The eastern portion of the Trans-Pecos, or Rocky Mountain region, consists of broad level plains, covered with sotol, or beargrass, yucca, cactus, and agave. The rainfall is from 10 to 12 inches, and there are no streams, except a few creeks leading to the Pecos River. The western portion is broken by numerous short mountain ranges, the summits of which are covered with pine and mountain cedar, but the valleys and plains are treeless. At Fort Stockton, near the center of Pecos County, are marvelous springs with a flow of 55,000,000 gallons daily, most of which is used for irrigation. Approximately 8000 acres are watered and are planted with alfalfa and fruits. There are several commercial apiaries at Stockton which range from 50 to 300 colonies, besides about a dozen apiaries with from 5 to 20 colonies. A surplus of 30 to 100 pounds is stored annually from mesquite, catsclaw, and alfalfa. In the northwest corner of Pecos County 20,000 acres are under ditch and 8000 acres in cultivation.

At Barstow, Ward County, there are several apiaries which range from 50 to 600 colonies. A full crop is obtained about once in four years, but a partial crop is obtained during the off years. A fair average is 60 pounds per colony. Alfalfa is the most important honey plant, but a good flow is often obtained from mesquite and catsclaw. More than 15,000 acres are under irrigation in this locality. There are several small apiaries. A beginning has been made in raising yellow and white sweet clover under irrigation. A surplus in spring is obtained from mesquite and catsclaw, but the most bountiful flow is from alfalfa. The bloom does not always yield nectar. Large fields within a mile of an apiary have been found destitute of bees while other fields were yielding a surplus. If the atmosphere is not too dry there is a good flow from cotton: in July and August.

In the vicinity of El Paso, El Paso County, there are 15,000 acres under irrigation and cultivation. The Elephant Butte Dam, a government enterprise, provides for the irrigation of 50,000 acres. A beekeeper at South Clint writes: “There are three beekeepers in this locality who operate 1250, 250, and 100 colonies respectively. From alfalfa and mesquite we obtain from 85 to 100 pounds of honey annually. We have 11 yards within a radius of 12 miles. They contain from 100 to 150 colonies each, and are about three miles apart, fully stocking the valley with bees. Alfalfa is a sure crop, and we have not had a failure in 10 years.”


Total area, 41,040 square miles. The surface of Ohio is diversified by numerous hills, and broad valleys eroded by the streams, but it is nowhere mountainous The northwest portion is more level than elsewhere, as here the original valleys have been filled by glacial drift. A range of hills extending from Trumbull County on the east to Darke County on the west divides the state into two unequal slopes. The smaller northern slope contains many square miles of swamps and marshlands, especially in the northwest, in which aster and other fall flowers are very abundant A way from the swamps not much honey is gathered in the fall. Nearly 6,000,000 apple trees of bearing age are grown in all parts of the state. The orchards are most numerous along the eastern border of the state, but the greatest acreage of apples is in the southern part. A great variety of fruits, especially peaches, thrive on a belt of land south of Lake Erie. Buckwheat is grown by the thousand acres in the northeast. Of the great hardwood forest which once covered the entire state there still remain small areas of basswood, locust, tulip tree, cherry, maple, catalpa, and buckeye, and a few other nectar-producing trees which are locally of value. From the abundance of the buckeye, Ohio is known as the “Buckeye State.”

West of a line extending from Sandusky through Columbus to the east line of Adams County the underlying rock is limestone, except in the northwest corner, in