overflowed the older rocks. The southern boundary line of this region, where it is overlapped by the sandstone of the central region, is an irregular line running from a central point on the east line of Marinette County southwesterly to the center of Portage and Wood counties, thence northwesterly with many large curves and bends to the southwest corner of Douglas County.
In Iron, Vilas, Sawyer, Price, Oneida, Forest, Florence, Bayfield, Marathon, Langlade, and Rusk counties there are few bees. Wilson believes this may become good bee country when the territory has been developed. The principal honey plants of this region are white clover, alsike clover, raspberry, basswood, willow-herb, buckwheat, goldenrod, and aster. The climate of northern Wisconsin, with its warm days and cool nights, stimulates the clovers to a very rapid secretion of nectar. The bloom also often yields for a longer period than in the southern part of the state. Raspberry, though less abundant than formerly, may in normal seasons yield a profitable surplus, but it is practically always mixed with clover honey. Willow-herb abounds for a few years on the areas which have been cleared from forests, but is soon succeeded by raspberry bushes. In the fall an abundance of goldenrod, aster, and other late-blooming flowers may yield a surplus. However, years of short crops are known here as well as in other sections.
According to the Wisconsin Crop Reporting Service, in 1919 about 27 per cent, of the colonies of bees in the state were engaged in the production of comb honey, and 73 per cent, in the production of extracted honey. The average per colony of both kinds of honey was 54 pounds; of comb honey 34 pounds per colony; and of extracted honey 61 pounds per colony.
Total area, 84,682 square miles. The southern portion of the state is an undulating plain which was formerly heavily forested with a variety of hardwood trees; the western section is a level, treeless, fertile prairie; while northwest of Lake Superior there is a rugged, hilly area of granite rocks, containing rich deposits of iron ore. There are not far from 10,000 large and small lakes, which have a combined water surface of 3824 square miles. In north-central Minnesota from Lake Leech to the Red Lakes there is a flat, poorly drained area abounding in swamps, bogs, small streams, and lakes, with a sandy soil partially covered with pine and juniper, which is the poorest location in the state for beekeeping. All of its surface, except the extreme southeastern counties, is covered with a deep layer of glacial drift, from which have been derived by weathering its very fertile soils. For the production of honey it may be divided into three well-defined regions: A northeastern, poorly developed region; a southeastern or white-clover region, also known as the “Big Woods,” and a western or prairie region.
The northeastern coniferous region, or the “cut-over lands,” extends southward as far as Chisago County, and westward beyond the Red Lakes. Formerly a great belt of white pine reached from Lake Superior to the Red River Valley, north of which along the border there was a forest of dwarf pine and stunted juniper. Much of the pine has been ruthlessly lumbered and the stump land burned over. Then hundreds of acres of fireweed sprang up, which later was largely crowded out by raspberry, cherry, and other bush growths. The soils around Lake Superior are clay loams; but in the northeastern and north-central portions of the state are sandy and gravelly out-wash soils, which are suitable for growing buckwheat, potatoes, and the clovers. In the great counties of Cook, Lake, and Koochiching, which comprise more than four million acres of land, there are only a few farmers. Agri-