point about 10 miles north of Green Bay. The underlying rocks of this region are chiefly Silurian limestones belonging to the Niagara and Trenton formations; but in the south central portion there are large beds of sandstone. The soils are fertile silty loams in the southern portion of this region, and excellent heavy clay loams south of Green Bay, all of which are suitable for the growth of the cereals and clovers. In this section are located the greater part of the population, the larger cities and towns, the most valuable lands, and many of the most important industries. From 90 to 100 per cent, of the land is in farms, and three-fourths of the total value of crops in 1919 were contributed by the cereals and hay. Dairy farming is very generally pursued, and thousands of acres of the clovers are under cultivation, but most alsike clover is cut for hay so early that it is only moderately important as a honey plant. The surplus comes to a great extent from alsike and white clover, but sweet clover is becoming more important each year. Contrary to general opinion, red clover sometimes contributes an appreciable amount of surplus when the season is quite dry and the soil thin. Under these conditions the blossoms are smaller and several observing beekeepers have reported finding bees working extensively on red clover, while other clovers were being neglected. During the exceptionally dry year of 1922 in the southeastern part of the state several beekeepers reported that honeybees devoted their whole attention to the alfalfa fields.
The principal honey plants in the southern region in the order in which they bloom are maples, dandelion, fruit bloom, white clover, alsike clover, basswood, sweet clover, buckwheat, goldenrod, and aster. Dandelion is valuable for a stimulative flow, and a strong colony will sometimes store a super of honey from dandelion and fruit bloom. Sweet clover has not yet become a common field crop in any part of the state, but each year finds a few more advocates of it. It has, however, spread itself along the roadsides and waste places in the southern part of the state until the beekeepers have come to depend upon it to furnish a small surplus and keep the bees busy from the main flow until frost. This prevents a large consumption of stores and tends to prevent robbing.
Basswood has greatly decreased, but a second growth has sprung up to take the place of the larger trees to some extent. While these trees blossom fairly regularly, they do not yield the enormous amount of nectar that the original trees did, owing to the lack of the virgin forest conditions, of wind protection, and moisture-retaining leaf mulch. However, the beekeepers in almost every county in the state continue to consider it a possible source of a supplement to the clover crop; and occasionally it surprises even the most hopeful, as in 1923, when it yielded practically the only honey obtained in the southwestern part of the state and enough in all parts of the state to flavor the honey appreciably. Bottlers even called for some pure clover honey to tone down the strong basswood flavor. On the average it can be depended on about two years out of five to yield a fair crop.
White clover and alsike clover are both abundant in the pastures and along roadsides and fence rows. In the eastern part of the state there is a large section in Dodge, Washington, Manitowoc, and Calumet counties where two of the leading white clover seed producing sections of the country are found. To a somewhat less extent the same sections produce alsike clover seed. Both begin blooming early in June, and the main flow continues in the southern part of the state from two to four weeks, and often continues to yield an appreciable amount several weeks longer. The growing season of a narrow belt of land in the eastern part of the state is lengthened ten to twenty days by the influence of the waters of Lake Michigan. More than a million apple and cherry trees are under cultivation in this section. While a large majority of the beekeepers are located in the southern part