than half of the area is prairie with a black sandy loam soil. The Collier apiaries contain over 1000 colonies of bees. W. C. Collier writes that in his opinion a beekeeper could keep bees profitably along most of the rivers of southern Texas. At Goliad the sources of surplus are mesquite, Brazilwood, and catsclaw.
In Atacosa County about 3000 acres are under irrigation, and fruit-growing is profitable. From Jourdanton a beekeeper writes: “We have over 750 colonies of bees which are run for extracted and chunk honey. In a good year the average surplus per colony is over 125 pounds. Our bees begin to breed in January, and in an ordinary season are gathering nectar from huajilla, catsclaw, and white brush by April.” In Zavalla County during recent years irrigation projects taking water from the Nueces River and artesian wells have made rapid progress. From Indio a beekeeper reports that he has 500 colonies in four yards along the Nueces River, where in the past he has secured very large crops of honey. Many portions of this section are wholly without bees.
Uvalde County produces a large quantity of honey, 200 pounds per colony being not unusual, and as much as 400 pounds has been obtained from a strong colony. There were at one time not far from 15,000 colonies in the county; but in 1917 and 1918 it was so dry that half the bees died or were moved away. D. C. Milam, who has lived in Uvalde County for 28 years, states that during this time there were two years in which he removed honey from the hives every month except January. A beekeeper living at Sabinal has eleven apiaries which contain from 60 to 100 colonies each. In a favorable season the average surplus is 60 pounds per colony. Near Uvalde the apiaries in some cases number 200 or more colonies. The surplus comes from huajilla, catsclaw, and mesquite, while Brazilwood, white brush, and soapbush are common, but they are not reliable every year. Soapbush blooms about the first of April, if the weather is dry, yielding a heavy white honey. White brush blooms for five or six days after every heavy rain. Large crops are sometimes obtained in the fall from broomweed. In the adjoining county of Medina the general surface is rolling, becoming mountainous in the northern part. The average rainfall is 26 inches. In the vicinity of La Coste there are about 50 apiaries which contain 2380 colonies of bees. There are also over 100 small yards in which there are from 2 to 30 colonies. In 1918 the gross returns from 360 colonies was $3075, and in 1919 the gross returns from 400 colonies was $2620. For several years past Wilson, Atascosa, Live Oak, and Trio counties have been among the greatest honey-producing counties of the state. A sharp escarpment midway between San Antonio and New Braunfels marks the dividing line between the Rio Grande Plain and the Black Prairie.
West of Northeastern Texas there is a narrow belt of land known as the Black Prairie, which has a dark, waxy, very fertile soil not easily eroded. It is underlaid by Upper Cretaceous limestone. It is a grassland country, and is bare of trees except for groves of mesquite and oak; but in the river valleys are oaks, pecan, cottonwood, and various shrubs. It is an agricultural region with a larger population than any other portion of the state, and beekeeping is usually pursued in connection with general farming. The most dense area of cotton in the United States is found on the Black Prairie. Millions of acres of corn are grown, and fruits and vegetables are generally cultivated. The principal honey plants are cotton, mesquite, and horsemint; but sumac, broomweed, goldenrod, sunflower, and marigold are valuable. An apiary should be located where the bees can gather from more than one plant. There are many excellent locations in the Black Prairie, where in favorable seasons large crops may be secured.
Within a radius of 20 miles of New Braunfels the Scholl apiaries contain 1500 colonies in 31 yards. Here and northward to Waco and Waxahachie cotton is the