the land will produce much larger crops, there will be no crop failures in North Dakota if good dry-farming methods are employed.
The future of beekeeping in North Dakota will depend very largely upon the cultivation of sweet clover. Where large acreages of this valuable fodder plant are grown, good crops of honey are obtained. Of the 44,800,000 acres in the state, 42,150,000 are arable; and, as the soils of the Red River Valley and of the section covered with glacial till are for the most part calcareous, sweet clover can be grown over the larger part of the state. The acreage of sweet clover in the Red River Valley is rapidly increasing, and in the entire state it is estimated that there were more than 400,000 acres in 1924. After the wheat has been harvested, sweet clover grows up and blooms profusely the following year. An average surplus of as much as 500 pounds per colony has been reported, and an average of 150 to 200 pounds per colony is not uncommon. Although the winters are very severe, winter losses are not great, as bees winter well in this climate in wholly underground cellars. According to R. L. Webster sweet clover does not yield nectar every year in North Dakota. The native honey plants are confined chiefly to the Red River Valley and the valleys of the James, Missouri, and other large rivers, and to the region of the Turtle Mountains. While fairly abundant in localities, they are for the most part of secondary importance. The number of species of seed plants in North Dakota is small — not much exceeding 900. Many eastern plants do not extend westward beyond the Red River.
As the honey flora of North Dakota is almost wholly unknown, a list of the more important species, compiled with the assistance of O. A. Stevens, of the Agricultural College, is given below:
Alfalfa (Medicago sativa). — Cultivated rather commonly in central and western parts of the state.
Aster (Aster paniculatus, A. multiflorus, and A. laevis).
Basswood (Tilia americana). — Abundant along streams in the eastern part.
Buffalo-berry (Shepherdia argentea). — Common, especially along the Missouri River and in the Bad Lands; blooms with the earliest willows, and is much frequented by honeybees.
Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum). — Cultivated to a small extent.
Catnip (Nepeta Cataria). — Occurs locally.
Choke Cherry (Prunus virginiana). — Common through the state.
Clover, alsike (Trifolium hybridum). — Not common. White clover (T. repens) is common in the Red River Valley, but rare in most of the state. See Sweet Clover.
Dandelion (Taraxicum officinalis). — Very common in the eastern part.
Goldenrod (Solidago canadensis, S. rigida, and S. serotina). — Common.
Gooseberry (Ribes gracile). — Common in the eastern part. R. setosum is common in the western part.
Hawthorn (Crataegus succulenta). — Common throughout the state.
Maple, soft (Acer saccharinum). — Often planted in the eastern part.
Mint (Mentha canadensis). — Common throughout the state.
Mustard (Brassica arvensis and B. juncea). — Common. Other species of Brassica also occur.
Plum (Prunus americana). — Common.
Raspberry (Rubus villosus). — Abundant.
Smartweed (Polygonum lapathifolium). — The most common species.
Sweet clover (Melilotus alba and M. officinalis). — Commonly cultivated and wild, especially in the Missouri River Valley.