digenous honey plants are the familiar species which have been previously mentioned. In Jefferson County good results are obtained with small apiaries; but the seasons differ so widely that honey production is pursued chiefly as a side line. This is true over nearly all of the state, says Rea.
In the southwest portion of the state, in the vicinity of Pittsburgh, a region off oil-fields, mines, and great steel-mills, there is pasturage for only a few bees. “I lived at Pittsburgh,” writes a beekeeper, “and it is the poorest place I ever saw for bees.” Not much buckwheat or clover is sown, and bees are compelled to depend almost entirely on wild flowers. While white clover is abundant, it yields only about one year in three. During the bloom of apple-orchards it is often rainy, but this is true of all orchard country.
Total area, 8224 square miles. According to its physical features New Jersey may be divided into two natural regions: A northern mountainous and rugged section bounded on the south by a line running from Staten Island to Trenton; and a southern section known as the Coastal Plain which is comparatively level. The Raritan and Millstone rivers form a good dividing line between the two regions.
The area of the Coastal Plain is 4400 square miles, of which 300,000 acres are tidal marsh bordering the Atlantic Ocean and Delaware Bay. This great plain slopes gently from its center both eastward and westward and contains no rocky elevations, its rounded hills being composed wholly of sand and earthy material. The salt marshes are covered with marsh and spike grasses, sedge, and rush, which produce nectarless wind-pollinated flowers. Over one million acres of this region are covered with pitch pine and oaks.
In the southern half of the state, says E. G. Carr in the American Bee Journal, alsike clover is the main dependence for surplus. But after it has bloomed bees secure enough honey for their maintenance during the winter from late summer and fall-blooming plants. In the eastern portion of Ocean and Burlington counties there is a large area of cedar swamps in which sweet pepperbush and blueberries are abundant and yield considerable surplus. On the cranberry bogs a careful beekeeper would be able to secure cranberry honey unmixed. Along the eastern bank of the Delaware River in Burlington, Camden, Gloucester, and Salem counties there is a belt of land covered with Spanish needles, from which is secured an abundance of golden-yellow honey with a pleasant flavor. Thickets of willows, red maple, sweet gum, and woodbine are common on the banks of the streams.
Southern New Jersey is a center for growing asparagus, cantaloupes, and watermelons. Large acreages of fruit trees are located in Cumberland, Gloucester, and Burlington counties. One project comprises one thousand acres of fruit trees in one lot. They are not important sources of nectar, according to Carr, but each year there is a greater tendency for fruit-growers to rent bees for the pollination of their orchards. The apiaries of the Coastal Plain seldom contain a large number of colonies or secure a large surplus; but more than 200 pounds of extracted honey has been obtained from a single colony at Mt. Holly, Burlington County. Usually the apiaries range from 10 to 30 colonies.
The northern half of the state is more broken and diversified than the southern, becoming mountainous in the northwest. The land is generally rich and productive, consisting of clay soils well suited to farming, but many ridges are so covered with loose stones or bare rock that cultivation is impossible. As the result of the high cost of labor, farming is languishing, and sumac is becoming common along the fences and on the hillsides. “There is such a variety of major nectar-producing plants in