white and alsike clover. Other plants of value are willow, dandelion, goldenrod, aster, persimmon, holly, fruit bloom, maple, black gum, boneset, sumac, and cowpeas. The average size of the apiaries some years ago in 16 counties was about 40 colonies. Eastward there are no specially favored localities. The cotton belt, as cotton bloom seems to be nearly nectarless in this state, is considered a poor location. In 1915 a beekeeper near the center of the state increased the number of his colonies from 80 to 125, and secured 5000 pounds of bulk comb honey. In the western portion of the Piedmont, which attains an elevation of 1200 feet, sourwood becomes abundant; but otherwise conditions are about the same as in its eastern half. A crop is obtained usually every other year. The larger part of the surplus comes from tulip tree and sourwood. There are many good locations unoccupied in this region.
In the western mountainous region the Blue Ridge and the Great Smoky Mountains cross the state from northeast to southwest. These two ridges are connected by many cross-chains, separated by deep fertile valleys. The forest is composed of a great number of trees and shrubs. The leading honey plant is sourwood. It seldom exceeds 30 feet in height, and blooms profusely from July 1 to 21, yielding a better honey than any other plant in the state. In the extreme northwest the larger part of the surplus comes from sourwood; but in the southwest it is gathered partly from other sources. Other honey plants in this section are basswood, tulip tree, locust, clovers, asters, maple, apple bloom, wild cherry, sumac, buckwheat, and goldenrod.
The species yielding a surplus are chiefly trees and shrubs, and are few in number. The four most important honey plants are sourwood, tulip tree, gallberry, and crimson clover. Sourwood is restricted chiefly to the mountains and the rugged portion of the Piedmont upland. The clovers are most abundant in the central region, while in the Coastal Plain gallberry and the gum trees are most important. Tulip tree is found over the entire state, except in the extreme eastern lowlands. Black gum is common from the center of the state to the coast. The white tupelo is most abundant in the southeastern swamps. Maples, willows, persimmon, sumac, and goldenrod grow throughout the state. Asters are also widely distributed, and near Raleigh add largely to the winter stores. Basswood occurs in the north coves of the mountain ravines. Redbud, locust, wild plum, smartweed, boneset, white clover, and Spanish needles are found chiefly in the western part of the state, while rattan-vine, holly, blueberry, huckleberry, and gallberry occur eastward. Some thousands of acres of buckwheat are grown in the northwest comer. In the north-central section, extending southeastward into the Coastal Plain, there is an immense acreage of tobacco. In the south-central portion, and in many of the counties of the Coastal Plain, cotton is very extensively grown; but it is reported to yield little nectar in North Carolina. Apples are most common in the mountains, and pears and peaches in the central region. The forest in the western part of the state is composed of many kinds of trees intermingled, and everywhere presents a variety comparable with almost any portion of the tropics. There are 112 species of trees, and twice that number of shrubs. The blueberry, grape, cherry, and cranberry are more or less common. The mountain-sides and the valleys are adorned by the profuse bloom of the mountain laurel, the Rhododendron, and the flame-colored azalea. In no other state are there native so many medicinal herbs.
The beekeepers of North Carolina are unevenly distributed, and there are many opportunities for establishing new apiaries. It has been estimated that tons of nectar are going to waste annually. In the past apiculture has been much neglected in North Carolina, but to-day new methods and improved apparatus are being