a dark honey, sometimes injured both in color and quality by a mixture of honey-dew. The central, northern, and northeastern portions are best adapted to commercial beekeeping, where sweet clover, white clover, and black locust are most abundant, and yield a light-colored honey. Beekeeping is badly neglected in much of the state, and there are many colonies in log gums and box hives
Todd County, on the south border, is only a fair locality, as white clover is not abundant and does not secrete nectar freely. Crimson clover grown for seed yields most freely. Not much honey is gathered during the spring and summer, although maples, sumac, buckbush, and in some years black locust, carry the bees through the first half of the season. The fall honey flow is most important, and 80 per cent, of the crop is gathered between August 15 and October 1 from bone-set, smartweed, goldenrod, and aster; but at least 75 per cent, comes from boneset (Eupatorium serotinum), which yields a white or light amber honey of excellent quality. In Trigg County the apiaries have only 6 to 12 colonies.
West of the Tennessee River there is a lowland area covered with loessial soil which belongs to the Gulf Coastal Plain. Forests of cypress cover the river swamps, and on the higher land there is a dense acreage of tobacco. Much of this section is not well adapted to bee culture; but along the Mississippi River and at Paducah, where the Tennessee flows into the Ohio, there are numerous colonies of bees. Owing to the greater moisture of the soil, Spanish need'es (Bidens aristosa) and frost flower (Aster ericoides) sometimes yield here, when in other portions of the state it is so dry that there is no fall honey flow.
Total area, 42,022 square miles. According to its surface features the state may he divided into three natural regions: Eastern Tennessee, or the Cumberland Plateau, including the eastern valley of the Tennessee River and the rugged mountainous section bordering on North Carolina; Middle Tennessee, consisting of the Nashville Basin, a limestone valley surrounded by the Highland Rim Plateau; and Western Tennessee, or the Mississippi Slope. The surface ranges in altitude from less than 350 feet on the low alluvial bottom-lands along the Mississippi River to 6000 feet in the mountains of East Tennessee. The Cumberland River crosses the northern part, while the Mississippi forms the western boundary. Tennessee lies in the great Atlantic forest region, and more than 2000 species of flowering plants are listed by Gattinger in his Flora of Tennessee.
The mountainous district is crossed along its eastern border by a disjointed range of mountains broken into irregular short chains and valleys, and farther west by the lower ridges of the Cumberland Plateau. Through the center of this region the Tennessee River and its tributaries have eroded a deep valley known as the Valley of East Tennessee. This valley is one of the best locations in the state for beekeeping, as the fertile soils are derived partly from limestone, and white clover, alsike clover, and black locust, the chief sources of nectar, are abundant. The apiaries are most numerous in Sullivan, Washington, Hawkins, Hancock, Claiborne, Union, Grainger, and Knox counties. Apple, peach, and pear trees and strawberries are extensively cultivated in the southern part of the valley. Other honey plants growing either in the valley or on the neighboring mountains are alsike clover, sweet clover, sumac, tulip tree, persimmon, basswood, sourwood, locust, redbud, sugar maple, red maple, cowpeas, goldenrod, and aster. In the mountainous counties of Cooke, Sevier, Blount, Monroe, Knox, Hawkins, Campbell, and