the region of the foothills of the Rockeies the surplus of honey comes chiefly from alfalfa and sweet clover. The Rocky Mountain bee plant is common, but there are no early-blooming honey plants. Some of the largest commercial apiaries of the state are located in the Arkansas Valley.

“While alfalfa,” says Merrill, “is the principal honey plant of Kansas, sweet clover, because it yields honey all over the state and because its acreage is increasing at a rapid rate, will soon take the front rank. Western Kansas, especially in the Arkansas Valley, is more certain to produce results in honey from alfalfa and sweet clover than any other part of the state.”


Total area, 70,057 square miles. A triangular mountainous area in eastern Oklahoma belongs to the Ozark Plateau, or uplift, which has been described under Missouri. The central section consists of broad rolling plains and prairies; and the western portion of the state, which has an altitude of over 2000 feet, lies in the Great Plains. The Red River forms the southern boundary line. The Canadian River crosses the state from west to east near its center, and the Arkansas River traverses the northeastern portion. The normal annual rainfall along the eastern boundary is 40 inches, which decreases to 11 inches in the western part of the state. Cereals contribute one-half of the total value of the crops; cotton one-third, and hay, forage, and potatoes most of the remainder. The area of alfalfa is over 350,000 acres.

The line bounding the eastern mountainous region on the west extends from the northeast corner of the state to the northwest corner of Marshall County on the Red River. The northern part is occupied by the Ozark Hills and the southern by the Ouachita Mountains, between which lies the rugged valley of the Arkansas River. Among the mountains only the more level portions are suitable for agriculture. Much of the land, especially along the river bottoms, is densely wooded.

The largest number of colonies of bees in the eastern, or Ozark region, is found in the counties bordering the Arkansas River, as LeFlore, Haskell, Sequoyah, Cherokee, and Muskogee. At Westville, Adair County, a little farther north, bees are kept chiefly for pollinating apple orchards. The rainfall in eastern Oklahoma is so large that alfalfa secretes very little nectar. In the northeast corner there is considerable white clover. The acreage of sweet clover is steadily increasing, and will doubtless become the most important source of honey in the eastern counties. There is relatively little cotton planted in the mountains. Other honey plants are willows, maple, fruit-bloom, redbud, sumac, heartsease, and goldenrod.

West of the mountainous region, or Ozark Uplift, the Prairie Plains, which have an elevation ranging from 800 to 2000 feet above sea level, occupy the whole central portion of the state. Westward this region gradually merges into the Great